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Buildings, Volume 12, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 199 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Different shading systems and controls, particularly for fully glazed façades, should be used in different parts of a window system to accomplish different functions. The split louver is a significant component of automated building systems for improving overall daylighting performance. This research studied an overarching framework for developing a reflective split louver with two sections based on a simplified parametric control to illuminate the deep room space. The proposed control of the split louver has the potential to provide a glare-free environment and more uniform daylight coverage of up to 100% of the floor area within a desired illuminance range (150~750 lux). View this paper
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Article
LCIA Parameters and the Role of BIM towards Sustainability: Regional and Temporal Trends
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050700 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Building materials with a low environmental impact are critical to the sustainability of the built environment. The environmental impact of materials can be determined by a Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), which constitutes multiple parameters such as the water used in a material’s [...] Read more.
Building materials with a low environmental impact are critical to the sustainability of the built environment. The environmental impact of materials can be determined by a Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), which constitutes multiple parameters such as the water used in a material’s life cycle. To use the LCIA approach for building material selection, its parameters need to be assigned different weights, which is the primary objective of this study. Building Information Modelling (BIM) can play an influential role when using LCIA during the building design process. With this consideration, we study the attention given to environmental sustainability in buildings and the responsiveness of BIM in this case. A multi-regional survey of 120 experts from academia and industry was conducted. The results show the relative importance of LCIA parameters and the focus of the building sector on environmental sustainability. The current and the future responsiveness of BIM towards environmental sustainability is also indicated. To promote the integration of LCIA in building design and performance assessment, the future role of BIM applications is explored. The results will contribute to research and practice in the sustainable built environment by helping select environment-friendly building materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Studies of Green and Sustainable Building Materials)
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Article
The Strength in Axial Compression of Aluminum Alloy Tube Confined Concrete Columns with a Circular Hollow Section: Experimental Results
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050699 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Steel tube confined concrete (STCC) stub columns have great strength and facilitate construction. In this study, the axial compressive strength of an aluminum alloy tube confined concrete column with (ATCC-CHS) and without (ATCC) a circular hollow section was tested in laboratory experiments. The [...] Read more.
Steel tube confined concrete (STCC) stub columns have great strength and facilitate construction. In this study, the axial compressive strength of an aluminum alloy tube confined concrete column with (ATCC-CHS) and without (ATCC) a circular hollow section was tested in laboratory experiments. The influence of concrete strength, diameter–thickness ratio and the hollow rate on the failure mode, ultimate compressive strength, strain, stiffness, constraint effects and ductility was quantified. The experiments showed that local buckling failure could be effectively delayed when the outer aluminum tube did not directly bear axial load. Columns without a circular hollow section had bearing capacities approximately 20% higher than those with a circular hollow section, though their ductility was poorer. The ultimate strength tended to increase with decreases in the hollow rate and diameter–thickness ratio. It tended to increase with increasing concrete strength, though stronger concrete also reduced ductility. The bearing capacities of the columns were calculated according to several proposed formulas and compared with the experimental results, and the proposed Teng and Attard’s formula appeared to be satisfactory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience-Based Structural Seismic Design and Evaluation)
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Article
Axial Compression Prediction and GUI Design for CCFST Column Using Machine Learning and Shapley Additive Explanation
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050698 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Axial bearing capacity is the key index of circular concrete-filled steel tubes (CCFST). A hybrid PSO-ANN model consisting of an artificial neural network (ANN) optimized with particle swarm algorithm (PSO) was proposed to reliably and accurately predict the axial bearing capacity in this [...] Read more.
Axial bearing capacity is the key index of circular concrete-filled steel tubes (CCFST). A hybrid PSO-ANN model consisting of an artificial neural network (ANN) optimized with particle swarm algorithm (PSO) was proposed to reliably and accurately predict the axial bearing capacity in this paper. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated and compared with the EC4 code and original ANN based on a dataset of 227 experiments, and a graphical user interface (GUI) was developed to achieve the automatic output of the results. The influence of each design parameter on the bearing capacity was analyzed and quantified using the Shapley additive explanation (SHAP) method and sensitivity analysis. The results show that the prediction performance of the PSO-ANN model is superior, and can be recommended as a candidate for the prediction of axial compression bearing capacity of the CCFST column in terms of performance indices. Shapley additive explanation-based parameter analysis indicated that the diameter and thickness of the steel tube are the most two important parameters to the bearing capacity; in particular, the fluctuation of the diameter under the stochastic environment leads to the variation of the axial compression bearing capacity beyond the diameter itself. Full article
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Article
The Optimal Determination of the Truncation Time of Non-Exponential Sound Decays
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050697 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 306
Abstract
The noise effects in the room impulse response (RIR) make the decay range of the integrated impulse response insufficient for reliable determination of reverberation time (RT). One of the preferred techniques to minimize noise effects is based on noise subtraction, RIR truncation, and [...] Read more.
