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Adm. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 43 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In Probing the Links between Workforce Diversity, Goal Clarity, and Employee Job Satisfaction in Public Sector Organizations, Edmund Stazyk, Randy Davis, and Jiaqi Liang use U.S. Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey data to examine whether employees in diverse organizations perceive job goals differently and whether this, in turn, influences employee job satisfaction. They find that increased racial and ethnic diversity are associated with greater goal clarity, especially in the presence of robust diversity management policies. In such cases, workers also report higher job satisfaction. Interestingly, gender-based diversity fails to have any bearing on goal clarity or satisfaction, suggesting the need for careful, nuanced analyses when evaluating how and when diversity matters. View this paper.
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Article
Telework and Work–Family Conflict during COVID-19 Lockdown in Portugal: The Influence of Job-Related Factors
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030103 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2610
Abstract
Even though research has been showing that telework, under regular circumstances, could benefit the integration of work and family life, mandatory telework during the COVID-19 lockdown brought additional challenges, with potential to create conflicts between work and family spheres. Using regression analysis, this [...] Read more.
Even though research has been showing that telework, under regular circumstances, could benefit the integration of work and family life, mandatory telework during the COVID-19 lockdown brought additional challenges, with potential to create conflicts between work and family spheres. Using regression analysis, this study examined the contribution of demographic and job-related variables to the prediction of work–family conflict among a sample of 213 workers who were involved in mandatory telework during the first lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The results revealed that role overload, after-hours work-related technology use, and low job autonomy accounted for the prediction of work–family conflict. Support from the supervisors and coworkers did not have an impact in easing the perception of work–family conflict but presented a moderation effect between after-hours work-related technology use and work–family conflict. Implications of the study for management practices related to telework, limitations of the study, and directions for future research are discussed. Full article
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Article
Artificial Intelligence Risks and Challenges in the Spanish Public Administration: An Exploratory Analysis through Expert Judgements
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030102 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
The expanding use of artificial intelligence (AI) in public administration is generating numerous opportunities for governments. Current Spanish regulations have established electronic administration and support the expansion and implementation of this new technology, but they may not be adapted to the legal needs [...] Read more.
The expanding use of artificial intelligence (AI) in public administration is generating numerous opportunities for governments. Current Spanish regulations have established electronic administration and support the expansion and implementation of this new technology, but they may not be adapted to the legal needs caused by AI. Consequently, this research aims to identify the risks associated with AI uses in Spanish public administration and if the legal mechanisms can solve them. We answer these questions by employing a qualitative research approach, conducting semi-structured interviews with several experts in the matter. Despite the benefits that this technology may involve, throughout this research we can confirm that the use of artificial intelligence can generate several problems such as opacity, legal uncertainty, biases, or breaches of personal data protection. The mechanisms already provided by Spanish law are not enough to avoid these risks as they have not been designed to face the use of artificial intelligence in public administration. In addition, a homogeneous legal definition of AI needs to be established. Full article
Article
Tourism Advertising in Times of Crisis: The Case of Spain and COVID-19
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030101 - 13 Sep 2021
Viewed by 915
Abstract
The paralysis of tourist activity during the closure caused by the COVID-19 pandemic makes the communicative management of the crisis essential, especially for a country as reliant on tourism as Spain. The purpose of this research is to understand the values on which [...] Read more.
The paralysis of tourist activity during the closure caused by the COVID-19 pandemic makes the communicative management of the crisis essential, especially for a country as reliant on tourism as Spain. The purpose of this research is to understand the values on which the communicative campaigns disseminated during and at the end of the “state of alarm” are built by applying an analysis based on those proposed by several authors focused on brand aspects, transmitters, persuasive and communicative elements, coherence, communicative objectives, and messages. The results show the existence of a national dialogue from the local and regional to the state level that aims to reinforce the image of the country and its main tourist demands while seeking to raise awareness (promise of consumption), through a message of hope, recovery, health, but also of enjoying the life associated with the tourist pleasures that Spain offers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourist Destination Management in Times of Change: Emerging Issues)
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Article
Smart Mixes in International Supply Chains: A Definition and Analytical Tool, Illustrated with the Example of Organic Imports into Switzerland
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030099 - 10 Sep 2021
Viewed by 866
Abstract
Combinations of national and international, hard and soft powers, known as Smart Mixes, have been proposed as a way for governments in consumer countries to influence the behaviour of supply chain actors who operate outside their jurisdiction. However, the Smart Mix concept has [...] Read more.
