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Buildings, Volume 12, Issue 4 (April 2022) – 113 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Solar access in cities provides daylighting, enables passive heating, and supports energy production from, e.g., PV. It also increases our psychobiological wellbeing in buildings and promotes social interaction outdoors, among other benefits. Unfortunately, urban planners are lacking instruments to guarantee proper solar access in neighbourhoods. This article presents a critical overview and a structured taxonomy of existing metrics, discussing their fitness for urban planning purposes. This should assist researchers and practitioners in the pursuit of appropriate solar assessment methods. Future research may rely on this taxonomy to test urban planning metrics that would safeguard adequate solar access in neighbourhoods. View this paper
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20 pages, 8368 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Students’ Competency and Learning Experience in Structural Engineering through Collaborative Building Design Practices
by Yani Rahmawati, Eugenius Pradipto, Zahiraniza Mustaffa, Ashar Saputra, Bashar Sami Mohammed and Christiono Utomo
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040501 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2940
Abstract
The field of the built environment is evolving, whereby the involvement of a multi-disciplinary team in the project becomes necessary. Complexities of issues keep challenging the industry of Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) and address the importance of skills in collaborative work to [...] Read more.
The field of the built environment is evolving, whereby the involvement of a multi-disciplinary team in the project becomes necessary. Complexities of issues keep challenging the industry of Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) and address the importance of skills in collaborative work to deliver a great building design. A building that is not only aesthetic but also durable, sturdy, sustainable, and has positive influences on the surroundings. That said, collaboration skills become essential for students in the field of AEC. Concerning this current need in the industry, it becomes necessary for the educators as well as the undergraduate programs, especially in the field of AEC, to facilitate the students with exposure to a multi-disciplinary environment, to enhance the readiness of their graduates in the industry. The current pandemic makes the efforts harder. This study presents a case study-based research on enhancing the competency and learning experience of students through an international and multi-disciplinary collaborative environment in the form of joint studio assignments involving students of architecture and civil engineering. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches through triangulation methodology were used in the study. Results showed that students could enhance their knowledge as well as their skill to collaborate, especially in the design process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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36 pages, 10487 KiB  
Article
Proposal for the Deployment of an Augmented Reality Tool for Construction Safety Inspection
by Jorge Ramos-Hurtado, Felipe Muñoz-La Rivera, Javier Mora-Serrano, Arnaud Deraemaeker and Ignacio Valero
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040500 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4573
Abstract
The construction site is a hazardous place. The dynamic, complex interaction between workers, machinery, and the environment leads to dangerous risks. In response to such risks, the goal is to fulfill the zero accidents philosophy, which requires the development of safety skills among [...] Read more.
The construction site is a hazardous place. The dynamic, complex interaction between workers, machinery, and the environment leads to dangerous risks. In response to such risks, the goal is to fulfill the zero accidents philosophy, which requires the development of safety skills among workers and the provision of tools for risk prevention. In pursuit of that vision, this work studies collective protective equipment (CPE). Traditional methodologies propose visual inspections using checklists, the effectiveness of which depends on the quality of the inspection by the safety advisor (SA). This paper analyses the traditional process of safety inspections in building projects: the traditional methods, main pain points, and bottlenecks are identified, along with the key performance indicators (KPIs) needed to complete these processes correctly. Because of this, a methodology that digitises the CPE inspection process is proposed. Augmented reality (AR) is used as a 3D viewer with an intuitive interface for the SA, and, accordingly, functional requirements are detailed and different information layers and user interfaces for AR applications are proposed. In addition, the workflow and KPIs are shown. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal, a proof of concept is developed and evaluated. The relevance of this work lies in providing background for the use of AR in safety inspection processes on construction sites and in offering methodological recommendations for the development and evaluation of these applications. Full article
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28 pages, 8190 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Operating Characteristic of a Combined Radiant Floor and Fan Coil Cooling System in a High Humidity Environment
by Xuwei Zhu, Jiying Liu, Xiangyuan Zhu, Xiaole Wang, Yanqiu Du and Jikui Miao
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040499 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2743
Abstract
The combined radiant floor and fan coil cooling (RFCAFC) system is widely used due to its high comfort and large energy saving potential. In this study, as an example, the combined RFCAFC system was studied in a high humidity environment in Jinan, Shandong [...] Read more.
The combined radiant floor and fan coil cooling (RFCAFC) system is widely used due to its high comfort and large energy saving potential. In this study, as an example, the combined RFCAFC system was studied in a high humidity environment in Jinan, Shandong Province, China. The novelty of the combined RFCAFC system lies in its ability to automatically adjust the water supply temperature of the radiant floor and fan coil in real time according to outdoor meteorological conditions, achieving thermal comfort while eliminating the likelihood of condensation on the radiant floor surface. Days with similar outdoor meteorological conditions were grouped, and the comfort level and hourly cooling performance coefficient (EERh) of different operating strategies for different outdoor meteorological conditions were monitored along with other evaluation indicators. The RFCAFC had good energy efficiency and comfort in a high humidity room environment. This study showed that the indoor vertical air temperature difference ranged from 1.6 to 1.8 °C, which met the ASHRAE55-2017 standard. The radiant floor surface temperature uniformity coefficient (S) fluctuated between 0.7 and 1.0, and the time it took the radiant floor surface temperature to reach 63.2% of the total variability range (τ63) for different operation strategies based on different outdoor meteorological conditions ranged between 4.4 and 4.7 h, which was within the normal range. The proportion of the total cooling capacity contributed by fan coil cooling under low temperature and high humidity (LH), high temperature and low humidity (HL), and medium temperature and medium humidity (MM) were 68.0%, 73.8%, and 71.7%, respectively. Based on this study, the following recommendations for the combined cooling system can be made: (1) When the outdoor humidity is high, the radiant floor system should be turned on early to provide cooling capacity. When the outdoor temperature is high, the fan coil system should be turned on early to reduce the indoor temperature. (2) To reduce energy consumption and achieve efficient operation of the system, the radiant floor system should be continuously operated to maximize its contribution to the cooling capacity, while the fan coil can be operated intermittently. Natural cooling can be integrated to provide additional cooling capacity to the room in the hours preceding occupation (i.e., 7:00–9:00). (3) The operation strategy of the combined cooling system must be able to respond in real time to changes in outdoor meteorological conditions to prevent discomfort in times of extreme heat or humidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Environmental Quality and Occupant Comfort)