The noise effects in the room impulse response (RIR) make the decay range of the integrated impulse response insufficient for reliable determination of reverberation time (RT). One of the preferred techniques to minimize noise effects is based on noise subtraction, RIR truncation, and correction for the truncation. The success of RT estimation through the method depends critically on the accurate estimation of the truncation time (TT). However, noise fluctuation and RIR irregularities can lead to discrepancies in the determined TT from the optimal value. The general goal of this paper is to improve RT estimates. An iterative procedure based on a non-exponential decay model consisting of a double-slope decay term and a noise term is presented to estimate the TT accurately. The model parameters are generated until the iterative procedure converges to a minimum difference between the energy decay curve (EDC) generated by the model and the Schroeder decay function. The decay rates of the EDCs with added pink noise levels are compared to those of the EDCs with low background noise. In addition, the detected TTs and the corresponding RTs are compared with the existing method and the noise compensation method (subtraction–truncation–correction method). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Architectural Acoustics)
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Article
Classification of Key Elements of Construction Project Complexity from the Contractor Perspective
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050696 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Contractors are facing an increasing degree of complexity in their construction projects. Due to inadequately prepared project plans, they have been suffering significant losses during the execution of construction projects. One of the key disadvantages of such plans is that during the planning [...] Read more.
Contractors are facing an increasing degree of complexity in their construction projects. Due to inadequately prepared project plans, they have been suffering significant losses during the execution of construction projects. One of the key disadvantages of such plans is that during the planning process, a construction project is mostly defined as a linear rather than a dynamic and complex process with a high degree of uncertainty. Therefore, a contractor who is in the planning phase of a construction project should consider the impact of the project characteristics on its implementation according to the elements of project complexity. In this research, we therefore first made an overview of the existing research related to the elements of project complexity. Based on the frequency of their occurrence in existing surveys, this paper singled out eight groups of complexity characteristics that contractors should be aware of during construction projects. After that, based on the frequency of occurrence in the existing surveys, fifteen elements of complexity were classified for each project complexity group. The research conducted among construction project managers identified key complexity elements of the construction project from the contractor’s perspective. Thereby, the classification of groups with the associated key elements determining the complexity of a construction project from the perspective of the contractor was performed. By properly analyzing the impact of key elements of complexity on project flow during the planning phase, contractors can be more successful when planning the project objectives to be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Construction and Project Management)
Review
The Private Sector Role as a Key Supporting Stakeholder towards Circular Economy in the Built Environment: A Scientometric and Content Analysis
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050695 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 384
Abstract
The United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda, borne from the most inclusive policy dialogue ever, emphasized partnerships built upon collaboration to achieve sustainable goals, as documented in SDG17. However, the building and construction sector has been experiencing sustainability issues, leading to several traditional government-led [...] Read more.
The United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda, borne from the most inclusive policy dialogue ever, emphasized partnerships built upon collaboration to achieve sustainable goals, as documented in SDG17. However, the building and construction sector has been experiencing sustainability issues, leading to several traditional government-led initiatives in the built environment. The private sector is critical to achieving the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the 2030 Agenda by interacting with societies, governments, and other actors for a circular built environment. The circular economy (CE) is a paradigm that is becoming increasingly popular to drive the movement to sustainability, requiring the partnership of the private sector to be implemented successfully. However, the application of CE initiatives in the private sector engagement has received less attention. Recognizing the interaction of multiple parties’ influence on the uptake of a CE, this study thus seeks to examine the participation of the private sector in the CE in the built environment using a mixed review approach (scientometric and content analysis). The findings reveal that the private sector faces barriers in terms of financial and economic, institutional and technological, and political and regulatory factors. This research also identified areas for greater private sector involvement in CE initiatives in the built environment, such as resource reduction, sharing, and the adaptive reuse of existing buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Built Environment)
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Article
Some Issues in the Seismic Assessment of Shear-Wall Buildings through Code-Compliant Dynamic Analyses
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050694 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 707
Abstract
Due to their excellent seismic behavior, shear wall-type concrete buildings are very popular in earthquake-prone countries like Chile. According to current seismic regulations, the performance of such structures can be indifferently assessed through linear or non-linear methods of analysis. Although all the code-compliant [...] Read more.
Due to their excellent seismic behavior, shear wall-type concrete buildings are very popular in earthquake-prone countries like Chile. According to current seismic regulations, the performance of such structures can be indifferently assessed through linear or non-linear methods of analysis. Although all the code-compliant approaches supposedly lead to a safe design, linear approaches may be in fact less precise for catching the actual seismic performance of ductile and dissipative structures, which can even result in unconservative design where comparatively stiff buildings like reinforced-concrete shear-wall (RC-SW) buildings are concerned. By referring to a mid-rise multistory RC-SW building built in Chile and designed according to the current seismic Chilean code, the paper investigates the effectiveness of the linear dynamic analyses to predict the seismic performance of such kind of structures. The findings show that the code-compliant linear approaches (Modal Response Spectrum Analysis and Linear Time-History Analysis) may significantly underestimate the displacement demand in RC-SW buildings. This is highlighted by the comparison with the results obtained from the Non-Linear Time-History Analysis, which is expected to give more realistic results. A set of ten spectrum-consistent Chilean earthquakes was considered to carry out the time-history analyses while a distributed-plasticity fiber-based approach was adopted to model the non-linear behavior of the considered building. The paper highlights how the risk of an unsafe design may become higher when reference is made to the Chilean code, the latter considering only the Modal Response Spectrum Analysis (MRSA) without even providing corrective factors to estimate the inelastic displacement demand. The paper checks the effectiveness of some amplifying factors taken from the literature with reference to the case-study shear-wall building, concluding that they are not effective enough. The paper also warns against the danger of local soft-story collapse mechanisms, which are typical of reinforced concrete frames but may also affect RC-SW buildings when weaker structural parts made by column-like walls are present at the ground floor. Full article
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Article
Numerical Analysis of Shallow Foundations with Varying Loading and Soil Conditions
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050693 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 492
Abstract
The load–deformation relationship under the footing is essential for foundation design. Shallow foundations are subjected to changes in hydrological conditions such as rainfall and drought, affecting their saturation level and conditions. The actual load–settlement response for design and reconstructions is determined experimentally, numerically, [...] Read more.