Combinations of national and international, hard and soft powers, known as Smart Mixes, have been proposed as a way for governments in consumer countries to influence the behaviour of supply chain actors who operate outside their jurisdiction. However, the Smart Mix concept has not yet been precisely defined, which has hindered its operationalization as a means of analyzing the governance of long and complex international supply chains. The aim of this contribution is to derive a working definition of Smart Mixes and use it to create and demonstrate a generalizable analytical tool that facilitates identification of whether a Smart Mix exists in an international supply chain. To address this aim, we reviewed existing literature on Smart Mixes to define the concept, which led to a three-step process for analyzing a supply chain. In a second stage, we demonstrate the process by applying it to the example of organic imports into Switzerland, using data from expert interviews and existing public documentation. The application showed that the governance of the organic sector in Switzerland related to imported products fulfils the criteria for it to be considered a Smart Mix that enables the Swiss Government to influence the behaviour of supply chain actors outside its jurisdiction. This example shows that the proposed Smart Mix concept is sound under particular circumstances: in this case, when the interests of the public and private sectors are aligned so that binding public measures provide protection to the private sector. These circumstances are not unique to organic imports into Switzerland, which allows the conclusion that Smart Mixes may provide sustainability solutions in other international supply chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drivers and Barriers of Corporate Social Responsibility)
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Article
Technological Catch-Up and Innovative Entrepreneurship in Vietnamese Firms
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030100 - 10 Sep 2021
Viewed by 917
Abstract
The article analyses the dynamics of technological catch-up through entrepreneurship in latecomer firms to emerging markets. With this aim, the article introduces Vietnam’s experience and illustrates the result of three case studies of Vietnamese technology firms at different stages of their evolution. Insights [...] Read more.
The article analyses the dynamics of technological catch-up through entrepreneurship in latecomer firms to emerging markets. With this aim, the article introduces Vietnam’s experience and illustrates the result of three case studies of Vietnamese technology firms at different stages of their evolution. Insights from the cases reveal all follow an incremental innovation model based on business model ‘soft’ innovations, mainly in customer-facing activities and partnering, as well as limited products and technology adaptation to local market needs. Consistently with latecomer firms’ theory, the market drives these firm’s innovation efforts, which are concentrated on developing new services and comprehensive solutions rather than new technologies. Comparisons of the findings with recent and similar experiences of Chinese firms highlight that different stages of catch-up lead to different innovation practices in nature and degree, and the need to strengthen institutions to face competition, rather than use the former to shelter from the latter. The Vietnamese firms’ innovation practices and catch-up patterns found are then discussed under the perspective of reaping the benefits of international knowledge and technology flows and the specific challenges faced by Vietnam. The paper concludes with several reflections, lessons learned and perspectives for other newly industrializing emerging countries. Full article
Article
New Puppets in the Old School: The Applicability of Traditional Internationalisation Theories in the Sharing Economy
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030098 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
Sharing Economy platforms have expanded their operations all around the globe at an unexpected rate. Due to its “asset-lite” nature, traditional internationalisation theories may not be able to fully explain or predict their expansion patterns. This lack of theoretical background puts at risk [...] Read more.
Sharing Economy platforms have expanded their operations all around the globe at an unexpected rate. Due to its “asset-lite” nature, traditional internationalisation theories may not be able to fully explain or predict their expansion patterns. This lack of theoretical background puts at risk the phenomenon’s future and stops traditional companies from coming up with a solid plan to compete against platforms. To ease the creation of a Sharing Economy internationalisation paradigm, this paper intends to review the existing research regarding the internationalisation of sharing platforms as well as the applicability of existing theories. Through a systematic literature review, the existing research was reviewed, and afterwards, internationalisation theories and their distinct factors extracted were noted to address the applicability of these within the singularities of the sharing phenomenon. This classification of factors was done according to the exiting literature in the field. After this research, we can confirm the lack of explanatory power of traditional theories regarding sharing platforms and confirm the insufficient research regarding these operations. We propose a list of factors that should be considered for future research as a guideline for the further development of the Sharing Economy internationalisation theory. Additionally, the factors classification is tested upon the case of the internationalisation of Blablacar, the most extensive carpooling network operating, to check if the theoretical and the practical approaches converge. Full article
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Article
The Contribution of Higher Education Institutions to the SDGs—An Evaluation of Sustainability Reporting Practices
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030097 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
The introduction of Agenda 2030 has impacted the public and private sectors. Agenda 2030 is a document that aims to promote collaboration and partnership between countries and the population for the achievement of 17 SDGs, which cover all the three dimensions of sustainability: [...] Read more.
The introduction of Agenda 2030 has impacted the public and private sectors. Agenda 2030 is a document that aims to promote collaboration and partnership between countries and the population for the achievement of 17 SDGs, which cover all the three dimensions of sustainability: environmental, social, and economic. Within the public organizations, higher education institutions (HEIs) have shown certain attention on the topic. In particular, for many HEIs, the publication of sustainability reports has represented an instrument to disclose and publicize their commitment to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). To shed light on the highly fragmented panorama of the disclosure of SDGs in the context of HEIs, the present study employed a content analysis on publicly available sustainability reports published only by the HEIs that adopted the GRI Standards as reporting guidelines. The results show the centrality of the social and environmental issues within the disclosed information. Moreover, the provision of a thematic analysis on the SDGs disclosure sections revealed the interest of the sampled HEIs in increasing the level of involvement of their stakeholders. Full article
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Article
Digital Society Incubator: Combining Exponential Technology and Human Potential to Build Resilient Entrepreneurial Ecosystems
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030096 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Although exponential technologies promise to bring unprecedented value at the socio-economic and policy levels, the social acceptability and preparedness for the technological “singularity” should be carefully considered. In particular, whereas digital innovation is able to drive an extraordinary development of entrepreneurial ventures, a [...] Read more.