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14 pages, 3363 KiB  
Article
Major Building Materials in Terms of Environmental Impact Evaluation of School Buildings in South Korea
by Hyojin Lim, Sungho Tae and Seungjun Roh
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040498 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2806
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the major building materials in terms of environmental impact evaluation of school buildings in South Korea. Three existing school buildings were selected as the analysis targets, and building materials were analyzed in terms of cumulative weight and six [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the major building materials in terms of environmental impact evaluation of school buildings in South Korea. Three existing school buildings were selected as the analysis targets, and building materials were analyzed in terms of cumulative weight and six environmental impact categories (global warming potential, abiotic depletion potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, ozone-layer depletion potential, and photochemical oxidation potential). The materials were analyzed from an environmental perspective after integrating the six environmental impact categories into the environmental costs. From the analysis, nine major building materials, including ready-mixed concrete, concrete bricks, aggregate, rebar, cement, stone, glass, insulating materials, and wood, were selected for the school buildings. These analysis results can be used as a streamlined evaluation of the environmental impacts of school buildings. It is thought that the simplified life cycle assessment will help make decisions considering environmental characteristics in the early stage of the construction project. Additionally, it will be possible to make LCA efficient in terms of time and cost, one of the largest constraints of the existing building LCA, and effective reduction in the environmental load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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28 pages, 7828 KiB  
Article
Improving Life Cycle Sustainability and Profitability of Buildings through Optimization: A Case Study
by Farshid Shadram and Jani Mukkavaara
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040497 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2434
Abstract
Building developers are continuously seeking solutions to increase saleable/rentable floor area and thus the profitability of investments, especially in large/dense cities where the real estate/rental values are high and shortage of available land results in smaller building footprints. Application of passive energy efficiency [...] Read more.
Building developers are continuously seeking solutions to increase saleable/rentable floor area and thus the profitability of investments, especially in large/dense cities where the real estate/rental values are high and shortage of available land results in smaller building footprints. Application of passive energy efficiency measures (e.g., thick insulation in walls) not only affects the life cycle sustainability of buildings, but also the floor area and its profitability. This can affect the decisions made on the choice of measures when aiming to improve sustainability. In line with limited studies in this context, a case study is presented here in which multi-objective optimization was used to explore the impact of various passive energy efficiency measures on the life cycle sustainability when accounting for the profitability of the floor area. The building case was a high-rise apartment based on a standardized building concept situated in different locations in Sweden, namely Vindeln, Gothenburg, and Stockholm. The findings indicated that, regardless of the location, use of (1) thick cellulose coating for the roof, and (2) moderately thick expanded polystyrene for the floor, were necessary to improve the life cycle sustainability. However, the optimal wall insulation was dependent on the location; in locations with high real estate values, the scope for using thick and conventional insulations (mineral wool/cellulose) was limited due to the significant economic loss caused by floor area reductions. In general, the optimization identified optimal solutions that could save up to 1410.7 GJ energy, 23 tonnes CO2e, and 248.4 TEUR cost from a life cycle perspective relative to the building’s initial design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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15 pages, 1053 KiB  
Article
Influence of Organisational Culture on Total Quality Management Implementation in the Australian Construction Industry
by Carla Coelho, Mohammad Mojtahedi, Kamyar Kabirifar and Maziar Yazdani
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040496 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6317
Abstract
This study explores the relationship between organisational culture and total quality management (TQM) implementation in Australia, with the purpose of identifying the particular culture that dominants the Australian construction industry, and distinguishing which cultures determine the successful implementation of TQM. Although the application [...] Read more.
This study explores the relationship between organisational culture and total quality management (TQM) implementation in Australia, with the purpose of identifying the particular culture that dominants the Australian construction industry, and distinguishing which cultures determine the successful implementation of TQM. Although the application of the competing values framework (CVF) for evaluating organisational culture (OC) in the construction industry has been studied by some scholars, research into OC and its impact on TQM procedures in connection to the CVF in project-based industries such as construction has received less attention. Thus, this research intends to determine the relationship between OC and TQM regarding the CVF in the Australian construction industry. The research methodology used the validated organisational culture assessment instrument (OCAI) CVF to frame OC, and TQM practices identified from the literature review. An online questionnaire was distributed through Qualtrics, whereby 42 valid responses representing various construction organisations in Australia were analysed through IBM SPSS Statistics 26 through endorsing k-means cluster analysis, and analysis of variance. The findings support that Australian construction organisations are dominated by the market and external focused cultures according to the CVF of organisational classification. Furthermore, the findings acknowledge that organisations that are dominated by hierarchical cultural characterises could provide an unfavourable environment for the successful implementation of TQM. Whilst an organisation that obtains a mix of cultures, specifically with the adhocracy and market cultures dominating could provide a favourable environment for the successful implementation of TQM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Management and Disaster Risk Management)
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20 pages, 1871 KiB  
Article
Energy Production of Solar DSF for Ceiling-Mounted Localized Air Distribution Systems in a Virtual Classroom
by Eusébio Conceição, João Gomes, Maria Manuela Lúcio and Hazim Awbi
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040495 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1778
Abstract
This paper presents an application of energy production in a solar Double Skin Facade (DSF) used in a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for a ceiling-mounted localized air distribution systems in a virtual classroom. In this numerical work, a virtual classroom, an [...] Read more.