The load–deformation relationship under the footing is essential for foundation design. Shallow foundations are subjected to changes in hydrological conditions such as rainfall and drought, affecting their saturation level and conditions. The actual load–settlement response for design and reconstructions is determined experimentally, numerically, or utilizing both approaches. Ssettlement computation is performed through large-scale physical modeling or extensive laboratory testing. It is expensive, labor intensive, and time consuming. This study is carried out to determine the effect of different saturation degrees and loading conditions on settlement shallow foundations using numerical modeling in Plaxis 2D, Bentley Systems, Exton, Pennsylvania, US. Plastic was used for dry soil calculation, while fully coupled flow deformation was used for partially saturated soil. Pore pressure and deformation changes were computed in fully coupled deformation. The Mohr–Columb model was used in the simulation, and model parameters were calculated from experimental results. The study results show that the degree of saturation is more critical to soil settlement than loading conditions. When a 200 KPa load was applied at the center of the footing, settlement was recored as 28.81 mm, which was less than 42.96 mm in the case of the full-depth shale layer; therefore, settlement was reduced by 30% in the underlying limestone rock layer. Regarding settlement under various degrees of saturation (DOS), settlment is increased by an increased degree of saturation, which increases pore pressure and decreases the shear strength of the soil. Settlement was observed as 0.69 mm at 0% saturation, 1.93 mm at 40% saturation, 2.21 mm at 50% saturation, 2.77 mm at 70% saturation, and 2.84 mm at 90% saturation of soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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Article
An Analysis of Transaction Costs Involved in the Urban Village Redevelopment Process in China
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050692 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 476
Abstract
A well-designed institutional arrangement for urban village redevelopment projects (UVRPs) must consider transaction costs, but academic papers discussing it from the perspective of transaction cost economics are lacking. This paper applies theory of transaction cost economics to analyse the types and sizes of [...] Read more.
A well-designed institutional arrangement for urban village redevelopment projects (UVRPs) must consider transaction costs, but academic papers discussing it from the perspective of transaction cost economics are lacking. This paper applies theory of transaction cost economics to analyse the types and sizes of transaction costs and who bears these costs during redevelopment when implementing UVRPs in China. This paper finds that transactions in UVRPs have high asset specificity, high uncertainty and low frequency, which easily results in high levels of transaction costs. Based on 439 UVRPs collected from seven cities, this paper finds that UVRPs implemented with top–down institutional arrangements remain prevalent in China. Based on semi-structured interviews with participating parties, this paper proves that the sizes and types of transaction costs and the distribution of these costs borne by different participating parties vary with the change of stage under dissimilar institutional arrangements. This implies that a high level of transaction costs at one stage does not necessarily mean the costs stay high at another stage. Transaction costs have essential implications for process efficiency, so policymakers need to consider transaction costs and use hybrid institutional arrangements to enhance the efficiency and sustainability of policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Housing as a Nexus of Unaffordability, Illegality and Livability)
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Article
A Experimental Study on Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) Incorporated with Sporosarcina pasteurii
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050691 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Microbial-induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) has been successfully applied to self-healing concrete with improved mechanical properties, while the performance of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) incorporated with bacteria is still lacking. In this study, Sporosarcina pasteurii, which has a strong ability to produce [...] Read more.
Microbial-induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) has been successfully applied to self-healing concrete with improved mechanical properties, while the performance of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) incorporated with bacteria is still lacking. In this study, Sporosarcina pasteurii, which has a strong ability to produce calcium carbonate, was introduced into engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with mechanical properties analyzed in detail. A multiscale study including compression, tension and fiber pullout tests was carried out to explore the Sporosarcina pasteurii incorporation effect on ECC mechanical properties. Compared with the control group, the compressive strength of S.p.-ECC specimens cured for 7 days was increased by almost 10% and the regained strength after self-healing was increased by 7.31%. Meanwhile, the initial crack strength and tensile strength of S.p.-ECC increased by 10.25% and 12.68%, respectively. Interestingly, the crack pattern of ECC was also improved to some extent, e.g., bacteria seemed to minimize crack width. The addition of bacteria failed to increase the ECC tensile strain, which remained at about 4%, in accordance with engineering practice. Finally, matrix/fiber interface properties were altered in S.p.-ECC with lower chemical bond and higher frictional bond strength. The results at the microscopic scale explain well the property improvements of ECC composites based on the fine-scale mechanical theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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Article
Compressive Strength Prediction of Fly Ash Concrete Using Machine Learning Techniques
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050690 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 389
Abstract
It is time-consuming and uneconomical to estimate the strength properties of fly ash concrete using conventional compression experiments. For this reason, four machine learning models—extreme learning machine, random forest, original support vector regression (SVR), and the SVR model optimized by a grid search [...] Read more.