Although exponential technologies promise to bring unprecedented value at the socio-economic and policy levels, the social acceptability and preparedness for the technological “singularity” should be carefully considered. In particular, whereas digital innovation is able to drive an extraordinary development of entrepreneurial ventures, a number of challenging issues and the ongoing pandemic crisis have increased the need to investigate how technological breakthrough and human capital can be effectively combined in order to build resilient socio-technical and entrepreneurial ecosystems. This paper offers a synopsis of the major investigation areas and a reflection on the themes associated with the emergence of a digital society and the affirmation of digital entrepreneurship ecosystems. The research process follows a systematic literature review and a conceptual development approach aimed to introduce both the concept and a model of the digital society “incubator”. The proposed model identifies the actors, values, flows, and processes that are required to support the construction of a resilient entrepreneurial ecosystem. In this perspective, the study proposes a new focus by hybridizing and integrating both entrepreneurial and technology-related dimensions into a single unifying model. The study also lays the groundwork for further studies aimed at identifying the environmental and institutional factors required to support a smooth and effective transition towards a resilient entrepreneurial and technology-driven society. Full article
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Article
Executive Selection Process and Job Satisfaction: The Case of the Independent Authority for Public Revenue (IAPR) in Greece
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030095 - 07 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1312
Abstract
This paper assesses the impact that the degree of acceptance of the selection process, as conducted by the human recourses management (HRM), has upon job satisfaction in the local tax offices (LTOs) in Greece. Furthermore, it examines the effects that various individual and [...] Read more.
This paper assesses the impact that the degree of acceptance of the selection process, as conducted by the human recourses management (HRM), has upon job satisfaction in the local tax offices (LTOs) in Greece. Furthermore, it examines the effects that various individual and demographic characteristics have on job satisfaction. The research was performed using primary statistical data by distributing and collecting specific questionnaires, which not only recorded the level of job satisfaction but also noted the degree of acceptance of the selection procedure in the IAPR. The collected statistical data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 26 Fixpack 1 software program. The results showed an average acceptance value of the selection process of 4.89, indicating a high degree of participant consensus with this process. They also showed that age, work experience, and the acceptance of the selection process have a positive and statistically significant effect, whereas educational level has a negative and statistically significant effect on degree of job satisfaction. The added value of the present paper lies in the fact that this kind of research, conducted in the IAPR in Greece for the very first time, measured both the degree of job satisfaction and the effect that the acceptance of the selection procedure has on this attitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Challenges of Public and Business Administration)
Article
Antecedents and Consequences of Digital Entrepreneurial Ecosystems in the Interaction Process with Smart City Development
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030094 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1064
Abstract
The nature of entrepreneurship and its developmental paths in the urban environment are extensively studied in the scientific literature. With a rising interest of scholars in the smart city phenomenon, the role entrepreneurship plays in the development of smart cities became a central [...] Read more.
The nature of entrepreneurship and its developmental paths in the urban environment are extensively studied in the scientific literature. With a rising interest of scholars in the smart city phenomenon, the role entrepreneurship plays in the development of smart cities became a central topic in academia. However, there is a lack of discussion concerning the specific settings and characteristics of digital entrepreneurship in the smart city scenario. Nowadays, the concept of digital entrepreneurship is considered as a part of the digital entrepreneurial ecosystems (DEE) that provides an environment for effective entrepreneurial activities. Hence, the investigation on how DEE is interconnected with smart cities and how they both can contribute to their mutual development appears both timely and necessary. To reach this research objective, the authors, after giving a clear definition of each component of DEE based on an extensive literature review, consider its interconnection with the smart city model. The connection between the dimensions of a smart city and the structural constituents of DEE is also tracked, highlighting the contribution of each element to the development of a smart city. Through the creation of a comprehensive framework, the results of the paper show clearly that DEE is an inevitable part of a smart city environment. The research also covers the model of DEE engagement in smart city architecture. Full article
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Editorial
Industrial Ecology and Innovation: At What Point Are We? Editorial for the Special Issue “Industrial Ecology and Innovation”
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030093 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 589
Abstract
For a long time, starting from the first industrial revolution until the second postwar period, technological progress has been aimed at increasing the technical-economic efficiency of production systems [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Ecology and Innovation)
Article
How Can Gamified Applications Drive Engagement and Brand Attitude? The Case of Nike Run Club Application
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030092 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
This research aims to analyze the feasibility of gamified applications as a tool to promote engagement and brand attitude. To accomplish this, this research was developed using a quantitative methodology. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed and the model hypotheses were tested [...] Read more.
