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Adm. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Customer loyalty is a topic of great interest for marketing scholars due to its importance in [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Entrepreneurship Education in a Multidisciplinary Environment: Evidence from an Entrepreneurship Programme Held in Turin
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010028
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 24 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Entrepreneurship education can increase student’s entrepreneurial skills and intention; and entrepreneurship activities stimulate economic growth. Therefore, the number of entrepreneurship courses is increasing, but they are often offered to students from a specific field of study and/or to only one educational level, even [...] Read more.
Entrepreneurship education can increase student’s entrepreneurial skills and intention; and entrepreneurship activities stimulate economic growth. Therefore, the number of entrepreneurship courses is increasing, but they are often offered to students from a specific field of study and/or to only one educational level, even though multidisciplinarity is important for entrepreneurship. This study has carried out an exploratory single case study on an entrepreneurial programme in a multidisciplinary environment, that is, the Contamination Lab of Turin (CLabTo). Moreover, pre- and post-surveys have also been conducted in order to perform some qualitative analyses. The results show the importance of creating teams with different competencies, cognitive and decision-making skills. Moreover, we explain how design-thinking is useful in entrepreneurship education and that a challenge-based entrepreneurship course leads to cooperation with external actors in the local entrepreneurial ecosystem. It is also explained what the obstacles and opportunities of these programmes are and how to improve them. Moreover, on the basis of pre- and post-surveys, our qualitative analyses show that the students’ overall perception of their abilities to work in a multidisciplinary team, their entrepreneurial skills and entrepreneurial intentions increased slightly. In short, this work is aimed at increasing the importance of entrepreneurship education in a multidisciplinary environment and the use of practical-oriented teaching models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
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Open AccessArticle Life Cycle Assessment of Honey: Considering the Pollination Service
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010027
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used for the improvement of the environmental performance of products and services, including food systems. Amongst them, however, honey appears to have been rarely analysed. Furthermore, the pollination by honeybees can be regarded as one of [...] Read more.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used for the improvement of the environmental performance of products and services, including food systems. Amongst them, however, honey appears to have been rarely analysed. Furthermore, the pollination by honeybees can be regarded as one of the functions of an apiculture system and is of utmost importance both for natural ecosystems and agriculture. When implementing an LCA of an apiculture system, the pollination service can and should be considered as one of the functions of a multifunctional system and the issue of how to deal with this multifunctionality in the modelling of that system should be considered carefully. The aim of this paper is to explore the economic value of pollination as a potential basis for managing multifunctionality in LCA modelling as well as its implementation in a case study. Economic allocation was performed between the pollination service and honey production. The results demonstrated that the production phase is the most impactful one for most of the environmental categories (due to the use of glass for the honey jars and electricity consumption during the storage of supers in refrigerator rooms), followed by the distribution phase. Finally, the most affected environmental impact category appeared to be natural land transformation, followed by marine ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication and human toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Ecology and Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of In-Flight Service Quality on Value for Money in Business Class: A Logit Model on the Airline Industry
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010026
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of in-flight service quality on value for money for business passengers in airlines. In this study, in-flight service quality included four dimensions—seat comfort, staff service, food and beverages, and in-flight entertainment—while value [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of in-flight service quality on value for money for business passengers in airlines. In this study, in-flight service quality included four dimensions—seat comfort, staff service, food and beverages, and in-flight entertainment—while value for money was used as a dichotomous variable. In the study, 1096 business passenger reviews were employed through secondary data. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the variables and finally the success of classification was tested by the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics) curve. As a result, the findings indicate that the proposed logit model sufficiently explains the relationship between in-flight service quality and value for money in business passengers. Moreover, the study provides a deep understanding of how passengers perceive in-flight service quality in business class. The study also reveals that seat comfort has the highest impact on value for money. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Entrepreneurial Education Programs on Total Entrepreneurial Activity: The Case of Spain
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010025
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
There is a need to evaluate entrepreneurial education programs (EEPs) to see the impact they have on a country’s development. Previous work has focused mostly on entrepreneurial intentions, mainly in a university context. Additionally, literature reviews on the impact of entrepreneurial education have [...] Read more.