It is time-consuming and uneconomical to estimate the strength properties of fly ash concrete using conventional compression experiments. For this reason, four machine learning models—extreme learning machine, random forest, original support vector regression (SVR), and the SVR model optimized by a grid search algorithm—were proposed to predict the compressive strength of fly ash concrete on 270 group datasets. The prediction results of the proposed model were compared using five evaluation indices, and the relative importance and effect of each input variable on the output compressive strength were analyzed. The results showed that the optimized hybrid model showed the best predictive behavior compared to the other three models, and can be used to forecast the compressive strength of fly ash concrete at a specific mix design ratio before conducting laboratory compression tests, which will save costs on the specimens and laboratory tests. Among the eight input variables listed, age and water were the two relatively most important features with superplasticizer and fly ash being of weaker relative importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Performance of Building Materials)
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Article
Simplified Calculation Model for Typical Dou-Gong Exposed to Vertical Loads
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050689 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Early Chinese traditional timber buildings preserved until now are mainly ancient buildings built in the time of the Song and Yuan dynasties (960–1368 AD). Dou-gongs of these ancient timber buildings are complex structures. Their complexities, however, are difficult to fully consider in large-scale [...] Read more.
Early Chinese traditional timber buildings preserved until now are mainly ancient buildings built in the time of the Song and Yuan dynasties (960–1368 AD). Dou-gongs of these ancient timber buildings are complex structures. Their complexities, however, are difficult to fully consider in large-scale structural analyses. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable simplified modeling of Dou-gongs, which is applicable for large-scale analyses. In this study, the features of Dou-gongs of early Chinese traditional timber buildings were firstly reviewed, referring to the historical literature and on-site investigation. Then, the mechanical behavior of typical Dou-gongs exposed to vertical loads was examined through refined finite element analyses, where the solid elements were adopted and geometric characteristics were considered. According to the results of the load transferring path, a new beam-truss model representing a simplified Dou-gong was developed, and its accuracy was numerically verified. The results showed that the gravity load of the roof above the column is transferred down through the central axis; the weight of the overhang of the roof is transferred diagonally to the bottom of the Dou-gong, passing through the front of the cantilever components; in the collapse condition, the vertical load is transferred to the two sides through horizontal beams. Compared with the results of the refined model, the new beam-truss model proposed shows an acceptable computational accuracy concerning stress, deformation and stiffness, with 90–97% reduction in the calculation time consumption, which makes it suitable for large-scale structural analyses of early Chinese traditional timber buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Building Conservation)
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Article
Automatic Classification and Coding of Prefabricated Components Using IFC and the Random Forest Algorithm
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050688 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 385
Abstract
The management of prefabricated component staging and turnover lacks the effective integration of informatization and complexity, as relevant information is stored in the heterogeneous systems of various stakeholders. BIM and its underlying data schema, IFC, provide for information collaboration and sharing. In this [...] Read more.
The management of prefabricated component staging and turnover lacks the effective integration of informatization and complexity, as relevant information is stored in the heterogeneous systems of various stakeholders. BIM and its underlying data schema, IFC, provide for information collaboration and sharing. In this paper, an automatic classification and coding system for prefabricated building, based on BIM technology and Random Forest, is developed so as to enable the unique representation of components. The proposed approach starts with classifying and coding information regarding the overall design of the components. With the classification criteria, the required attributes of the components are extracted, and the process of attribute extraction is illustrated in detail using wall components as an example. The Random Forest model is then employed for IFC building component classification training and testing, which includes the selection of the datasets, the construction of CART, and the voting of the component classification results. The experiment results illustrate that the approach can automate the uniform and unique coding of each component on a Python basis, while also reducing the workload of designers. Finally, based on the IFC physical file, an extended implementation process for component encoding information is designed to achieve information integrity for prefabricated component descriptions. Additionally, in the subsequent research, it can be further combined with Internet-of-Things technology to achieve the real-time collection of construction process information and the real-time control of building components. Full article
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Article
Experimental Study on the Propagation Law of Explosive Stress Wave in Cement Mortar with Weak Layers
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050687 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 308
Abstract
The weak layer has good attenuation performance when it comes to the explosive stress wave, which can be used in protective structures. In this paper, a cement mortar specimen was designed, cast, and tested. Under inner explosion, due to the expansion of air [...] Read more.
The weak layer has good attenuation performance when it comes to the explosive stress wave, which can be used in protective structures. In this paper, a cement mortar specimen was designed, cast, and tested. Under inner explosion, due to the expansion of air in the explosive hole, the tensile cracks formed around the explosive hole are mainly in a damage pattern. In ordinary cement mortar, the transmittance is decreasing as the distance increases. At a distance of 8 cm to 14 cm from the explosive center, the average transmittance is 50.16%, 12 cm to 18 cm, while the average transmittance is 62.89%, increasing by 12.73%. Adding one weak layer into the cement mortar, the transmittance of one weak layer is 43.37%. The effect of increasing weak layers in short spacing is not obvious, and the transmittance of the second and third weak layer is about 80%, much less than the first layer. The softer the weak layer and the larger the wave impedance, the smaller the transmission coefficient is. The research proves that the weak layer has excellent attenuation performance when it comes to the explosive stress wave. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering in Concrete Materials and Structures)
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Article
Simulation Analysis of the Small Wild Goose Pagoda Structure Using a Shape Memory Alloy-Suspension Pendulum Damping System (SMA-SPDS)
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050686 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 324
Abstract
To reduce the effects of earthquakes on the ancient Small Wild Goose Pagoda, a shape memory alloy-suspension pendulum damping system (SMA-SPDS) is developed by combining superelastic SMAs with damping pendulum theory. A MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of the SMA-SPDS is established and tested on [...] Read more.
