Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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28 pages, 2345 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Green Construction Development Barriers by a Hybrid Decision-Making Method Based on DEMATEL and the ANP
by Saeed Kamranfar, Yousef Azimi, Mohammad Gheibi, Amir M. Fathollahi-Fard and Mostafa Hajiaghaei-Keshteli
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101641 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3161
Abstract
There is a great deal of interest in analyzing construction development barriers to identify and rank them based on sustainability criteria and have less environmental pollution. Due to the importance of construction projects in developing countries such as Iran, this study implements a [...] Read more.
There is a great deal of interest in analyzing construction development barriers to identify and rank them based on sustainability criteria and have less environmental pollution. Due to the importance of construction projects in developing countries such as Iran, this study implements a green construction development paradigm to identify and rank barriers for a case study in Tehran, Iran. The main novelty of this paper is the development of a new decision-making method using the DEMATEL and Delphi techniques and the ANP. In this regard, first of all, data collection is performed through a literature review and survey studies using questionnaires, interviews, and observations. The applied method for experts’ agreement was integrated through brainstorming and the classical Delphi method. By analyzing different economic, environmental, cultural, and social criteria using a hybrid decision-making framework, the results show that the main economic barrier with a weight of 0.2607 is ranked first, while the main feature of economic assessment is connected to the risk of investment. The cultural and social barriers, with a weight of 0.2258, ranked second, and the managerial barrier, with a weight of 0.2052, ranked third. In the social and managerial aspects, the main barriers were related to looking at green construction as luxurious and the uncertainty of green construction performance due to the climate and texture of the local area, respectively. According to the findings and results, the proposed barriers and sub-barriers in this study can be used to develop and create planning at the strategic level for the development of green construction for our case study in Tehran, Iran. With a concentration on the outcomes of the present research, the sustainable green building framework can be implemented by the application of a prioritized knowledge management concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain Management in Construction Industry)
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19 pages, 1335 KiB  
Review
Masonry Elements Strengthened with TRM: A Review of Experimental, Design and Numerical Methods
by Ingrid Boem
Buildings 2022, 12(9), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12091307 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3026
Abstract
Textile-Reinforced Mortar (TRM) is a modern and compatible strengthening strategy for existing masonry, which consists in plastering the walls by means of mortar layers with embedded grids or textiles made of long fibers. TRM can be very useful for the reduction of the [...] Read more.
Textile-Reinforced Mortar (TRM) is a modern and compatible strengthening strategy for existing masonry, which consists in plastering the walls by means of mortar layers with embedded grids or textiles made of long fibers. TRM can be very useful for the reduction of the seismic vulnerability of masonry buildings, since the fiber-based reinforcement, carrying high tensile stresses, opposes the widening of cracks and provides “pseudo-ductility” to the masonry. The increasing number of available studies on the subject testifies to its relevance but also the lack of a standardized or well-establish approach to quantify the benefits of these systems on the performance of masonry. The present review is aimed at providing a broad overview of how the study of TRM-strengthened masonry elements has been addressed in the literature. In particular, the main features of the different experimental tests are compared, dealing with both in-plane and out-of-plane behavior. Moreover, the different design methods and numerical modeling strategies are presented and discussed. Full article
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21 pages, 5174 KiB  
Article
Impact of a Warming Climate on Hospital Energy Use and Decarbonization: An Australian Building Simulation Study
by Yunlong Ma, Sherif Zedan, Aaron Liu and Wendy Miller
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081275 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2644
Abstract
The high energy use of hospitals and healthcare facilities globally contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, a large percentage of this energy use is attributed to space heating, cooling and ventilation, and is hence correlated to the climate. While the [...] Read more.
The high energy use of hospitals and healthcare facilities globally contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, a large percentage of this energy use is attributed to space heating, cooling and ventilation, and is hence correlated to the climate. While the energy performance of Australian hospitals at the design stage is evaluated using historical weather data, the impact of the warming climate on Australian hospitals into the future remains unknown. The research question addressed is: What is the impact of future climates on the energy use of Australian hospitals built with the current design conditions? Two archetype hospital models were developed (a small single-story healthcare facility and a large multi-story hospital). DesignBuilder was used to simulate the performance of these models in 10 locations, ranging from the tropics to cool temperate regions in Australia. Current (1990–2015) and future climate files (2030, 2050, 2070 and 2090) were used. The results show that with the warming climate, the heating demand decreased, while the cooling demand increased for both hospital models for all sites. Cooling dominated climates, such as Darwin and Brisbane, were significantly impacted by the changing climates due to a substantial increase in cooling energy use. Heating based climates, such as Hobart and Canberra, resulted in an overall small reduction in total building energy use. In addition, the single-story facility was more impacted by the change in climate (in terms of energy use intensity) than the multi-story facility. The study highlights the importance of future climate files in building simulation and decarbonization planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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22 pages, 950 KiB  
Review
Temperature Effect on Vibration Properties and Vibration-Based Damage Identification of Bridge Structures: A Literature Review
by Jin Luo, Minshui Huang and Yongzhi Lei
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081209 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 4300
Abstract
In civil engineering structures, modal changes produced by environmental conditions, especially temperature, can be equivalent to or greater than the ones produced by damage. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish the variations in structural properties caused by environmental changes from those caused by [...] Read more.