There is a need to evaluate entrepreneurial education programs (EEPs) to see the impact they have on a country’s development. Previous work has focused mostly on entrepreneurial intentions, mainly in a university context. Additionally, literature reviews on the impact of entrepreneurial education have not yet been conclusive, mainly due to the use of subjective indicators and a low consideration of objective indicators. The purpose of this article is to respond to some of these challenges. Specifically, this study used an objective indicator, Total Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA), in a non-university context. A database was created that included programs categorized by autonomous communities. The analysis showed that EEPs significantly influenced the entrepreneurial activity of autonomous communities. This implies that entrepreneurial education should be a prioritized objective in the educational policy of these communities. The recommendations derived from these results are, among others, to promote role models, continue supporting the financing of entrepreneurial initiatives through education and training, continue implementing government policies to support entrepreneurship, and carry out evaluations on the impact that these programs have on skills acquired in the short and medium terms, as well as their maintenance over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
Open AccessArticle Value Positions and Relationships in the Swedish Digital Government
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010024
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
Governments across the world spend vast resources on implementing digital technology. Electronic, or digital, government is the use and study of Internet-based information and communication technology in the public sector. A point of departure in this study is that investments in technology are [...] Read more.
Governments across the world spend vast resources on implementing digital technology. Electronic, or digital, government is the use and study of Internet-based information and communication technology in the public sector. A point of departure in this study is that investments in technology are not value-free; they require allocation of limited resources and trade-offs between values. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how values are prioritized in the Swedish digital government. This research was conducted by using quantitative data from a survey administered to Swedish municipalities and national agencies. In addition, qualitative data from a database was used to exemplify value operationalization. The research utilized a theoretical framework based on four value positions: professionalism, efficiency, service, and engagement. The findings reveal that service and quality, and productivity and legality have a high priority, while engagement values are less prioritized. Differences based on organization type and size are also discussed. Moreover, the study suggests that professionalism and efficiency are distinct value positions, while service and engagement are closely related through citizen centricity. The qualitative material suggests that citizen centricity can manifest itself as a form of service logic, but also in the form of educational digital inclusion activities for vulnerable groups. The paper concludes by suggesting that future research should further refine the concept of citizen centricity in relation to digital government values, since its current meaning is ambiguous. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exploring Strategy-Making in ‘Non-New Public Management’ Public Services Settings: The Case of European Union Agencies
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010023
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
A growing public management literature has debated whether strategic management models originally developed for private firms are also relevant to contemporary public agencies. Thus far, it has been easier to apply strategic management models centred on competitive advantage in jurisdictions in which new [...] Read more.
A growing public management literature has debated whether strategic management models originally developed for private firms are also relevant to contemporary public agencies. Thus far, it has been easier to apply strategic management models centred on competitive advantage in jurisdictions in which new public management (NPM) reforms have left an enduring inheritance, with the emphasis in these settings on the autonomization of public agencies and a prominent concern with ‘performance’. Based on the case study of public agencies in the European Union, we argue there is potential to apply strategic management models in other jurisdictions where the penetration of NPM has been much lower, provided certain conditions of agency autonomy are met and factors—such as stakeholders’ expectations stimulating the adoption of strategic management models—perform as the functional equivalent of the pressures provided by NPM incentivization systems. The paper contributes to the literature aimed at employing the discipline of strategic management—a thriving field of inquiry business administration and management—as a valuable source of knowledge for the advancement of public management. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Best Practice of CRM Implementation for Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010022
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
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Abstract
The biggest key aspect to the success of a business is a satisfied customer. For this reason, it is possible to state that the growing trend of focusing on the customer and his/her needs has prevailed in recent years. The aim of this [...] Read more.