To reduce the effects of earthquakes on the ancient Small Wild Goose Pagoda, a shape memory alloy-suspension pendulum damping system (SMA-SPDS) is developed by combining superelastic SMAs with damping pendulum theory. A MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of the SMA-SPDS is established and tested on a 1:10 scale model of the Pagoda. After verifying and comparing the simulation data with experimental results, a shock absorption analysis is performed on the prototype Pagoda. The optimum engineering design for the prototype structure of the Small Wild Goose Pagoda using SMA-SPDS for shock absorption protection in the future is put forward. The results show that the performance of the SMA-SPDS system is stable, and it can improve the integrity of the original structure of the Pagoda for better performance during earthquakes. In addition, with an increment in seismic intensity, the SMA-SPDS shows an apparent controlling effect. The Simulink simulation results of the model structure of the Small Wild Goose Pagoda are in good agreement with the test results. The Simulink simulation method can simulate the seismic response of the model structure of the Small Wild Goose Pagoda well, with and without SMA-SPDS, to obtain a more real damping effect of setting SMA-SPDS on the prototype structure; the engineering optimization of the location, quantity, and system performance parameters of SMA-SPDS in the prototype structure of the Small Wild Goose Pagoda has a remarkable effect, which can make the damping effect of SMA-SPDS reach more than 43% floor. Full article
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Review
Future City, Digital Twinning and the Urban Realm: A Systematic Literature Review
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050685 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Digitalisation and the future city paradigm are becoming a trend in recent research and practices. Literature discusses digitalisation and its applications as the main gear in the transformation to the ideal future city vision. Yet, the concept of digitalisation is articulated in many [...] Read more.
Digitalisation and the future city paradigm are becoming a trend in recent research and practices. Literature discusses digitalisation and its applications as the main gear in the transformation to the ideal future city vision. Yet, the concept of digitalisation is articulated in many interpretations and presented in different applications in the built environment. One emerging application is digital twinning. Literature envisions the potential of digital twinning applications in the urban realm and discusses the cognitive city model and its implications on the future of our cities, its urban realm and the built environment in general. With the evolving themes on the ideal future city model, this systematic review tackles the following questions: what are the key motives and drivers of the future city paradigm; what is a city digital twin; and what are their expected applications. Additionally, how literature envisions the definition of the city users and their experience in the urban realm of the city of the future. This review article explores related literature on the themes of future city model, digital urban realm, digital twinning and city users. The main findings are: identifying key gears of the future city model in literature, exploring city digital twin conceptualization and applications and discussing concepts on the definition of city user and user experience in the city of the future. Full article
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Article
The Novelty of Using Glass Powder and Lime Powder for Producing UHPSCC
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050684 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 475
Abstract
In recent years, UHP self-compacted concrete is an innovative category of concrete that has attached a lot of attention because of its higher durability and compressive strength than conventional concrete. So, to overcome the cost of preparation of UHPC and preservation of high-strength [...] Read more.
In recent years, UHP self-compacted concrete is an innovative category of concrete that has attached a lot of attention because of its higher durability and compressive strength than conventional concrete. So, to overcome the cost of preparation of UHPC and preservation of high-strength deformation and rheological characteristic of self-compacting concrete when replacing a part of expensive cement with three types of production waste. In addition, the problem of reducing environmental pollution is solved. In this study. recycled glass (GP) and lime (LP) powder were used as substitution materials in the manufacture of the UHPSCC. The flowability of UHPSCC was measured by slump flow,  T50, V-funnel tests as an indication for the capability of filling and J-ring tests as an indication for the capability of passing. Furthermore, durability and mechanical properties were investigated. The elevated temperature effect was investigated on several UHPCSCC samples with glass (GP) and lime (LP) powder. The test results showed that the incorporation of GP and LP partially replaced cement improved the flowability of UHPSCC. The compressive, tensile, and flexural strength were enhanced by using GP till 20% replacement of cement also, the compression strength values were highly improved by using LP replacement of cement at different ages for (hot and normal curing). The highly compressive strength values for UHPSCC mixes with a 20% replacement ratio of GP and LP as cement replacement materials were 119.0 and 128.8 MPa under hot curing regimes and increased by 6.25% and 9.62%, respectively, than that of similar mixes under normal curing regimes at 90 days. The highly splitting and flexural strength values for UHPSCC 7 mix with 20% replacement level of LP and UHPSCC 9 mix with 20% replacement level of LP and GP were reported at 11.80 and 17.85 MPa which increased by 24.20% and 58.60%, respectively, compared to the control mix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilization of Waste Materials in Building Engineering)
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Review
Microclimate of Air Cavities in Ventilated Roof and Façade Systems in Nordic Climates
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050683 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Accurate values for the climatic conditions in an air cavity, hereby called the microclimate, are crucial when calculating and simulating the performance of a ventilated roof and façade system. The climatic stress of its components and their mould and rot potential influence the [...] Read more.