This paper presents an application of energy production in a solar Double Skin Facade (DSF) used in a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for a ceiling-mounted localized air distribution systems in a virtual classroom. In this numerical work, a virtual classroom, an inlet ceiling-mounted localized air distribution system, an exhaust ventilation system, and a DSF system are considered. The numerical simulations consider an integral building thermal response (BTR) and a coupling of an integral human thermal-physiology response (HTR) and differential computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The BTR numerical model calculates, among other parameters, the DSF indoor air temperature and energy production. The HTR numerical model calculates, among other parameters, the human thermal comfort. The CFD numerical model, among other parameters, calculates the indoor air quality. In this study which is performed for winter conditions, the energy produced in the DSF is used for driving the HVAC system. Six different airflow rates are used. The air temperature and energy production in the DSF are also evaluated. The influence of the airflow rate on the HVAC system performance is evaluated by the Air Distribution Index for mid-morning and mid-afternoon conditions. The results show that energy production reduces when the airflow increases and the operating point can be selected using the acceptable levels of thermal comfort and air quality levels or using the maximum Air Distribution Index value. In this study, the application of the thermal comfort and air quality levels criteria demonstrates that the HVAC system uses an optimum airflow rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy in Buildings)
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19 pages, 8081 KiB  
Article
Influence of Treatment Methods of Recycled Concrete Aggregate on Behavior of High Strength Concrete
by Ali S. Alqarni, Husain Abbas, Khattab M. Al-Shwikh and Yousef A. Al-Salloum
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040494 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2861
Abstract
Worldwide the concrete industry has started embracing the utilization of recycled concrete aggregates (RCAs) resulting from demolition and construction waste as full or partial substituents in the production of high-strength concrete (HSC) due to their economic and environmental benefits. Several parameters were experimentally [...] Read more.
Worldwide the concrete industry has started embracing the utilization of recycled concrete aggregates (RCAs) resulting from demolition and construction waste as full or partial substituents in the production of high-strength concrete (HSC) due to their economic and environmental benefits. Several parameters were experimentally investigated in this study. The first parameter analyzed the effect of replacing varying percentages of coarse aggregate with recycled aggregate. The second parameter examined the influence of two aggregate sizes (10 and 20 mm). The third parameter was intended for investigating the influence of three different RCA treatment methods utilizing sodium silicate immersion, cement slurry, and the Los Angeles (LA) abrasion simulation. The test results generally indicated degradation in the engineering properties of concrete produced using untreated RCA compared to the control. The degree of reduction increased as the replacement percentage was increased regardless of the aggregate size. The reduction in compressive strength appeared to have a more pronounced effect in comparison to the splitting tensile strength. The use of treated RCA improved concrete slump by 15–35%. This also caused enhancement in the engineering properties, especially for the LA abrasion mechanical treatment, which was very promising for both aggregate sizes. In comparison with the untreated RCA, the relative enhancement in water absorption was up to 76%, whereas splitting tensile and compressive strengths increased by 3–50% and 5–60%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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17 pages, 7181 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Ventilation Systems to Improve Air Quality in the Occupied Zone in Office Buildings
by Szabolcs Szekeres, Attila Kostyák, Ferenc Szodrai and Imre Csáky
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040493 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2617
Abstract
As a result of COVID-19, many office buildings around the world have downsized their employees, but the comfort parameters in the building had to be kept. The facilities operation rearranged the workstations to keep physical distance and placed plexiglass sheets on the desks [...] Read more.
As a result of COVID-19, many office buildings around the world have downsized their employees, but the comfort parameters in the building had to be kept. The facilities operation rearranged the workstations to keep physical distance and placed plexiglass sheets on the desks for physical protection. A series of measurements have been carried out with workstation set-ups to examine the fresh air rate in the occupied zone. The effect of plexiglass sheets placed on the desks was also examined to see how it changes the airflow pattern in the occupied zone. As the sheets act as a barrier, the primary air does not reach the occupied zone, therefore, the fresh air rate is less. To modify the properties of the ceiling diffusers a new air-ventilation service element was developed. This attachment allows modifying the properties of the ceiling diffusers. Simulations were made at the relevant zones to validate the measurements. Based on design software, the fresh air ratio for a standard ceiling swirl diffuser is 2.46 v% (volume percentage). A numerical model was used to show the fresh air ratio with the system elements for the two different table arrangements, which were 18.3 v% and 21.4 v%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Indoor Environments and Respiratory Health)
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23 pages, 10094 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Smartphone-Based Public Participation in Earthquake Structural Response Emergency Monitoring Using a Virtual Experiment and AI
by Huan Li, Xixian Chen, Hongliang Chen, Bowen Wang, Weijie Li, Shenglan Liu, Peng Li, Zuoqiu Qi, Zheng He and Xuefeng Zhao
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040492 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2358
Abstract
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is of great significance for post-earthquake damage assessment. Smartphone-based monitoring techniques provide the possibility to perform crowdsensing for all buildings in urban regions after an earthquake. However, this idea still faces many difficulties and is hard to realize. Fortunately, [...] Read more.
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is of great significance for post-earthquake damage assessment. Smartphone-based monitoring techniques provide the possibility to perform crowdsensing for all buildings in urban regions after an earthquake. However, this idea still faces many difficulties and is hard to realize. Fortunately, the development of game engines provides the opportunity for simulating this kind of experiment. The main objective of this study was to use Unity to simulate the whole process when a city is struck by an earthquake that consists of one main shock and one aftershock. During the emergency response, the citizens and the “city brain” in Unity, named Ground Eye, cooperate to finish the task of taking refuge and collecting data for regional damage assessment. Some basic assumptions were made first. Then the city model was established in Unity, and the behaviors of the citizens were directed by the behavior tree artificial intelligence (AI). OpenSees was utilized to determine the monitoring demand and simulate the monitoring results. A GUI was built to exhibit the data during the whole process. The results show that the evacuation and monitoring plan is feasible. The simulation framework presented in this paper can be used in other SHM application scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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11 pages, 10465 KiB  
Article
Influence of Water-Binder Ratio on the Mechanical Strength and Microstructure of Arch Shell Interface Transition Zone
by Tao He, Weiheng Xiang, Jian Zhang, Cheng Hu, Gaozhan Zhang and Bin Kou
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040491 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
To prepare lightweight ultra high performance concretes used in the large-span and super-tall structure engineering fields, the effects of water-binder ratio on the mechanical performances, hydration products, and microstructure of the arched shell interface transition zone between the prewetting spherical lightweight aggregates and [...] Read more.