The biggest key aspect to the success of a business is a satisfied customer. For this reason, it is possible to state that the growing trend of focusing on the customer and his/her needs has prevailed in recent years. The aim of this article is to analyze the use of CRM (Customer Relationship Management) systems in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Czech Republic and to find the determinants for CRM system implementation. The best practice for CRM implementation suitable for SMEs is clarified using a specific case of a global enterprise. A fully functional CRM system can be considered a competitive advantage, and this is not only the case for global companies, but also for small and medium enterprises. Using a functional CRM interconnected with an ERP system, enterprises are able to manage business and direct marketing activities, as well as the company’s overall profits. These functional systems lead to an integrated system called funnel management, which improves customer relationship management and leads to a sustainable business. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Entrepreneurship)
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Open AccessArticle Land Governance Re-Arrangements: The One-Country One-System (OCOS) Versus One-Country Two-System (OCTS) Approach
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010021
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract
This paper evaluates how land governance is re-arranged in a state re-structuring process. We compare the cases of the (re-)unification of China with Hong Kong with that of West and East Germany. The division and (re-)unification of these states mark different land governance [...] Read more.
This paper evaluates how land governance is re-arranged in a state re-structuring process. We compare the cases of the (re-)unification of China with Hong Kong with that of West and East Germany. The division and (re-)unification of these states mark different land governance re-arrangements. The China-Hong Kong (re-)unification relied on a one-country two-system (OCTS) approach, while in West and East Germany, (re-)unification resulted in the creation of a one-country one-system (OCOS). Our key interest is to identify similarities and differences in both cases and the implications of the differences. To support the analysis, we view land governance and (re-)unification from theoretical to practical lenses—structuration theory and the government tools-based approach. This supports the construction of a conceptual and analytical framework, with which we conduct an in-depth exploration to evaluate land governance re-arrangements. We find that the conceptual and analytical framework proves effective for countries, with entirely different land governance regimes, to decide whether to merge or adapt. We do not conclude which approaches for (re-)unification are appropriate to land governance re-arrangements since all countries have different historical contexts and institutional arrangements. Instead, we recommend that governments consider adaptive land governance in signification structures and focus on hierarchical enforcement in legitimation structures. While multi-level land governance in the domination structure phase is strongly required, issue-and-project-based land governance has a pivotal role in providing cross-boundary infrastructures. Nevertheless, further empirical analysis is recommended to verify how and where the re-arrangement processes are initiated and structured. Full article
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Open AccessArticle What Form of Visibility Affects Earnings Management? Evidence from Italian Family and Non-Family Firms
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010020
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
This paper addresses the issue of financial communication quality by studying the determinants of earnings management practices in family and non-family businesses. Previous literature has highlighted the effect of a company’s size, as a form of visibility, on earnings management practices. This study [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the issue of financial communication quality by studying the determinants of earnings management practices in family and non-family businesses. Previous literature has highlighted the effect of a company’s size, as a form of visibility, on earnings management practices. This study focuses on the analysis of the relationship between different forms of visibility—exposure to financial press, proximity to the consumer, size of assets, sales and firm age—and earnings quality. The results show that the forms of visibility taken into consideration have a different effect on earnings management practices. Furthermore, they show that family businesses are less likely to resort to these unethical practices, especially in the presence of financial press exposure and proximity of the business to the consumer. Full article
Open AccessArticle Managing Restaurant Attributes for Destination Satisfaction: What Goes beyond Food?
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010019
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract
Local cuisine has increasingly become one of the crucial factors contributing to how tourists experience a destination. As such, understanding which attributes affect travelers’ experience of the local food is especially important to enhance tourist satisfaction. Therefore, the main purpose of this study [...] Read more.
Local cuisine has increasingly become one of the crucial factors contributing to how tourists experience a destination. As such, understanding which attributes affect travelers’ experience of the local food is especially important to enhance tourist satisfaction. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to determine the relative importance of different local cuisine experience attributes, as well as the perception of their performances. In doing so, Importance Performance Analysis (IPA) was conducted to assess tourists’ perception. Data were collected from foreign travelers visiting Istanbul, Turkey, which is famous and well-known for its local cuisine. Furthermore, how different attributes affect destination satisfaction was analyzed via regression models. Interestingly, food-related cultural aspects and social aspects outweigh the food quality for their relative importance to travelers. Additionally, other than the physical environment, all attributes were found to contribute to tourists’ satisfaction of the destination. Practical implications are provided in terms of how to promote and develop a competitive advantage by using local cuisine attributes for destination marketing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Commitment of Packaging Industry in the Framework of the European Strategy for Plastics in a Circular Economy
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010018
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 17 February 2019
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Abstract
European Commission is strongly committed into issues related to plastic materials production and plastic waste management. While the Circular Economy Package has set targets generally referred to recycling rates, the European Strategy for plastics in a circular economy (and related action plan), fosters [...] Read more.