Accurate values for the climatic conditions in an air cavity, hereby called the microclimate, are crucial when calculating and simulating the performance of a ventilated roof and façade system. The climatic stress of its components and their mould and rot potential influence the long-term durability of the roof or façade. A scoping study is conducted to gain an overview on research and the scientific literature on the microclimate of air cavities in ventilated roofing and claddings in Nordic climates. From the body of the research literature, 21 scientific works were of particular interest, and their findings are summarized. The review shows that only a limited number of studies discuss the microclimate of air cavities. Roofs are discussed to a greater and more varied degree compared to façades and air cavities behind solar panels. However, the results cannot be compared and validated against each other to generally describe the microclimate of air cavities, as the surveyed papers approach the subject differently. This knowledge gap indicates that calculations and simulations can be performed without knowing whether the results represent reality. If the structure of ventilated roof and façade systems are only designed based on experience, it can be difficult to be proactive and adapt to future climate changes. Further studies are needed to determine the relation between the exterior climate and the air cavity microclimate, so that future climate predictions can be used to simulate the long-term performance of ventilated roof and façade systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment, Diagnosis and Service Life Prediction)
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Article
Student Experience and Satisfaction in Academic Libraries: A Comparative Study among Three Universities in Wuhan
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050682 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 409
Abstract
In recent years, the spatial renovation of university libraries in various countries has focused on readers’ needs and followed the trend to develop learning spaces as a primary spatial form. In this study, we reviewed six spatial dimensions affecting student users’ learning experience. [...] Read more.
In recent years, the spatial renovation of university libraries in various countries has focused on readers’ needs and followed the trend to develop learning spaces as a primary spatial form. In this study, we reviewed six spatial dimensions affecting student users’ learning experience. Specifically, we built a theory- and practice-based conceptual analysis framework to measure users’ satisfaction with recent spatial renovations at three university libraries in Wuhan, China. We used SPSS statistical software to conduct multiple linear regression analyses of spatial satisfaction. The findings show that five spatial dimensions significantly affect students’ satisfaction with library space, namely, service facility availability, quality of interior design, physical environment elements, spatial diversity, and learning space controllability. Service facility availability is the most critical factor affecting spatial satisfaction. In this study, we present empirical, evidence-based space elements that enhance user satisfaction with library spaces, and provide targeted design suggestions for future library space renovation and the optimization of space allocation and expansion of space services at university libraries in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Fatigue Behaviour of Aluminium Members with Different Notch Root Shapes
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050681 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 434
Abstract
In unitised curtain walls, the transfer of horizontal loads, mainly wind loads, from the upper into the lower unit is achieved through the head/notch interlocking connection. Optimisation of the machining process would require a sharp root of the notch, causing an increase in [...] Read more.
In unitised curtain walls, the transfer of horizontal loads, mainly wind loads, from the upper into the lower unit is achieved through the head/notch interlocking connection. Optimisation of the machining process would require a sharp root of the notch, causing an increase in the stress concentration. In order to predict fatigue resistance during design life, the influence of the radius at the root of the notch has been tested in both static and cyclic regimes. The cyclic regime is based on the load history equivalent of 50 years of wind exposure. Numerical simulations on the test assembly have been conducted in order to verify their adequacy for future research on similar issues. The experimental results demonstrated that, for the given specimen shape and alloy, a sharp notch would not lead to premature failure, and such a detail is safe from the purview of damage-tolerant design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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Article
Critical Obstacles in the Implementation of Value Management of Construction Projects
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050680 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 432
Abstract
At present, the construction industry in China has problems such as low production efficiency, low technical efficiency, low management efficiency of the construction project, delayed delivery, budget overruns, and unreasonable risk allocation. Value management can address these issues by enhancing the value of [...] Read more.
At present, the construction industry in China has problems such as low production efficiency, low technical efficiency, low management efficiency of the construction project, delayed delivery, budget overruns, and unreasonable risk allocation. Value management can address these issues by enhancing the value of construction projects in China, reducing construction costs, and ensuring significant investment returns. This study uses literature analysis to identify the critical obstacles to adopting value management and uses questionnaires and surveys, structural equation modeling, and factor analysis to prioritize the critical obstacles to adopting value management. What is more, the main contribution of this research is to identify the critical obstacles to the adoption of value management, which provides a new perspective for related research and has specific positive significance for practice summary and reform direction. The research was limited to the region of Tianjin and its surrounding cities. The critical survey respondents for this study are architects, quantity surveyors, contractors, civil engineers, and service engineers with rich experience in construction management. The research results show that the key obstacles to implementing value management in the construction industry in China are mainly divided into four categories: Environmental Factors; Stakeholder and Management Factors; Technological Factors; Information Factors. In addition, the researchers found that the level of the adoption of value management in the construction industry in China is deficient. Value management was not used in most of the organizations surveyed, and project teams did not practice its concept. Full article
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Article
Sustainability Study of a Residential Building near Subway Based on LCA-Emergy Method
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050679 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 431
Abstract
In the context of ecological building and green building popularity, building sustainability assessment is becoming more and more important. In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation platform by coupled LCA method and energy method was designed, verified, and analyzed to assess the sustainability of [...] Read more.
In the context of ecological building and green building popularity, building sustainability assessment is becoming more and more important. In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation platform by coupled LCA method and energy method was designed, verified, and analyzed to assess the sustainability of the building system. The main results illustrated that the construction stage is the most critical stage in terms of emergy angle. From a sustainability perspective, the Emergy Sustainability Indicator was at a moderate level (1.0141), which can be considered to increase the proportion of renewable energy and reduce the proportion of non-renewable resources to improve the sustainability degree. Of the three scenarios designed, the second scenario has the best sustainability in the building system. The unit emergy value of the whole building was also shown to demonstrate the unit emergy of an individual. In order to verify the accuracy of the data, a sensitivity analysis was conducted. Finally, two types of positive measures are proposed to ameliorate the environmental sustainability in the building system, containing the increasing proportion of renewable energy and using recycled building materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Climate, Comfort and Building Energy Performance)
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Article
Analyzing Electricity Consumption Factors of Buildings in Seoul, Korea Using Multiscale Geographically Weighted Regression
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050678 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 426
Abstract
The recent increase in energy consumption worldwide has accelerated global warming. Thus, developed countries are aiming to reduce energy consumption in cities and promote eco-friendly policies. Buildings account for most of the energy used in a city. Therefore, it is necessary to identify [...] Read more.