To prepare lightweight ultra high performance concretes used in the large-span and super-tall structure engineering fields, the effects of water-binder ratio on the mechanical performances, hydration products, and microstructure of the arched shell interface transition zone between the prewetting spherical lightweight aggregates and cement matrix were studied. The experimental results showed that adding prewetting spherical lightweight aggregates promoted the formation of an arched shell interface transition zone. And the hydration degree, microhardness, and elastic modulus values of the arched shell interface transition zone were still higher than the cement matrix. With the reduction of the water-binder ratio, the microhardness, elastic modulus, thickness, and compactness of the interface transition zone had an increase, and the internal curing action of the prewetting spherical lightweight aggregates was more obvious. Especially when the water-binder ratio was 0.18, the hydration degree of the arch shell interface transition zone increased by 18.27% compared with the cement matrix after 28 days curing time. It was concluded that the prewetting spherical lightweight aggregates could have better internal curing and arched shell effects in cement-based materials with a low water-binder ratio. Therefore, adding prewetting spherical lightweight aggregates was regarded as a potential measure to fabricate the lightweight ultra high performance concretes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Eco-Friendly Cementitious Materials)
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26 pages, 3163 KiB  
Article
Development of an Open Government Data (OGD) Evaluation Framework for BIM
by Jong Jin Park, Eonyong Kim and Han Jong Jun
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040490 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3228
Abstract
Open government data (OGD) provide an opportunity for developing various services by disclosing information monopolized by the government to the public so that the private sector can use it. The private sector is utilizing this to improve the work efficiency and productivity by [...] Read more.
Open government data (OGD) provide an opportunity for developing various services by disclosing information monopolized by the government to the public so that the private sector can use it. The private sector is utilizing this to improve the work efficiency and productivity by collecting, analyzing, and reprocessing OGD for various work steps of a BIM-based design project. However, most studies on OGD focus on the functionality and usability of data portals and the factors for evaluating the data itself such as openness, accountability, and transparency. This study aims to provide an evaluation framework for OGD for the AEC industry to assess the data utilization environment in order to improve the productivity of BIM-based projects. Several OGD principles found within related literature are discussed, and from them we extract evaluation framework levels. Then, we validate the proposed framework by applying it to a case of developing a BIM-based design support system using OGD datasets. This research concludes by suggesting that to effectively utilize OGD in the construction industry, the private sector should simply view data after collecting them, create an institutional environment for creating new values by reprocessing data, and build an active data utilization roadmap based on this environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Support Systems for the Digital Built Environment)
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20 pages, 457 KiB  
Article
Impacts of COVID-19 on the Use of Digital Technology in Construction Projects in the UAE
by Omar Elrefaey, Salma Ahmed, Irtishad Ahmad and Sameh El-Sayegh
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040489 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5006
Abstract
The construction industry has been incorporating digital technology over the last two decades, albeit gradually, as “technology-push” continues to overcome customary and traditional passivity typical in the sector. The objective of the study presented in this paper is to investigate how digital technology [...] Read more.
The construction industry has been incorporating digital technology over the last two decades, albeit gradually, as “technology-push” continues to overcome customary and traditional passivity typical in the sector. The objective of the study presented in this paper is to investigate how digital technology is making a headway in the construction industry as a consequence of COVID-19. For the purpose of this paper, digital technology applications are divided into three groups: data acquisition, processing, and communication. The methodology involved conducting a questionnaire survey among the construction professionals in the UAE. The survey included questions on the extent of use and level of investment on the three types of technology in three periods—pre-COVID, during COVID, and post-COVID. The results clearly show the increasing level of usage of digital technology in the construction industry from pre-COVID to during COVID and post-COVID periods. Among the three categories, communication technology indicated higher extent of use as compared to the other two. In addition, a marked difference was observed between the “small” project organizations and the “large” ones. Unsurprisingly, both usage and investment in digital technology, in smaller organizations, indicated higher extent of increase in during and post-pandemic periods when compared to the larger organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tradition and Innovation in Construction Project Management)
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19 pages, 7554 KiB  
Article
A Seismic Checking Method of Engineering Structures Based on the Stochastic Semi-Physical Model of Seismic Ground Motions
by Yanqiong Ding, Yazhou Xu and Huiquan Miao
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040488 - 14 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2064
Abstract
A seismic checking method of engineering structures based on the stochastic semi-physical model of seismic ground motions is developed. Four groups of stochastic ground motions are generated using the stochastic semi-physical model of seismic ground motions. In conjunction with the probability density evolution [...] Read more.
A seismic checking method of engineering structures based on the stochastic semi-physical model of seismic ground motions is developed. Four groups of stochastic ground motions are generated using the stochastic semi-physical model of seismic ground motions. In conjunction with the probability density evolution method (PDEM) and the idea of the equivalent extreme-value event, the dynamic reliabilities of an engineering structure are evaluated. The dynamic reliability of the structure is taken as an index for seismic checking. A five-story reinforced concrete frame structure is analyzed using both the response spectrum method and the proposed method. Some features of the instantaneous probability density function (PDF) and its evolution, the extreme value distribution, and the dynamic reliability are discussed and compared with the results of the response spectrum method in the Chinese seismic code. The seismic checking results of the response spectrum method show that the structure is safe, while the results of the proposed method reveal a failure probability as high as 35.39%. Moreover, the structure has such different reliabilities when it is excited by different groups of simulated seismic ground motions. It reveals that a structure designed according to the seismic code may carry a high risk of failure. The proposed method provides a more accurate way for the evaluation of the reliabilities of engineering structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uncertainty Propagation of Complex Engineering Structures/Systems)
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34 pages, 10284 KiB  
Review
Influence of Elevated Temperatures on the Mechanical Performance of Sustainable-Fiber-Reinforced Recycled Aggregate Concrete: A Review
by Wisal Ahmed, C. W. Lim and Arslan Akbar
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040487 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3660
Abstract
In recent times, the applications of fiber-reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (FRAC) in practical engineering have gained greater popularity due to its superior mechanical strength and fracture properties. To apply FRAC in buildings and other infrastructures, a thorough understanding of its residual mechanical properties [...] Read more.