European Commission is strongly committed into issues related to plastic materials production and plastic waste management. While the Circular Economy Package has set targets generally referred to recycling rates, the European Strategy for plastics in a circular economy (and related action plan), fosters sustainability along the entire plastic value chain: from primary producers to converters, brand owners and retailers to waste collectors and recyclers. The Directive on the reduction of the impact of certain plastic products on the environment (more commonly known as Directive on Single-Use-Plastics, waiting for publication in the Official Journal of the European Union) rules targets on ten plastic products most often found as littering on global beaches, directly affecting plastic industry and, consequently, market. Policy makers and industrial stakeholders are called upon to collaborate. The article aims to illustrate interactions between European Commission and all plastic value chain stakeholders on implementing measures to reach ambitious targets pursued by the recent European policy. The study shows how European Commission has robustly worked to regulate production and consumption patterns on plastic carrier bags and packaging (including food packaging) thus facilitating the achievement of specific targets provided by the recent Directive. However, additional provisions concerning market restriction have been introduced; industrial stakeholders carried on a prompt response by promoting the creation of alliances, join venture and association, as well as a more integrated plastic value chain. On the base of this purpose, a virtuous example of a closed supply chain is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Ecology and Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle Approaches to Risk Identification in Public–Private Partnership Projects: Malaysian Private Partners’ Overview
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010017
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
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Abstract
The complexity of public–private partnership (PPP) projects ensures that risks could emerge and spread in unpredictable ways if they are not well identified and managed. The emergence of PPP projects has brought major changes in the construction industry, the most notable being in [...] Read more.
The complexity of public–private partnership (PPP) projects ensures that risks could emerge and spread in unpredictable ways if they are not well identified and managed. The emergence of PPP projects has brought major changes in the construction industry, the most notable being in procurement methods influencing risk allocation to private parties. Thus, it is crucial to have an effective risk management for public and private partners to eliminate or minimise risks. Formulating an effective risk management system is a crucial challenge faced by both of parties in order to minimise or optimise risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the process of risk identification of private partners in Malaysian PPP projects. Data were collected throughout a 2-month period using a survey with a sample of nine Malaysian companies engaged in PPP projects, and the survey results were analysed using mean scores. The findings indicate that due to a lack of knowledge and experience of Malaysian private partners in the risk identification process, a comprehensive database for risk identification is highly necessary for the private sector. Another issue emerging from the findings is that it may be reasonable to use a combination of risk identification tools for PPP projects with a high level of complexity. The findings of the present study can greatly assist public and private partners to select the most appropriate tools for risk identification at the early stages of PPP projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rational Decision Making in Risk Management)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Higher Education in Development of Entrepreneurial Competencies: Some Insights from Castilla-La Mancha University in Spain
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010016
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
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Abstract
This study presents an analysis of the entrepreneurial competences of second- and fourth-year undergraduate students at the University of Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), under the framework of the Entrepreneurial Teachers Network, an ongoing project at this institution. The analysis of a sample of 1874 [...] Read more.
This study presents an analysis of the entrepreneurial competences of second- and fourth-year undergraduate students at the University of Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), under the framework of the Entrepreneurial Teachers Network, an ongoing project at this institution. The analysis of a sample of 1874 students identified three profiles of competences of students at the UCLM. The first profile is related to competences in performing and resolving activities, the second is related to risk aversion and uncertainty management and the third is associated with the capacity for teamwork. Furthermore, it was found that the competences related to implementing and performing activities significantly influence job creation as they exhibit a positive relationship with the intention of creating a company in the first three years after graduation. Emotion-related competences also exhibit a significant effect on entrepreneurial intention, although this association is negative. Finally, relation-based competences were found to have no impact on entrepreneurial intention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
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Open AccessArticle Risk Management as a Success Factor in the International Activity of Spanish Engineering
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010015
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
During the period between 2008–2013, the internal market in Spain was characterized by economic crisis, the contraction of the demand experienced in a turbulent business environment, and strong competition among companies. This situation forced many of these companies to work abroad. One of [...] Read more.