The recent increase in energy consumption worldwide has accelerated global warming. Thus, developed countries are aiming to reduce energy consumption in cities and promote eco-friendly policies. Buildings account for most of the energy used in a city. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the factors that affect electrical energy consumption in urban buildings. In this study, we use multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) to analyze these urban characteristic factors at the global and local scales in Seoul, Korea. It is found that population and household characteristics, outdoor temperature, green and water areas, building area according to building usage, and construction age significantly affect the electrical energy consumption of buildings. In addition, the influences of these variables change with the region. Variables with different coefficients by region are winter temperature, green and water area, and households with three or more persons. The results confirm that even within a city, the influence of the aforementioned factors varies in terms of spatial distribution and patterns. This study is significant as it carried out basic research for energy consumption reduction in buildings by deriving related influencing factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development)
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Review
Review of Culture in Maintenance Management of Public Buildings in Developing Countries
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050677 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 471
Abstract
Studies have shown that culture is one of the significant elements that influence the behavior of doing things the right way, without which there is a hindrance to the attainment of set goals. It has also been stated that culture is essential to [...] Read more.
Studies have shown that culture is one of the significant elements that influence the behavior of doing things the right way, without which there is a hindrance to the attainment of set goals. It has also been stated that culture is essential to maintaining public buildings, which is significant to national development. However, the level of abandonment and deterioration of public buildings is high due to a lack of culture among stakeholders in the maintenance process. Therefore, through a literature review from over 100 recent publications, this study measured culture as a variable that influences effective maintenance management of buildings. This was carried out to enlighten maintenance managers and policymakers within the developing countries regarding the significance of maintenance culture and possible measures for improving the attitude of stakeholders on the maintenance process. It was also carried out to develop a new maintenance focus (behavioral change) for maintenance managers and policymakers, especially in developing countries, to manage the available public buildings and other proposed ones effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Construction and Project Management)
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Article
The Feasibility of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose as an Admixture for Porous Vegetarian Concrete Using Coarse Recycled Aggregates
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050676 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 381
Abstract
In this paper, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is used as a new additive for porous vegetarian concrete (PVC) to improve its void structure and strength. The effect of the HPMC on the fluidity of the mortar was first investigated by a viscosity test. Then [...] Read more.
In this paper, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is used as a new additive for porous vegetarian concrete (PVC) to improve its void structure and strength. The effect of the HPMC on the fluidity of the mortar was first investigated by a viscosity test. Then the cement hydration process was determined for analyzing the effect of the HPMC on the strength and durability of the hardened PVC. Subsequently, experiments to investigate the mass transport and compressive strength characteristics, as well as the vegetarian properties, of the concrete were carried out. The results show that the bonding forces between the recycled aggregates and packing layer are elevated by viscosity improvement. The viscocity and flowability are significantly related to the dosage of HPMC from 0.0‰ to 0.3‰. The harden time is also delayed while the content of HPMC increases.The segregation phenomenon caused by the recycled aggregate powder in porous concrete could also be relieved by adding HPMC. The durability of PVC in the wetting–drying cyclic test is significantly improved by incorporating HPMC. The results of the vegetarian test also prove that, with HPMC mixing, sufficient space would be created in porous concrete, which is more suitable for plant growth due to a large number of existing pore channels. Full article
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Article
Hydraulic Structures as a Key Component of Sustainable Water Management at the Catchment Scale—Case Study of the Rgilewka River (Central Poland)
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050675 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Poland is among the European countries with the lowest water resources. The central part of Poland features the least water resources in the country. In this region, proper water management is particularly critical to maintaining high agricultural productivity. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
Poland is among the European countries with the lowest water resources. The central part of Poland features the least water resources in the country. In this region, proper water management is particularly critical to maintaining high agricultural productivity. The objective of this study was to present the effects of the restoration of hydrotechnical infrastructure in the Rgilewka River catchment in the zone of the greatest water deficits. This paper analyses the effects of such works on water resources and their management. The catchment featured seven weirs in 2014, all built in the 1950s. Due to the lack of maintenance and ongoing renovation, they have lost their basic functions. In 2014, modernisation of the system commenced by rebuilding all the existing weirs. Two new weirs were also constructed. The work was completed in 2021. The currently existing weirs provide greater water retention and management capabilities. The direct impact of weirs ranges from 1.9 to 3.5 ha, their indirect impact from 34 to 70 ha, and the river channel retention varies from 2200 to 5400 m3. Total water retention in the Rgilewka River channel due to the modernisation of hydrotechnical infrastructure reaches 25,400 m3. The direct (total) impact range will cover an area of 16.4 ha, and the indirect impact range an area of 284 ha. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Hydraulic Structures: Design, Monitoring, and Management)
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Article
Zero-Carbon Communities: Research Hotspots, Evolution, and Prospects
by , and
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050674 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Global warming is a worldwide concern, with buildings generating more than 40% of the annual global CO2 emissions. A commonly accepted system of global standards for zero-carbon buildings and communities has not yet been established. In this research, the development history, hotspots, [...] Read more.