This research aims to analyze the feasibility of gamified applications as a tool to promote engagement and brand attitude. To accomplish this, this research was developed using a quantitative methodology. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed and the model hypotheses were tested by a structural equation modeling (SEM). A questionnaire was applied to Portuguese consumers who use the “Nike Run Club” application, from which 203 valid responses were received. The results confirm the influence of social circles and their impact on the intention to interact with the brand. For theoretical contributions, this research contributes to the existing literature and academic knowledge in the areas of marketing and gamification, providing a suggestion for the TAM model to be used in this type of research. It also contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between gamification and marketing, demonstrating that the use of gamified applications as engagement tools can have a positive impact on the brand attitude. On the practical side, it contributes as a consultation tool for brands, application designers, and marketers when defining engagement strategies, allowing a better understanding of the factors that may or may not influence the public’s relationship with the brands and what dynamics they should use in the development of new Gamified marketing solutions. Full article
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Article
A Behavioral Cultural-Based Development Analysis of Entrepreneurship in China
by
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030091 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
This paper deals with local cultural capital as a motivator for entrepreneurial behavior in China. Following the Culture-Based Development paradigm (CBD), the current study approaches local cultural capital as an entity that can be temporarily segmented into living culture and cultural heritage and [...] Read more.
This paper deals with local cultural capital as a motivator for entrepreneurial behavior in China. Following the Culture-Based Development paradigm (CBD), the current study approaches local cultural capital as an entity that can be temporarily segmented into living culture and cultural heritage and can be further differentiated type-wise into material cultural capital and immaterial cultural capital. The main hypothesis of this paper is that living culture and cultural heritage have different roles in the direction of effect on entrepreneurial behavior in China. To test this hypothesis, a quantitative research method is utilized and data is collected from China Statistical Yearbooks, the website of Chinese Intangible Cultural Heritage as well as the third and fourth China Economic Census Yearbooks, covering the period from 2010 to 2019 and regarding all 31 provinces of mainland China. This dataset provides indicators for both material and immaterial living culture, respectively represented by the total book circulations in public libraries and performances at art venues, while historical cultural heritage is approximated by intangible cultural heritage (such as the number of folk literature, traditional music, traditional dance and so on) and historical sites. For data analysis, an OLS regression is used to assess the roles of each kind of cultural capital on regional entrepreneurship development. Findings suggest CBD is applicable for analyzing entrepreneurship behavior and the result of the application of model shows a notable impact of culture on entrepreneurship activities in China. Full article
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Article
Sustainable Development, COVID-19 and Small Business in Greece: Small Is Not Beautiful
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030090 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
The aim of this article is s to show that contrary to the common parlance and to the widespread belief that treats small business as “the backbone of the economy”, in the sense of being the prime motor of wealth and prosperity, therefore [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is s to show that contrary to the common parlance and to the widespread belief that treats small business as “the backbone of the economy”, in the sense of being the prime motor of wealth and prosperity, therefore the underlying logic is what is good for small business will also help government achieves overall economic policy goals, the prevailing dominant idea that formulates and drives the Greek economic policy is quite the opposite. Based on textual analysis, from Greece’s Structural Adjustment Programs, to the various assessment reports, till the latest “Development Plan for the Greek Economy”, we attempt to reveal that the prevailing idea that penetrates the abovementioned texts is that “small is not beautiful”. Specifically, after indicating a policy paradox regarding the limited financial support that Greek small businesses received or expected to receive despite their vital importance to the Greek economy, we expose the “structural impediment” idea. According to the latter the existence of a large share of small business in the Greek economy is being considered as a structural impediment for economic growth and prosperity. The implication is a policy dictum that favours a form of an evolutionary natural selection process, whereby only those establishments successful enough to grow will be able to survive, thus the vast bulk of the remaining small firms will exit the market. Full article
Article
Assessing the Effects of Directive 2014/95/EU on Nonfinancial Information Reporting: Evidence from Italian and Spanish Listed Companies
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030089 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
This paper explored the effects of new regulation on the disclosure of NFI in two European countries, Italy and Spain. The method used to develop the analysis is mainly qualitative. Content analysis was performed to verify the sustainability indicators disclosed by Italian and [...] Read more.
This paper explored the effects of new regulation on the disclosure of NFI in two European countries, Italy and Spain. The method used to develop the analysis is mainly qualitative. Content analysis was performed to verify the sustainability indicators disclosed by Italian and Spanish companies, listed on the FTSE MIB and IBEX 35 Indexes, before and after the Directive’s publication and implementation in national legislation. The level of NFI disclosure was scored using a disclosure index. The comparative analysis found a progressive reduction in disclosure levels for Italian companies compared with Spanish companies, for which an expansion of the disclosure was detected. Moreover, a reduced gap between the quantity of NFI reported in the two countries was found. This is one of the few studies to use a 3-year longitudinal analysis to investigate the EU Directive’s impact at the cross-country level. Full article
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Article
On the Relationship between Economic Dynamics and Female Entrepreneurship: Reflections for the Visegrad Countries
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030088 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
The gender gap in entrepreneurship has been observed for a long time, explained by both female-specific and gender-neutral factors, but none of these explanations is generally accepted. The aim of the paper is to assess the effect of internal economic dynamics on female [...] Read more.