During the period between 2008–2013, the internal market in Spain was characterized by economic crisis, the contraction of the demand experienced in a turbulent business environment, and strong competition among companies. This situation forced many of these companies to work abroad. One of the success factors for Spanish engineering companies abroad has been effective risk management, which avoids compromising the company’s objectives, market share, or survival. This article examines the importance of risk management in the success of Spanish engineering consulting firms in the international construction market. Ten executives of Spanish engineering companies with international experience were interviewed, analyzing the importance of risk management for them in the success of internationalization compared with other success factors. The results show that the size of the companies interviewed has no influence on the importance that they gave to risk management, but international experience does relate to the assessment of risk identification and management as a success factor. In addition, companies considered risk management a key factor for optimizing their performance in foreign markets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rational Decision Making in Risk Management)
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Open AccessArticle Mediating Effects between Perspectives in Strategy Maps
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010014
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 3 February 2019
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Abstract
Many researchers have highlighted the importance of strategy maps for improving organizational performance and providing an entire organization with a cognitive representation of its strategic objectives. However, arguing that strategy maps do not assign weight to each perspective, other researchers have generated weighted [...] Read more.
Many researchers have highlighted the importance of strategy maps for improving organizational performance and providing an entire organization with a cognitive representation of its strategic objectives. However, arguing that strategy maps do not assign weight to each perspective, other researchers have generated weighted strategy maps and used various optimization models to highlight the most important perspective. In this study, I argue that organizations should understand all the causal links in a strategy map and explore paths toward improvement rather than focusing on just one perspective. To that end, I analyse all the causal relationships in the strategy map developed for a major postal service in Saudi Arabia and identify two principal mediating relationships: (1) the relationship between the learning and growth perspective and the customer perspective as mediated by the internal business process perspective and (2) the relationship between the internal business process perspective and the financial performance perspective as mediated through the customer perspective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Application of Duration Measure in Quantifying the Sensitivity of Project Returns to Changes in Discount Rates
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010013
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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In this research, the concept of Duration with a new application in project management has been defined. The Duration of each project provides the project manager with a combined measure containing concepts of return, cost and time of the project. Further in this [...] Read more.
In this research, the concept of Duration with a new application in project management has been defined. The Duration of each project provides the project manager with a combined measure containing concepts of return, cost and time of the project. Further in this article, the changes in project return, based on different assumptions such as discount rate, have been examined. To examine the effect of the changes in these factors, the Monte Carlo simulation has been used. The relationship between these factors is nonlinear which reflects the great importance of investment on appropriate risk management systems. The data from a set of construction projects have been used in order to verify the results of this study. Similar relationships can be expected to exist in other industries as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rational Decision Making in Risk Management)
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Open AccessArticle A Relational Approach to Leadership for Multi-Actor Governance
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010012
Received: 22 April 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Multi-actor governance, in which a broad mix of actors collaborates to deal with complex societal problems, requires a leadership approach that can take into account the dynamic interdependencies between the involved actors. A relational approach to leadership, focusing on processes and practices, is [...] Read more.
Multi-actor governance, in which a broad mix of actors collaborates to deal with complex societal problems, requires a leadership approach that can take into account the dynamic interdependencies between the involved actors. A relational approach to leadership, focusing on processes and practices, is more adequate for that purpose than approaches focusing on individuals and positions. Complexity leadership theory offers such a relational approach to leadership within organizations. In this article, we use complexity leadership theory to capture the emergent leadership processes between organizations. We focus on the characteristics of the informal relations between representatives of different organizations that enable dealing with the often-conflicting goals and values in multi-actor governance. The case of a landfill mining initiative for sustainable materials governance is used as an illustration to clarify the main concepts and arguments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics of Interorganisational Collaborative Relationships)
Open AccessArticle Application of the Kano Model for a Better Understanding of Customer Requirements in Higher Education—A Pilot Study
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010011
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
Various pieces of information and knowledge turn into “know-how” simply by their application in the market. This applies to all spheres of activities. It is therefore important to know and understand the requirements of customers already in the stage of making a product, [...] Read more.