In recent times, the applications of fiber-reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (FRAC) in practical engineering have gained greater popularity due to its superior mechanical strength and fracture properties. To apply FRAC in buildings and other infrastructures, a thorough understanding of its residual mechanical properties and durability after exposure to fire is highly important. According to the established research, the properties and volume fractions of reinforcing fiber materials, replacement levels of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), and heating condition would affect the thermal–mechanical properties of FRAC. This review paper aims to present a thorough and updated review of the mechanical performance at an elevated temperature and post-fire durability of FRAC reinforced with various types of fiber material, specifically steel fiber (SF), polypropylene (PP) fiber, and basalt fiber (BF). More explicitly, in this review article the residual mechanical properties of FRAC, such as compressive strength, splitting tensile capacity, modulus of elasticity, mass loss, spalling, and durability after exposure to elevated temperatures, are discussed. Furthermore, this study also encompasses the relationship among the dosages of fibers, replacement levels of recycled aggregate, and the relative residual mechanical properties of FRAC that would help in the optimum selection of the fiber content. Conclusively, this study elaborately reviews and summarizes the relevant and recent literature on recycled aggregate concrete containing SF, PP fiber, and BF. The study further provides a realistic comparison of these fibers in terms of the residual mechanical performance and durability of FRAC that would help in their future enhancements and applications in practical engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sustainable Materials in Buildings)
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16 pages, 1886 KiB  
Article
Selection of Low-Carbon Building Materials in Construction Projects: Construction Professionals’ Perspectives
by Melissa Chan, Md. Asrul Nasid Masrom and Suleiman Said Yasin
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040486 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5480
Abstract
The construction sector in Malaysia has been facing challenges in productivity due to the increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study aims to enhance the usage of low-carbon building materials among construction professionals so that the carbon emission and GHG can be [...] Read more.
The construction sector in Malaysia has been facing challenges in productivity due to the increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study aims to enhance the usage of low-carbon building materials among construction professionals so that the carbon emission and GHG can be reduced during the early stage of construction. The scope of this research involved main parties in the Malaysian construction industry, represented by fifty professionals including contractors, consultants, and architects with a focus on low-carbon building materials. Procedures in this study involved a literature review on low-carbon building materials in the construction industry followed by a questionnaire survey with analysis using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Major study findings indicated that there is a significant need for increasing the awareness of low-carbon building materials, as this is vital to introduce the concept of sustainable development and consequently cutting down carbon emissions to all parties working in construction. The study also suggested that barriers in adoption also prevent alternative material choices as a means of mitigating embodied carbon emissions. Many of these barriers are common across materials with uptake restricted by lack of demonstration projects, regulation, high costs, shortage of skilled labor, lack of design knowledge, time constraints, and lack of knowledge on LCA. The results are significant as the construction industry can seek to overcome these barriers by providing more information on material performance, design training on alternative materials, cost reduction on low-carbon materials, and more demonstration projects as well as case studies. From the work in this study, the industry must also share the knowledge on embodied carbon and implement regulations that will limit embodied carbon. The industry must adopt a business case strategy in encouraging greater value in assessment schemes to adopt low carbon building materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings)
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18 pages, 2191 KiB  
Article
The Capitalization of School Quality in Rents in the Beijing Housing Market: A Propensity Score Matching Method
by Zisheng Song
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040485 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
In China, the capitalization of education resources in housing prices has been widely discussed. However, insufficient attention is paid to it in rents. Thus, this paper mainly aims to identify the capitalization of school quality in rents. It estimates a hedonic treatment effects [...] Read more.
In China, the capitalization of education resources in housing prices has been widely discussed. However, insufficient attention is paid to it in rents. Thus, this paper mainly aims to identify the capitalization of school quality in rents. It estimates a hedonic treatment effects model by introducing the propensity score matching (PSM) method. The empirical analysis is based on 49,438 rental transaction data of 2016–2018 in Beijing, China. It finds that school quality can be significantly capitalized in rents across different school quality (ranked as 1st-class, 2nd-class, and popular-class), space, and time. Besides, quality school density (the number of quality schools) within neighborhoods can significantly moderate the nearest school’s capitalization, promoting a 3.5% capitalization increase in outer municipal districts but a 3% decrease in inner districts. The popular-class schools can be capitalized into the rent of inner districts, probably because of other exogenous factors (e.g., housing prices, public transit). In addition, the equitable housing policy might show a potential risk in worsening social inequality between homeowners and renters in the municipal areas with high competition for 1st-class schools. In contrast, it may remedy such inequality in outer districts with less competition for quality schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Housing and Real Estate Economics)
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19 pages, 3495 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Construction Risks on the Cost and Duration of a Project
by Azariy Lapidus, Dmitriy Topchiy, Tatyana Kuzmina and Otari Chapidze
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040484 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2640
Abstract
Recent years have witnessed active construction of multi-storey residential buildings. The scale of construction, its timing and limitations in financing contribute to the emergence of risk factors affecting the key parameters of cost and duration of projects. The purpose of this research is [...] Read more.
Recent years have witnessed active construction of multi-storey residential buildings. The scale of construction, its timing and limitations in financing contribute to the emergence of risk factors affecting the key parameters of cost and duration of projects. The purpose of this research is to develop the most effective mathematical model to reveal, study and estimate in a timely manner the influence of risk factors on stable implementation of a construction project during its life cycle. The mathematical model of the study is based on the theory of fuzzy sets, including 25 rules used to estimate the influence of a risk factor. An expert survey of leading specialists in the construction industry was performed and risk factors distributed over the stages of the life cycle were listed. Risk factors affecting the sustainability of the life cycle of a multi-storey residential building were identified and ranked. The result of the study shows that the application of the mathematical model will significantly increase the success of construction projects by identifying the critical risk factors in the phases of their life cycle. Since the proposed model is relatively new in Russia, it should be considered as a starting point for a new assessment of the impact of risk factors on projects. The methodology can be improved, and many aspects are still to be analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Construction and Project Management)
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15 pages, 2331 KiB  
Article
A Simplified Thermal Comfort Calculation Method of Radiant Floor Cooling Technology for Office Buildings in Northern China
by Xiaolong Wang, Tian Mu, Lili Zhang, Wenke Zhang and Linhua Zhang
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040483 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2019
Abstract
The increasing application of floor heating technology promotes the development of floor radiant cooling technology (abbreviated as FRC technology). Many office buildings in northern China try to use FRC technology to cool in summer, but thermal comfort is the key problem restricting the [...] Read more.