The gender gap in entrepreneurship has been observed for a long time, explained by both female-specific and gender-neutral factors, but none of these explanations is generally accepted. The aim of the paper is to assess the effect of internal economic dynamics on female entrepreneurship. Economic dynamics is a persistent process affected simultaneously by both endogenous and exogenous factors of a different time horizon, with the development trend and the business cycle as the most important time perspectives. The decomposition procedure of time series is implemented to extract trend and cyclical fluctuations, after which the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) method is used to estimate models showing the impact of economic dynamics on female entrepreneurship in the long- and medium-run. The study concerns the countries of the Visegrad Group, including Czechia, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia, and is based on quarterly data from the years 1998 to 2020. The results show that, although the economic dynamics impact female entrepreneurship, to some extent, it is not the most dominant factor. The impact of economic dynamics on female entrepreneurship is much stronger in the trend perspective than in the business cycle perspective. The nature of the effect of economic dynamics on female entrepreneurship is also country-specific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Weaknesses in Motivation and in Establishing a Meritocratic System: A Portrait of the Portuguese Public Administration
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030087 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
The complexities of Public Administration have gained the growing attention of scholars around the world, mainly due to the impacts of the reforms implemented under the doctrine of New Public Management (which aims to apply concepts and practices of private management in public [...] Read more.
The complexities of Public Administration have gained the growing attention of scholars around the world, mainly due to the impacts of the reforms implemented under the doctrine of New Public Management (which aims to apply concepts and practices of private management in public management) on civil servants. The aim of this study is to find out how Portuguese citizens evaluate the Portuguese Public Administration under the aspects of bureaucracy, organisation of human resources, innovation, skills and attitudes of civil servants, its motivation and recognition; and to verify if there are differences of opinion between respondents working in public sector and respondents from other sectors. This study follows a quali-quantitative approach, and data were collected through an online survey in the period from June to December 2020. The survey was answered by 1119 citizens from all districts of Portugal. The main findings reveal a still high level of bureaucracy in the Portuguese Public Administration; weaknesses in the management of human resources, namely regarding the motivation and recognition of civil servants; and difficulties in the establishment of a meritocratic system of recruitment and performance evaluation of civil servants. Statistically significant evaluation differences (chi-square test and non-parametric Mann–Whitney U tests, involving five hypotheses) were found between the public sector and other sectors, except for the motivation variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Challenges of Public and Business Administration)
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Article
Integrated Reporting Implementation and Core Activities Disclosure in UK Higher Education Institutions
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030086 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Through integrated reporting (IR) and integrated thinking (IT), higher education institutions (HEIs) can engage future students, staff and other key stakeholders. This paper examines the impact of IR framework implementation on core activities disclosure within the UK HEIs. In particular, the authors explore [...] Read more.
Through integrated reporting (IR) and integrated thinking (IT), higher education institutions (HEIs) can engage future students, staff and other key stakeholders. This paper examines the impact of IR framework implementation on core activities disclosure within the UK HEIs. In particular, the authors explore the influence of the integrated thinking approach, intended to enhance the extent of the IR content elements, teaching and learning, internationalisation and research activities disclosure. The study is based on the annual reports of 123 UK HEIs over 3 years—2015–16, 2016–17 and 2017–18. Consistent with the predictions of legitimacy theory and the integrated thinking approach, the results show the extent that integrated reporting content elements and HEIs core activities disclosure practices have increased over the study period. The results also indicate that adoption of the IR framework, league table ranking position, key performance indicator reporting, size, research quality and graduate prospects all have significant positive influences on HEIs core activities disclosure. Based on the findings, the recommendations are that UK HEI governing and other regularity bodies, such as British Universities Finance Director Groups, Leadership Foundation in Higher Education and the Higher Education Funding Council, should consider development of voluntary integrated reporting guidelines and a core activities disclosure framework. Full article
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Article
Simulation of the Influence of External Factors on the Level of Use of the Regional Tourism Potential: A Practical Aspect
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030085 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Today, the issue of development of the tourism industry is becoming increasingly relevant, as this industry is an important component of the economic system of each country. External factors have the most significant impact on the development of tourism: natural disasters, wars, economic [...] Read more.