Global warming is a worldwide concern, with buildings generating more than 40% of the annual global CO2 emissions. A commonly accepted system of global standards for zero-carbon buildings and communities has not yet been established. In this research, the development history, hotspots, and trends at the urban scale with theoretical and data support are summarized based on the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection. The review contains works from 1997 to 2022. A total of 19,014 papers were collected, with an overall increasing trend in the number of articles with specific keywords. The scope of the research is broad, covering the environment, sciences, ecology, chemistry, material science, physics, meteorology, atmospheric sciences, and so on. The hotspots in the low-carbon community (LCC) and zero-carbon community (ZCC) involve a wide range of disciplines, and collaborative research between related disciplines should be strengthened to propose practical solutions for the development of zero-carbon cities. The establishment of the ZCC mainly focuses on a zero-carbon-emission construction and zero-carbon operations. This research found approaches such as the choices of building construction and material, a waste recycling system, a regenerating energy system, transportation, and an examination of the community composition to realize the ZCC. In the literature it is presented that the difficulties in the construction of the ZCC are due to the lack of research in practice, operation, and subsequent maintenance. Moreover, other scholars can deepen the research on the hotspots of ZCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ZEMCH—Zero Energy Mass Custom Home International Research 2021)
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Article
Selecting Key Drivers for a Successful Lean Construction Implementation Using Simos’ and WSM: The Case of Egypt
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050673 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Despite the use of numerous new and advanced technologies in construction projects, the industry’s efficiency remains low. This business has faced significant challenges for a long time, such as non-value-added activities, also known as waste. Lean construction (L.C.) is one method for improving [...] Read more.
Despite the use of numerous new and advanced technologies in construction projects, the industry’s efficiency remains low. This business has faced significant challenges for a long time, such as non-value-added activities, also known as waste. Lean construction (L.C.) is one method for improving the situation by reducing waste and increasing value for the client. This study provides an in-depth literature review to provide a comprehensive list of all critical drivers and groups all these drivers into one research paper in order to determine the importance (weights) of these drivers and their relative importance, and to propose an innovative methodology for ranking them using Simos’ approach. Seven construction project case studies were proposed. Their lean status was assessed, the key-list was verified using a Weighted-Sum Model as a multi-criteria decision-making technique to rank them, the best one in terms of lean implementation was found. Subsequently, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the most critical criterion for the key list. The following are some of the study’s main findings: 18 key drivers were identified and ranked, a clear definition of the client’s requirements was the most global weight between factors, and the case studies demonstrated that more than 60% of the lean drivers are implemented in Egypt. Day-to-day observation and standardized work were the top two most widely used lean practices in Egypt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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Article
Assembly Solution for Modular Buildings: Development of an Automated Connecting Device for Light-Framed Structures
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050672 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 682
Abstract
The prefabricated construction industry, also known as off-site construction, has been operating in North America for several years now and differs from traditional construction in its much shorter project timelines, lower costs, and increased build quality. However, the lack of a suitable and [...] Read more.
The prefabricated construction industry, also known as off-site construction, has been operating in North America for several years now and differs from traditional construction in its much shorter project timelines, lower costs, and increased build quality. However, the lack of a suitable and efficient assembly solution has been identified by many as a barrier to the use of off-site construction for larger buildings. To maximise the benefits of off-site manufacturing for multistorey buildings, an automated connection solution is presented in this paper. A new plug-in self-locking device was developed according to the following product design phases: on-site observations, definition of the problem and product specifications, solution generation, prototyping, fabrication, and testing. The plug-in self-locking device allows the assembly process to be accelerated by eliminating the fastening steps and a higher completion of modules off-site to be achieved. The design bears the compressive, tensile, and shear loads and contributes to the load path of the building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Construction and Building Materials)
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Article
The Structural Use of Recycled Aggregate Concrete for Renovation of Massive External Walls of Czech Fortification
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050671 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 394
Abstract
The use of recycled aggregate concrete is mainly negatively affected by its poorer mechanical and long-term properties. However, there are few structural applications for which recycled aggregates can be used. In this case study, the possibility of use as massive external reinforcement wall [...] Read more.
The use of recycled aggregate concrete is mainly negatively affected by its poorer mechanical and long-term properties. However, there are few structural applications for which recycled aggregates can be used. In this case study, the possibility of use as massive external reinforcement wall is verified. For this structural application, the most important characteristics are freeze–thaw resistance, and carbonation resistance and then the mechanical properties such as compressive strength. Durability characteristics of the materials have been tested and improved in the study. The mechanical properties and durability of recycled aggregated concrete have been verified and crystalline mixture has been used to improve durability. The specific structural application of the massive external reinforcement wall is for the renovation of the Czech WW2 concrete fortification, which is one of the most important cultural heritages of the Czech Republic of the 20th century. However, these buildings have not yet been professionally rebuilt, but this research project aims to change this trend. The thickness of the bunker wall is between 0.5 and 3.5 m (depending on the type of bunker) which leads to a huge amount of concrete and primary resources consumption; however, the security function is not necessary today, so the reconstruction could be provided by recycled aggregate concrete. The results showed a positive effect of the crystalline mixture on the essential properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Recycled aggregate concrete with a complete replacement of aggregate by recycled concrete or masonry aggregate is possible to use for the reconstruction of the Czech WW2 concrete fortification and save natural aggregate as a primary resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Architectural Heritage Protection)
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