Various pieces of information and knowledge turn into “know-how” simply by their application in the market. This applies to all spheres of activities. It is therefore important to know and understand the requirements of customers already in the stage of making a product, and to confront these with the possibilities of a producer. In this article we are exploring the possibilities of a better understanding of the requirements of customers and stakeholders in the process of the creation of products in educational services. In particular, we examined seven general requirements: practice orientation, ethical orientation, research orientation, quality resources, innovation orientation, skills orientation, and quality staff. We use the Kano model on a pilot sample of respondents at an institution of higher education. Our results showed that “practice orientation” and “quality resources” are the most stable requirements, while “quality staff” is the least stable. The most linear requirement (the same effect on satisfaction and dissatisfaction) is “innovation orientation”. “Research orientation” belongs to attractive requirements and we also found that in the case of “ethical orientation” there are weak relations between positive and negative responses in our survey. The “skills orientation” proved to be too general, and our research shows that it could be indifferent. It is therefore advisable to specify the investigated skills when investigating requirements on educational services. The main contribution based on the proposed research procedures is an effective linking of customers and producers already from the beginning of constructing a value chain. Investing in sophisticated management approaches when modelling products and processes can thus become a significant source of the competitive advantage of an educational institution. At the same time, it is a contribution to better placing of its graduates in the labor market. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Examining Customer–Brand Relationships: A Critical Approach to Empirical Models on Brand Attachment, Love, and Engagement
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010010
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
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Abstract
This study establishes the relationship among three concepts (attachment, love, and engagement) that have attracted the interest of both practitioners and researchers lately. Based on the consumer–brand relationship literature, a theoretical model is proposed. Using data obtained from a survey to 320 consumers [...] Read more.
This study establishes the relationship among three concepts (attachment, love, and engagement) that have attracted the interest of both practitioners and researchers lately. Based on the consumer–brand relationship literature, a theoretical model is proposed. Using data obtained from a survey to 320 consumers from Madrid (Spain), the results show that only two constructs actually exist: attachment and active engagement, with love being part of attachment (passion) or engagement (long-term relationship). Thus, emotional attachment must be based on emotions that generate captivation. This admiration activates engagement, turning the consumer into the best brand promoter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Customer Loyalty and Brand Management)
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Open AccessArticle Deficiencies in Project Governance: An Analysis of Infrastructure Development Program
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010009
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
The governance of public sector infrastructure projects became an important topic of interest in the project, program, and portfolio management literature during the last decade. Today, it is becoming a central focus for policymakers seeking to ensure success in selecting, designing, and implementing [...] Read more.
The governance of public sector infrastructure projects became an important topic of interest in the project, program, and portfolio management literature during the last decade. Today, it is becoming a central focus for policymakers seeking to ensure success in selecting, designing, and implementing government-sponsored programs of multi-projects. Due to the multiple underlying risks and complexities, the governance of infrastructure programs constitutes a critical element in strategic planning in developing countries. This paper has analyzed the infrastructure development program in Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Pakistan), and revealed major shortcomings in the areas of decision-making, stakeholder management, and role ambiguity. Approaches to remedy these shortcomings have, thus, been proposed. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Systematic Mapping Study on Customer Loyalty and Brand Management
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010008
Received: 10 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Customer loyalty is a topic of great interest for marketing scholars due to its importance in gaining sustainable competitive advantages and financial outcomes. Literature is prolific of works regarding customer loyalty and brand management. In order to improve the quantity and quality of [...] Read more.