Today, the issue of development of the tourism industry is becoming increasingly relevant, as this industry is an important component of the economic system of each country. External factors have the most significant impact on the development of tourism: natural disasters, wars, economic crises, and pandemics have had a destabilizing effect on the development of the tourism industry around the world. To avoid or reduce the impact of negative phenomena on the tourism industry of a particular country or region, it is crucial to predict the impact of external factors, identify the most important of them, and develop strategic measures to turn threats into opportunities. In the context of solving the mentioned problem, this study aims to model the impact of external factors on the level of use of tourism potential of the region. After all, tourist services and products of each country and region are unique, as they are formed under the influence of existing special natural resources, cultural heritage, environmental, social and other factors inherent only in them; and if in one country/region the influence of a certain factor can weaken the development of tourism, in another one—it can stimulate it. A method of comparison with the reference value and a method of calculating the integral indicator were used in the study. Based on the analysis, an integral indicator of the level of use of the tourist potential of the region was calculated and the method of assessing the impact of external factors on the level of tourist potential on the example of the Carpathian region of Ukraine was tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourist Destination Management in Times of Change: Emerging Issues)
Article
Perceptual Fluctuations within the Entrepreneurial Journey: Experience from Process-Based Entrepreneurship Training
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030084 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
The entrepreneurial idea and opportunity are formed in the entrepreneurial process, which is characterized by entrepreneurial learning. During the entrepreneurial journey, the entrepreneur repeatedly reassesses the maturity of his business/venture idea and venture creation process to enter the market. The entrepreneur’s decisions are [...] Read more.
The entrepreneurial idea and opportunity are formed in the entrepreneurial process, which is characterized by entrepreneurial learning. During the entrepreneurial journey, the entrepreneur repeatedly reassesses the maturity of his business/venture idea and venture creation process to enter the market. The entrepreneur’s decisions are influenced by both objective and affective circumstances. This study aims to identify and map the fluctuations of idea–opportunity perception and affection by a student entrepreneur throughout the entrepreneurial learning journey simulating a genuine entrepreneurial (learning) process. The data collection of variables took place during an entrepreneurship course that modeled the entrepreneurial journey via process-based entrepreneurship training and applying feasibility and attractiveness self-assessment, observation and in-depth interviews. A small group of doctoral students developed their business ideas during a process-based entrepreneurship course. After each lesson and homework, they assessed the feasibility and attractiveness of their idea and opportunity. The results showed asynchronous fluctuations in these individual context-based perception variables, frequently depending on the progression of the entrepreneurial journey. The study added the concept of affective artifact and some generalizing dimensions to describe the entrepreneurial journey. Recommendations are given for the implementation and research of entrepreneurial process-based training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Entrepreneurship Education)
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Article
R&D and Innovation Collaboration between Universities and Business—A PLS-SEM Model for the Spanish Province of Huelva
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030083 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1097
Abstract
In the last decade we have witnessed a growing amount of interest for developing better ‘exchange’ between universities, research centres and technology parks and companies, governments and other institutions. The biggest aim of those projects is, on the one hand, to make sure [...] Read more.
In the last decade we have witnessed a growing amount of interest for developing better ‘exchange’ between universities, research centres and technology parks and companies, governments and other institutions. The biggest aim of those projects is, on the one hand, to make sure that valuable research does not stay hidden in the ivory tower of academia, and, on the other, that there are clear indications for what kinds of solutions are needed in the market. Due to the lack of empirical research in the topic, the focus of this paper is to establish and explain which factors determine the demand for technological services and how they can contribute to the promotion of greater university–business collaboration in R&D and innovation. To achieve that goal, we applied the PLS-SEM (Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling) method in order to create a theoretical model, which was then verified through the application of the CTA (Confirmatory Tetrad Analysis) with the purpose of evaluating whether the specification of the chosen measurement model based on the theoretical rationale was supported by data. The test run was performed on 96 companies from the Spanish region of Huelva. It showed that only four of the considered factors, namely influence of the environment, market conditions, technology adoption decision and economic characteristics of the company, constituted 65.76% of the variance of the endogenous latent Demand for Technological Services. We believe that thanks to the proposed model and its adaptivity, it is possible to design relevant policies and undertakings aimed at promoting the research-business collaboration at the regional, national and international levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effectiveness of Relations in the Inter-Organizational Network)
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Article
Rural Healthcare Enterprises in the Vortex of COVID-19: The Impact of Public Policies on the Internal and External Environment
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030082 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
The public policies implemented in order to contain the spread of COVID-19 in the community have created issues both in the internal and the external environments of the Greek rural healthcare enterprises. This study aimed to investigate the full extent of the issues [...] Read more.