The increasing application of floor heating technology promotes the development of floor radiant cooling technology (abbreviated as FRC technology). Many office buildings in northern China try to use FRC technology to cool in summer, but thermal comfort is the key problem restricting the promotion of this technology. The thermal comfort problems of an office room with floor radiant cooling were studied in this paper by the methods of numerical simulation, control variable, and data fitting, and the experimental results were verified in multiple ways. It was found that, for an office room using floor radiant cooling, the effect of the floor surface temperature on thermal comfort was about 16%, while the effect of indoor air temperature was about 84%, and relative humidity had little effect on thermal comfort. A simplified thermal comfort calculation model was proposed, which could be used as an indicator to adjust the floor surface and indoor air temperature, or could be used to calculate the PMV-PPD value. The findings have guiding significance for the design and control of FRC technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Environmental Quality and Occupant Comfort)
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20 pages, 6629 KiB  
Article
A Scientometric Analysis and Systematic Literature Review for Construction Project Complexity
by Hassan Ghaleb, Hamed Hamdan Alhajlah, Abdul Aziz Bin Abdullah, Mukhtar A. Kassem and Mohammed A. Al-Sharafi
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040482 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 10584
Abstract
The construction industry has been experiencing a rapid increase in complex projects for the last two decades. Simultaneously, project complexity has received more attention from academics and practitioners worldwide. Many studies suggest that perceiving complexity is critical for successful construction project management. This [...] Read more.
The construction industry has been experiencing a rapid increase in complex projects for the last two decades. Simultaneously, project complexity has received more attention from academics and practitioners worldwide. Many studies suggest that perceiving complexity is critical for successful construction project management. This study investigates the current status and future trends in construction project complexity (CPC) literature from the Scopus database. This review systematically uses bibliometric and scientometric methods through co-occurrence and co-citation analysis. First, 644 academic documents were retrieved from the Scopus database. Then, co-occurrence and co-citation analysis were performed along with network visualization to examine research interconnections’ patterns. As a result, relevant keywords, productive authors, and important journals have been highlighted. The prominent research topics within the literature on construction project complexity focus on the following topics: identifying and measuring project complexity, schedule performance and cost estimation, system integration and dynamic capabilities, and risk assessment and uncertainty. Finally, the potential research directions are developing towards safety performance, organizational resilience, and integrated project delivery (IPD). The study still has a limitation. The review focuses only on the academic documents retrieved from the Scopus database, thus restricting the coverage of the reviewed literature relating to construction project complexity. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is the first study that provides a systematic review of the literature from the Scopus database on construction project complexity. Full article
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16 pages, 8294 KiB  
Article
Behavior of Corroded Thin-Walled Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Stub Columns
by Wen Xue, Ju Chen, Fang Xie, Changhu Ye and Chengbin Liu
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040481 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
The behavior of two series of corroded thin-walled concrete-filled steel tubes (CFSTs) was investigated in this paper. One series, called the CT series, consists of fourteen CFST specimens corroded by NaCl solution, while the other, called the AT series, consists of six test [...] Read more.
The behavior of two series of corroded thin-walled concrete-filled steel tubes (CFSTs) was investigated in this paper. One series, called the CT series, consists of fourteen CFST specimens corroded by NaCl solution, while the other, called the AT series, consists of six test pieces corroded in the atmosphere. Outer surfaces of corroded steel tubes were scanned using a 3D scanner machine, and a complete surface profile of each specimen was obtained for corrosion evaluation using different methods in this study. Entire test pieces were compressed to failure, and their behaviors under loading were recorded. It is shown that corrosion has a fractal feature, and it has a significant effect on the ductility of specimens. In addition, FEA models of corroded CFST specimens were established based on the 3D scanning profile results using the ABAQUS program and verified against column test results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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14 pages, 570 KiB  
Article
A Multilayer Perception for Estimating the Overall Risk of Residential Projects in the Conceptual Stage
by Mohamed Badawy, Fahad K. Alqahtani and Mohamed Sherif
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040480 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
The ability to foresee hazards early plays a critical role in estimating the entire cost of a project. Although several studies have established models to predict the total cost of a project at a conceptual stage, there remains a research vacuum in measuring [...] Read more.
The ability to foresee hazards early plays a critical role in estimating the entire cost of a project. Although several studies have established models to predict the total cost of a project at a conceptual stage, there remains a research vacuum in measuring the overall risk at this stage. Using artificial neural networks, this research provides a strategy for estimating the overall risk in residential projects at the conceptual stage. There are eight important components in the suggested paradigm. The model was created using data from 149 projects. In the first hidden layer in the model, there are five neurons, and in the second hidden layer, there are three neurons. The suggested model’s mean absolute error rate was 11.7%. In the conceptual stage of residential projects, the number of floors, the type of interior finishes, and the implementation of risk management processes are the significant aspects that influence the overall risk. The proposed model assists project managers in precisely estimating the project’s overall risk, which leads to a more accurate estimation of the contract’s entire worth at the conceptual stage, allowing the stakeholders to decide whether or not to proceed with the project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Construction and Project Management)
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17 pages, 4769 KiB  
Article
Apparent Quality and Service Performance Evaluation of SCFFC in Tunnel Secondary Lining
by Caijin Xie, Tiejun Tao and Keyu Huang
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040479 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
After removing the mold from the secondary lining concrete of a tunnel, problems such as honeycomb and hemp surface easily occur. To obtain self-compacting fair-faced concrete (SCFFC) that can meet strength requirements and effectively solve the above problems, this research prepared SCFFC with [...] Read more.