Customer loyalty is a topic of great interest for marketing scholars due to its importance in gaining sustainable competitive advantages and financial outcomes. Literature is prolific of works regarding customer loyalty and brand management. In order to improve the quantity and quality of research publications, research themes mapping of published studies is required. The aim of this paper is to provide scholars with a systematization and mapping of the contributions on this topic to develop an effective research road map for future research. A bibliometric analysis and a mapping study have been conducted on 337 publications on customer loyalty and brand management from 2000 to 2018. The results present the most cited works on the topic, an evaluation map showing the most frequent and cited words and six clusters of words based on their co-occurrence. From the analysis of the clusters, the most relevant research findings, trends, and issues emerge, suggesting interesting theoretical and practical implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Customer Loyalty and Brand Management)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Administrative Sciences in 2018
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010007
Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessReview Evolution to Emergence of Green Buildings: A Review
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010006
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
“Green Buildings” are essential in being responsive to the challenges of climate change and global warming while inhibiting natural resources degradation. This demand requires specific attention to increase the adoption of green-certified buildings within the construction industry. Innovative tools and techniques are needed [...] Read more.
“Green Buildings” are essential in being responsive to the challenges of climate change and global warming while inhibiting natural resources degradation. This demand requires specific attention to increase the adoption of green-certified buildings within the construction industry. Innovative tools and techniques are needed to meet global challenges and strategies set for Sustainable Development Goals of 2030 agenda. This paper provides an intensive review of the evolution of green buildings from a sustainable development perspective which investigates the current global adoption of green buildings. Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and Selective Critical Literature Review Analysis (SCLRA) methodologies were adopted focusing on the content analysis to develop more in-depth knowledge. The scope of this study enlightens the sustainable development goals and initiatives. This paper highlighted that there is still inadequate adoption of green buildings and their rating tools on a significant basis in developing countries. This research adds a method towards the better understanding of green buildings and current scenarios that shall be considered for future research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Is Corporate Political Activity an Investment or Agency? An Application of System GMM Approach
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010005
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Corporate political activity (CPA) has been recognized as bearing a significant impact on financial performance (FP). Nevertheless, there has been a lack of considerable research to date. The results of the research regarding the relationship between CPA and FP have been contradictory and [...] Read more.
Corporate political activity (CPA) has been recognized as bearing a significant impact on financial performance (FP). Nevertheless, there has been a lack of considerable research to date. The results of the research regarding the relationship between CPA and FP have been contradictory and this has necessitated further investigation of this relationship. Nonetheless, rather than examining the relationship between CPA and FP, research scholars have revealed that a contingency perspective must be employed for revealing the conditions and the context which enhance the relationship between these two constructs. This study offers a quite distinctive viewpoint with respect to the link between CPA and FP as regards the corporate reputation perspective. For this reason, the study obtained data from the Fortune list of top 100 World Most Admired Companies (WMAC) for the period of 2007 and 2016. This data was utilized to examine the relationship between CPA and FP using the dynamic panel data system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) estimator. This study finds virtually no support for the hypothesis that lobbying and PACs (political action committees) represent an investment in political capital. Instead, CPA is symptomatic of agency problems within firms. This study also argues that corporate reputation moderates the effect of CPA on the FP and the analysis supports the argument. Our results are particularly useful in light of the reputable corporation, which is greatly to likely increase the use of corporate funds for political contributions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Factors Affecting Purchase Intentions in Generation Y: An Empirical Evidence from Fast Food Industry in Malaysia
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010004
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 31 December 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence the purchase intentions of Generation Y students towards the fast food industry in Nilai, Malaysia. Nowadays, purchase intentions are an important aspect of organizational long-term success in the fast food [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence the purchase intentions of Generation Y students towards the fast food industry in Nilai, Malaysia. Nowadays, purchase intentions are an important aspect of organizational long-term success in the fast food industry. In addition, purchase intentions are the critical element in competing with other competitive environments; hence, it is important for the fast food industry to pay a significant attention to this matter. The present study was conducted to identify the key determinants that impact the purchase intention of Generation Y students towards the fast food industry in Nilai, Malaysia. Employing the quantitative method in this study, a total of 313 questionnaires were distributed with the response rate of 91%. Another purpose of this study was to provide important insights to Nilai fast food restaurants in understanding the purchase intentions of customers. Therefore, the leaders and managers of Nilai local fast food restaurants can enhance customers’ experience, solve their problems, and ultimately obtain high quality business by understanding the key factors of purchase intentions in fast food industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Methodology to Solve the Combination of the Generalized Assignment Problem and the Vehicle Routing Problem: A Case Study in Drug and Medical Instrument Sales and Service
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010003
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 26 December 2018
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Abstract
This article presents algorithms for solving a special case of the vehicle routing problem (VRP). We define our proposed problem of a special VRP case as a combination of two hard problems: the generalized assignment and the vehicle routing problem. The different evolution [...] Read more.