The public policies implemented in order to contain the spread of COVID-19 in the community have created issues both in the internal and the external environments of the Greek rural healthcare enterprises. This study aimed to investigate the full extent of the issues (internal and external) caused by the public policies. Regarding the external factors, we examined the state, the local authorities, the financial institutions, the social stakeholders and the citizens. Regarding the internal factors, we focused on turnover, liquidity, working conditions, internal changes related to patient care and the implementation of protective measures. A qualitative research was conducted among twelve rural healthcare business owners in the form of semi-structured interviews. The research was conducted in the fall of 2020 during the second phase of COVID-19. The research showed that these enterprises were severely impacted by the government’s public policies. Local authorities were not involved due to lack of competence. The business owners were unwilling to support their enterprises via bank lending. During the first phase of COVID-19, citizens postponed nonessential medical examinations, causing a reduction in these enterprises’ turnover. As a result, in the following periods, these enterprises faced liquidity problems. However, they developed social objectives and implemented protective measures for their employees and patients. The present study contributes to the mapping of the factors affecting the internal and external environments of rural healthcare enterprises along with the public policies developed in times of prolonged crisis. These kinds of data are crucial to the business world and government officials voting on social policies. One cannot rule out the possibility of a new financial or health crisis; the findings of this study can prove to be a useful tool in the process of decision making. Full article
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Article
Transformational Leadership and Turnover Intentions: The Mediating Role of Employee Performance during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030081 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3831
Abstract
The purpose of this research paper is to explain the impact of transformational leadership on employees’ turnover intentions in light of the mediating role of their individual performance. More precisely, we attempt to explain (a) how TL connects to employees’ turnover intentions, (b) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research paper is to explain the impact of transformational leadership on employees’ turnover intentions in light of the mediating role of their individual performance. More precisely, we attempt to explain (a) how TL connects to employees’ turnover intentions, (b) how TL connects to employee performance, (c) how employee performance connects to turnover intentions, and (d) how employee performance mediates the connection between intentions and TL. Four hundred and seventy-eight Turkish healthcare professionals participated in this research. The results revealed that employee performance mediates the connection between turnover intentions and TL. In other words, transformational leaders encourage employee performance, which in turn decreases their turnover intentions. This research has important implications for reducing turnover in workplaces and increasing employee performance by facilitating a setting for high performance, since employees who are supported by their leaders are generally more committed to their organizations and exhibit better performance. This research answers calls to study the mediating function of the TL procedure, since the mediation clarifies the circumstances under which TL relates to the favorable results. Full article
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Article
Pathways towards Women Empowerment and Determinants of Decent Work Deficit: A South Asian Perspective
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030080 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1058
Abstract
This research aims to assess the household and individual-level factors, specifically education, that affect the probability of women being engaged in decent work activities in the labor market. The study utilized the most recent labor force survey data from Pakistan with a sample [...] Read more.
This research aims to assess the household and individual-level factors, specifically education, that affect the probability of women being engaged in decent work activities in the labor market. The study utilized the most recent labor force survey data from Pakistan with a sample size of 64,009 women. The research exploits the multinomial logit model (MNL) for data analysis. Several studies exist on the causes of female labor force participation nationally—in Pakistan—and internationally. However, there is a lack of research exploring the link between women’s access to decent work and various household and individual-level characteristics. This study intends to fill this literature gap by exploiting the largest nationwide labor force survey and exploring how household and individual-level factors, specifically focusing on women’s education level, relate to women’s employment status categories. The study’s findings reveal that education plays an essential role in uplifting women for better employment opportunities, i.e., educated women are more likely to be engaged in decent labor market activities such as paid employees and employers. The findings of the study propose some significant policy implications. E.g., (i) since education is the key to open better and decent work opportunities, it is crucial for women and their household heads to invest in education and vocational training; (ii) there is a dire need to have a policy shift in providing women access to at least a higher secondary (HS) level of education in Pakistan. The rationale is that less educated and illiterate women are concentrated in vulnerable employment; and (iii) at a micro level, there is a need to bring awareness among male household heads, specifically in rural areas, to realize that working women should not be considered a social stigma for the household. Full article
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Article
HRM Policies’ Impact on Employees’ Employability: The Role of Age Climate and the Offering of Developmental Measures
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030079 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
How can (aging) individual employees continue to grow as persons, on the one hand, and contribute to their employing organizations in meaningful ways, on the other hand? In this article, we set out to study how two important instruments of human resource management—age [...] Read more.
How can (aging) individual employees continue to grow as persons, on the one hand, and contribute to their employing organizations in meaningful ways, on the other hand? In this article, we set out to study how two important instruments of human resource management—age climate and the offering of developmental measures—may help. We use path modeling to investigate the research model based on data of 208 respondents of both rural and urban regions in Austria. The results indicate that a positive organizational age climate has a positive influence on the offering of developmental measures and, subsequently, on employees’ employability. We emphasize the importance of facilitating developmental measures for staff of all ages, as well as the necessity to address the organizational age climate to successfully tackle the challenges of demographic change. Full article
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Article
Exploring the Conceptual Structure of the Research on Innovation in Hotels through Co-Word Analysis
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030078 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 889
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a bibliometric analysis of published academic research on innovation in hotels. In particular, it aims to analyze the conceptual structure of the field, covering the period until October 2020, and predict emerging trends. This approach provides an [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of a bibliometric analysis of published academic research on innovation in hotels. In particular, it aims to analyze the conceptual structure of the field, covering the period until October 2020, and predict emerging trends. This approach provides an exhaustive analysis of 334 papers collected from the Scopus database. Co-word analysis used to identify the conceptual structure reveals four clusters: (1) technological innovation, (2) innovativeness and innovation strategy, (3) knowledge and employee innovative behavior, and (4) performance as an outcome of organizational capability to innovate. The present study contributes to the literature by increasing the accumulation of knowledge on research topics, providing an up-to-date review on hotel innovation literature, and setting forth an agenda for future research. Full article
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Article
Probing the Links between Workforce Diversity, Goal Clarity, and Employee Job Satisfaction in Public Sector Organizations
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030077 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
A considerable body of research substantiating the importance of workforce diversity to public organizations has accrued over the past two decades. However, research on workforce diversity has also been narrow in scope and frequently fails to link diversity to important individual and organizational [...] Read more.