After removing the mold from the secondary lining concrete of a tunnel, problems such as honeycomb and hemp surface easily occur. To obtain self-compacting fair-faced concrete (SCFFC) that can meet strength requirements and effectively solve the above problems, this research prepared SCFFC with different mix proportions and performed slump expansion, slump, J-ring expansion and mechanical tests. Additionally, this research comprehensively analyzed the SCFFC based on fuzzy mathematics to study its apparent quality and service performance. This research aimed to solve problems such as uneven bubbles and poor bubble diameter in C30 SCFFC, through a combination of defoaming and air entraining by adding defoamer and air-entraining agent according to different proportions for compound treatment. The defoamer dosage was 0.5‰ of that of water reducer, and the air-entraining agent dosage was 0.1‰ of that of cement. The workability and clearance passability of the concrete were optimal. At the same time, the apparent holes in the SCFFC were small, as were their area and quantity. The distribution and apparent color of the SCFFC were uniform. Considering the factors affecting the service performance of concrete and after a comprehensive analysis of the samples’ weights, subjection degree, variability, stability, and strength index, this research found that the ratio for obtaining a C30 SCFFC material with the highest apparent quality and service performance was as follows: cement:machine-made sand:crushed dtone:fly-ash:water = 4:8.6:9.3:1:2.2. The water reducer comprised 1.0% of the total mass of the cementitious materials. The defoamer dosage was 0.5‰ of that of water reducer, and the dosage of air-entraining agent was 0.1‰ of that of cement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advanced Concrete Materials in Construction)
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19 pages, 2256 KiB  
Article
Research on Factors Influencing Intelligent Construction Development: An Empirical Study in China
by Tao Li, Xiaoli Yan, Wenping Guo and Feifei Zhu
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040478 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2501
Abstract
Intelligent construction (IC) is an innovative development model of the construction industry in which construction is integrated with digital technologies against the backdrop of the new technological revolution. The development of IC involves many influencing factors which are actively promoting IC development. However, [...] Read more.
Intelligent construction (IC) is an innovative development model of the construction industry in which construction is integrated with digital technologies against the backdrop of the new technological revolution. The development of IC involves many influencing factors which are actively promoting IC development. However, investigations focusing on identifying and examining the relationships among the factors necessary for IC development are limited. In contributing to bridging this gap, this paper investigated and analyzed influencing factors for IC development by developing structural equation modeling (SEM) based on 5 variables and 28 measures, including (1) identifying the factors and examining their influence on IC development in China and (2) clarifying the paths and key measures for successful IC development. The results showed that (1) the three variables of government, company, and technology had a direct and significant impact on the development of IC, (2) the three variables of industry, company, and technology actually formed a “closed-loop” within which they interact and promote each other, and (3) it was widely realized and accepted that IC development has bright prospects in China. Furthermore, four paths for IC development were obtained and the key measures of the five variables were further analyzed. This research contributes to the body of knowledge on IC by identifying the factors influencing IC development. The four paths and key measures were proposed to clarify the relationship between factors. Recommendations were put forward to promote IC development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent and Computer Technologies Application in Construction)
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23 pages, 8887 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of the Factors Influencing the Performance of the Bonding Interface between Epoxy Asphalt Concrete Pavement and a Steel Bridge Deck
by Zhengxiong Chen, Wei Xu, Jian Zhao, Luming An, Feng Wang, Zizhan Du and Qiang Chen
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040477 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2185
Abstract
The bonding between pavement and a steel bridge deck is a key component affecting the structural integrity of steel deck pavement and delamination is a major cause. The bonding interface of steel deck pavement was systematically investigated to evaluate the interactive influences of [...] Read more.
The bonding between pavement and a steel bridge deck is a key component affecting the structural integrity of steel deck pavement and delamination is a major cause. The bonding interface of steel deck pavement was systematically investigated to evaluate the interactive influences of factors, such as the air void of the asphalt concrete pavement, the surface roughness of the steel deck, the thickness of the zinc-rich epoxy primer, and the waterproof bonding membrane, on the bond strength of the pavement interface, through simulated loading, brine immersion, pull-off, and interface observation experiments. The results show that a low air void (<3.0%) was a necessary condition for the corrosion resistance and bonding reliability of the steel deck pavement structure, and a zinc-rich epoxy primer provided an additional guarantee for corrosion resistance of the steel deck pavement; additionally, the combination of steel deck plate roughness in the range of 120–140 μm and zinc-rich epoxy primer thickness in the range of 80–110 μm led to a high bond strength, which was also conducive to the corrosion resistance of the steel bridge plate. The steel deck pavement structure should be designed through combinatorial optimization of multiple factors to create an integrated waterproof and anticorrosion bonding system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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14 pages, 3210 KiB  
Article
Outdoor Wind Comfort and Adaptation in a Cold Region
by Meng Zhen, Zilin Chen and Rui Zheng
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040476 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
The outdoor wind comfort is important for evaluations of the urban wind environment. The existing wind comfort criteria are based on the correlations between wind parameters, human activity levels, and wind comfort level categories. These criteria vary among different climates and regions, and [...] Read more.
The outdoor wind comfort is important for evaluations of the urban wind environment. The existing wind comfort criteria are based on the correlations between wind parameters, human activity levels, and wind comfort level categories. These criteria vary among different climates and regions, and they are influenced by meteorological parameters and human wind adaptation. In this study, an outdoor wind comfort questionnaire survey was conducted and meteorological measurements were collected in Xi’an, which is located in the cold region of China. The square and lake side were chosen as the test sites. The mean wind sensation vote (MWSV) and wind speed of neutral wind sensation were used as indexes to analyze the correlation between outdoor wind comfort and human wind adaptation. The results showed that the wind sensation level was generally moderate. At −1 < MWSV < 1, the fluctuations in the wind speed had little effect on the wind sensation, but when MWSV > 1 or MWSV < −1, the degree of discomfort increased as the absolute value of MWSV increased. When the wind speed exceeded 1 m/s, the amount of clothing insulation was greatly increased. The metabolic rate fluctuated between 1.5 met and 2 met. Expectations that the wind speed in the winter would be less than 1.05 m/s were greater than expectations that the wind speed would be more than 1.05 m/s in the summer, and people generally adapted to a low wind environment with wind speeds below 1 m/s. The acceptable wind ranges for more than 90% of participants at the square and lake side were (0 m/s, 2.02 m/s) and (0.01 m/s, 2.86 m/s). This study provides support for the revision of outdoor wind comfort standards and a methodological basis for outdoor wind comfort research at the same latitude throughout the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Comfort in Built Environment)
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23 pages, 6936 KiB  
Article
An Innovative Modelling Approach Based on Building Physics and Machine Learning for the Prediction of Indoor Thermal Comfort in an Office Building
by Giovanni Tardioli, Ricardo Filho, Pierre Bernaud and Dimitrios Ntimos
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040475 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3205
Abstract
The estimation of indoor thermal comfort and the associated occupant feedback in office buildings is important to provide satisfactory and safe working environments, enhance the productivity of personnel, and to reduce complaints. The assessment of thermal comfort is a difficult task due to [...] Read more.