This article presents algorithms for solving a special case of the vehicle routing problem (VRP). We define our proposed problem of a special VRP case as a combination of two hard problems: the generalized assignment and the vehicle routing problem. The different evolution (DE) algorithm is used to solve the problem. The recombination process of the original DE is modified by adding two more sets of vectors—best vector and random vector—and using two other sets—target vector and trial vector. The linear probability formula is proposed to potentially use one out of the four sets of vectors. This is called the modified DE (MDE) algorithm. Two local searches are integrated into the MDE algorithm: exchange and insert. These procedures create a DE and MDE that use (1) no local search techniques, (2) two local search techniques, (3) only the exchange procedure, and (4) only the insert procedure. This generates four DE algorithms and four MDE algorithms. The proposed methods are tested with 15 tested instances and one case study. The current procedure is compared with all proposed heuristics. The computational result shows that, in the case study, the best DE algorithm (DE-4) has a 1.6% better solution than that of the current practice, whereas the MDE algorithm is 8.2% better. The MDE algorithm that uses the same local search as the DE algorithms generates a maximum 5.814% better solution than that of the DE algorithms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Women’s Role in the Accounting Profession: A Comparative Study between Italy and Romania
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010002
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
Historically, in most countries, the accounting profession has always been male-dominated. Liberal professions such as lawyers, engineers, architects and doctors share the common trait of conservatism. The accounting profession, which is also a liberal profession, is no exception. Starting from this premise, this [...] Read more.
Historically, in most countries, the accounting profession has always been male-dominated. Liberal professions such as lawyers, engineers, architects and doctors share the common trait of conservatism. The accounting profession, which is also a liberal profession, is no exception. Starting from this premise, this work aims to provide, using a historical and institutional perspective, a picture of the past and current “journey” in the accountancy profession of women-chartered accountants and auditors in Italy and Romania. Drawing from the theoretical framework of gendered construction of the accounting profession, the paper points out issues affecting the presence, the degree of representativeness and the role (concerning the presence among the higher level of professional activities and governance positions) of women within the National Chartered Association and their continued under-representation in Italy and Romania. Findings contribute to providing insights useful to develop a future agenda and fill in the research gaps in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Business)
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Open AccessConcept Paper Leadership Multiplicities before and during the Post-Truth Era
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9010001
Received: 25 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
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Abstract
Drawing from the ontology of the lack (Laclau and Mouffe 1985), aesthetic theory (Adorno 1997); practice theory (Bourdieu 2002), art perception theory (Bourdieu 1968), and storytelling theory (Boje 2001), we discuss leadership multiplicities and post-truth era phenomena. We conceptualize leadership as a heterogeneous [...] Read more.
Drawing from the ontology of the lack (Laclau and Mouffe 1985), aesthetic theory (Adorno 1997); practice theory (Bourdieu 2002), art perception theory (Bourdieu 1968), and storytelling theory (Boje 2001), we discuss leadership multiplicities and post-truth era phenomena. We conceptualize leadership as a heterogeneous field with an evolving incomplete set of contested narratives, at different development stages, entertained by different players. In the continuous re-occupation of the lack exists tensions, contradictions and conflicts within and between players’ narratives. This situation generates a large variability that requires acknowledgement, promotion, and some management. We relate our discussion to education. We suggest ways to create unity within diversity and resolve some of these contradictions and tensions. The concept of parallax (Zizek 2006), which offers a new gaze, illustrates how to configure sets of related leadership narratives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Leadership)
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