A considerable body of research substantiating the importance of workforce diversity to public organizations has accrued over the past two decades. However, research on workforce diversity has also been narrow in scope and frequently fails to link diversity to important individual and organizational outcomes. Using data (n = 1,109,134 employees from 500 sub-agencies) collected in three waves (2010, 2011, and 2012) of the Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS), this study examines whether (1) increased diversity influences organizational goal clarity, (2) diversity and goal clarity, in turn, influence employee job satisfaction, and (3) diversity management policies influence job satisfaction by clarifying organizational goals for workers. FEVS is administered yearly by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) and is designed to assess whether and to what extent federal employees believe the characteristics of successful organizations are present in their agency. Results from a multi-level structural equation model (MSEM) suggest diversity is associated with greater goal clarity and that diversity management policies, by clarifying organizational goals, positively affect job satisfaction. Findings also indicate that the type of diversity matters. Full article
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Article
Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Organisational Performance: An Analysis in the Malaysian Public Administration
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030076 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2194
Abstract
Organisations have shifted from traditional beliefs to the incorporation of agile methods for attaining high levels of performance through its established goals and objectives. Emotional intelligence (EI) is envisaged to contribute to the achievement of higher levels of performance. With the current global [...] Read more.
Organisations have shifted from traditional beliefs to the incorporation of agile methods for attaining high levels of performance through its established goals and objectives. Emotional intelligence (EI) is envisaged to contribute to the achievement of higher levels of performance. With the current global economic crisis and the pandemic situation, it has become very critical to achieve higher levels of performance with limited resources. Countries confront challenges by way of attaining a higher level of emotional maturity and realisation in order to sail through the current economic storm. The Administrative and Diplomatic Officers (ADOs) are seen to shoulder a heavy responsibility in materialising this shift. This study analyses the impact of EI on organisational performance (OP) in the Malaysian public sector. A survey instrumentation was distributed to 700 ADOs based in Putrajaya, within five selected ministries, obtaining 375 valid responses. The results attained, analysed using the SMART-PLS method, affirm the significant positive effect of EI on OP, suggesting the need for an increase in the EI of civil servants by including EI indicators and measures in the areas of recruitment, learning and development, workforce planning, succession planning, and organisational development. EI should actively be adopted to increase awareness and maturity, which would thus enable civil servants to embrace the current challenging agile environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leadership in the Public Sector: From an International Perspective)
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Article
The Green Deal, National Energy and Climate Plans in Europe: Member States’ Compliance and Strategies
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030075 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2519
Abstract
This paper analyses the EU’s policies for energy and climate, using Börzel’s theoretical framework on Europeanisation, and examines Member States’ Green Deal responses, strategies, and compliance. As expressed in their final NECPs, although Member States’ responses vary, most of the critical components were [...] Read more.
This paper analyses the EU’s policies for energy and climate, using Börzel’s theoretical framework on Europeanisation, and examines Member States’ Green Deal responses, strategies, and compliance. As expressed in their final NECPs, although Member States’ responses vary, most of the critical components were partially addressed, while the others were largely addressed. We observe a considerable variation in Member States’ strategies. Member States classified as foot-dragging beforehand are fence-sitting now, while those previously categorised as fence-sitting are now either foot-dragging or pace-setting. The root cause of these classification changes for the Member States within the EU can be traced back to their internal environments in which the involved stakeholders each have a different response pace regarding environment, climate, and energy. We present and analyse our theoretical context, discuss the EU’s energy policies and the NECPs, examine Member States’ responses and compliance with this new framework, and propose several challenges. Full article
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Article
Public Value Co-Creation in Living Labs—Results from Three Case Studies
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11030074 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
Living Labs—innovation units established to introduce new methods and approaches into public sector organizations—have received a lot of attention as methods for experimentation and open innovation practices in public sector organizations. However, little is known so far about how they co-create public value [...] Read more.
Living Labs—innovation units established to introduce new methods and approaches into public sector organizations—have received a lot of attention as methods for experimentation and open innovation practices in public sector organizations. However, little is known so far about how they co-create public value and which conditions influence these co-creation practices. Therefore, the research questions are: which organizational factors influence the process of public value co-creation and which outcomes and values are produced as a result? The research questions were answered by employing a qualitative research approach conducting semi-structured interviews with employees and participants of three living labs in Germany and Austria. The results show top-level support and lab leadership as the most important context factors. Living labs produce tangible and intangible outcomes. The tangible outcomes are the products developed within the lab, and the intangible outcomes are created by the interaction between the lab’s participants. The main contributions are twofold: first, context factors are identified that lead to the success of co-creation processes within living labs. Second, the study contributes to the literature on public value because it is shown that participation in living labs itself leads to added value in addition to the tangible and intangible outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights of Value Co-creation in Public Sector)
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