The estimation of indoor thermal comfort and the associated occupant feedback in office buildings is important to provide satisfactory and safe working environments, enhance the productivity of personnel, and to reduce complaints. The assessment of thermal comfort is a difficult task due to many environmental, physiological, and cultural variables that influence occupants’ thermal perception and the way they judge their working environment. Traditional physics-based methods for evaluating thermal comfort have shown shortcomings when compared to actual responses from the occupants due to the incapacity of these methods to incorporate information of various natures. In this paper, a hybrid approach based on machine learning and building dynamic simulation is presented for the prediction of indoor thermal comfort feedback in an office building in Le Bour-get-du-Lac, Chambéry, France. The office was equipped with Internet of Things (IoT) environmental sensors. Occupant feedback on thermal comfort was collected during an experimental campaign. A calibrated building energy model was created for the building. Various machine learning models were trained using information from the occupants, environmental data, and data extracted from the calibrated dynamic simulation model for the prediction of thermal comfort votes. When compared to traditional predictive approaches, the proposed method shows an increase in accuracy of about 25%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings: 10th Anniversary)
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22 pages, 4519 KiB  
Review
Textile-Reinforced Concrete as a Structural Member: A Review
by Sanjay Gokul Venigalla, Abu Bakar Nabilah, Noor Azline Mohd Nasir, Nor Azizi Safiee and Farah Nora Aznieta Abd Aziz
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040474 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 7326
Abstract
Textile-reinforced concrete (TRC) is a form of reinforced concrete, where conventional reinforcement is replaced with textiles or fibers. The high tenacity of the textile fibers results in flexible and durable concrete structures. The literature has been limited to TRC applications in retrofitting and [...] Read more.
Textile-reinforced concrete (TRC) is a form of reinforced concrete, where conventional reinforcement is replaced with textiles or fibers. The high tenacity of the textile fibers results in flexible and durable concrete structures. The literature has been limited to TRC applications in retrofitting and nonstructural applications. Therefore, this article attempts to detangle the progressive research direction on the usage of TRC as a structural member. For this, (i) a bibliometric study using scientometrics analysis to visualize the keyword network, and (ii) qualitative discussions on identified research areas were performed. The literature was categorized into four main research areas, namely material properties of TRC, composite behavior of TRC, bond-slip relations, and TRC applications as structural elements. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages in the usage of TRC as a structural member are discussed in association with the identified research areas. Furthermore, the article proposes future directions to reinforce the research on the usage of TRC as a structural element. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Construction and Building Materials)
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13 pages, 5668 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Thermal Performance of Lightweight Assembled Exterior Wall Panel (LAEWP) with Stud Connections
by Tianzhen Li, Jun Xia, Chee Seong Chin and Pei Song
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040473 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2720
Abstract
One of the most effective ways to improve building energy efficiency and consumption is to increase the thermal insulation of the building envelope and reduce the heat loss through walls. A new type of thermal insulation wall panel, consisting of a lightweight assembled [...] Read more.
One of the most effective ways to improve building energy efficiency and consumption is to increase the thermal insulation of the building envelope and reduce the heat loss through walls. A new type of thermal insulation wall panel, consisting of a lightweight assembled exterior wall panel, was investigated in this research through experimental and numerical analyses. The feasibility of achieving the anticipated thermal performance through finite element modeling using ABAQUS® was verified. Good agreement between numerical simulation and experimental measurement was found, and the accuracy is 98.8%. To further reduce the heat transfer coefficient (U-value) of the panel to improve its thermal performance, parametric analyses were conducted utilizing the validated finite element model. The simulation shows that changing the insulation material is the best option, and the U-value reduction percentage reached 13.2%. Moreover, the combination of reducing the number of steel studs, decreasing the size of steel studs, implementing the opening of the light-gauge steel, and improving the insulation material led to a 23.7% reduction in the U-value at 0.695 W·m−2·K−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Energy Efficiency, Environment and Health)
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18 pages, 5481 KiB  
Article
Climate Chamber Experiment Study on the Association of Turning off Air Conditioning with Human Thermal Sensation and Skin Temperature
by Yiwen Jian, Shuwei Liu, Mengmeng Bian, Zijia Liu and Shengjie Liu
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040472 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
To date, few attempts have been made to associate air conditioning behavior with environmental conditions and the occupants’ thermal sensations and physiological states simultaneously. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted in a climate chamber environment, representative of a typical intermittent [...] Read more.
To date, few attempts have been made to associate air conditioning behavior with environmental conditions and the occupants’ thermal sensations and physiological states simultaneously. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted in a climate chamber environment, representative of a typical intermittent air conditioning process in residences. For 29 participants, local skin temperatures, thermal sensation and the participants’ intention of turning off air conditioning were recorded continually. Skin temperature and thermal sensation were found to keep decreasing over time, which in turn triggered turning off air conditioning. It is also noted that participants reported different thermal sensations when they intended to turn off air conditioning. However, there was no statistically significant difference in skin temperature of exposed body parts such as foot and calf. Additionally, given the ambient set temperature, the probability of turning off air conditioning exponentially increased with the increasing air conditioning duration. Accordingly, from a physiological perspective, the occupants’ behavior of turning off air conditioning was largely dependent on the local skin temperature of exposed body parts. From an environmental perspective, air conditioning duration demonstrated influences on the air conditioner switch-off. The lower the ambient temperature or the longer the exposure to air conditioning environment, the stronger the intention of the participants to turn off air conditioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Comfort in Built Environment)
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