In civil engineering structures, modal changes produced by environmental conditions, especially temperature, can be equivalent to or greater than the ones produced by damage. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish the variations in structural properties caused by environmental changes from those caused by structural damages. In this paper, we present a review of the technical literature concerning variations in the vibration properties of civil structures under varying temperature conditions and damage identification methods for bridge structures. First, the literature on the effect of temperature on vibration properties is roughly divided into experimental and theoretical studies. According to the classification of theoretical research methods, the progress in research on the probability analysis method, the artificial intelligence method, and the optimization algorithm method in this field is reviewed. Based on the different methods of experimental research employed in this field, the experimental research is reviewed according to qualitative and quantitative analyses. Then, damage identification methods for bridge structures are reviewed, considering data-based and model-based methods. Finally, different research methods are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Studies of Risk Resistant Building Structures)
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46 pages, 8189 KiB  
Review
Rheometry for Concrete 3D Printing: A Review and an Experimental Comparison
by Roshan Jayathilakage, Pathmanathan Rajeev and Jay Sanjayan
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081190 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5236
Abstract
The rapid advancement of 3D concrete printing (3DCP) and the development of relevant cementitious material compositions can be seen in the last few decades. The commonly used 3DCP method is to build the structure layer by layer after extruding the material through a [...] Read more.
The rapid advancement of 3D concrete printing (3DCP) and the development of relevant cementitious material compositions can be seen in the last few decades. The commonly used 3DCP method is to build the structure layer by layer after extruding the material through a nozzle. Initially, the pumping and extrusion of the material should be done with considerable fluidity and workability. The extruded layers should retain their shape immediately after extruding and depositing. While constructing the structure in a layerwise manner, the bottom layers should have enough early age strength to support the layers at the top. Therefore, at different processes in 3DCP, the rheological requirement is contradictory. As the rheology of the material is the deterministic factor which decides the fluidity or workability of the mix, proper rheological characterization should be completed accurately. In some instances, due to the higher stiffness, and higher time and rate-dependent material behavior (thixotropic behavior) compared to the conventional concrete, standard rheology measurement techniques have many limitations when used for 3DCP material. Therefore, non-conventional and novel techniques can be implemented with suitable material models to characterize the rheology of 3DCP material. In this study, a comprehensive review was conducted on conventional and non-conventional methods used for characterizing the rheological parameters for 3DCP material. The previously conducted studies were highlighted with the targeted 3DCP processes in the study (if applicable), and rheological parameters achieved from the test (i.e., yield stress, viscosity, and thixotropy). In addition, some experimental studies were conducted to compare several selected testing methods. The rheological parameters achieved from different test methods were compared to identify the similarities, dissimilarities, pros, and cons between the test methods. Furthermore, the extrudability and buildability studies were conducted for the mixes to demonstrate the usage of the mixes in 3DCP applications and to correlate the achieved rheological parameters with these processes. Full article
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21 pages, 4268 KiB  
Article
Architectural Survey, Diagnostic, and Constructive Analysis Strategies for Monumental Preservation of Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Management of Tourism
by Adela Rueda Márquez de la Plata, Pablo Alejandro Cruz Franco and Jorge Alberto Ramos Sánchez
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081156 - 3 Aug 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3097
Abstract
Heritage is under constant pressure to be adapted for tourism. The aim of this research was to improve the performance of both the tourism sector and the cultural heritage sector in a balanced and sustainable way, by considering the principles of conservation and [...] Read more.
Heritage is under constant pressure to be adapted for tourism. The aim of this research was to improve the performance of both the tourism sector and the cultural heritage sector in a balanced and sustainable way, by considering the principles of conservation and preservation. Non-invasive tools such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), and even virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technologies have been used to develop new methodologies, allowing us to generate new experiences and heritage tourist attractions, which not only do not generate negative impacts on the monuments themselves, but also promote their preservation without diminishing the cultural and tourist offers of the city. A case study was carried out on Mérida, a UNESCO World Heritage City, where tourism is a strong economic engine of the city. The results obtained are two-fold: on one hand, an effective interdisciplinary working methodology for heritage management was developed, and on the other hand, new approaches for the sustainable development of cultural tourism were generated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Architectural Heritage Protection)
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55 pages, 6328 KiB  
Review
On the Seismic Behavior of Masonry Infilled Frame Structures
by João Dias-Oliveira, Hugo Rodrigues, Panagiotis G. Asteris and Humberto Varum
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081146 - 1 Aug 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4906
Abstract
Infilled frames are usually modelled in the context of global building analysis using simplified procedures without considering the aspects resulting from the interaction between the panel and the frame. Other aspects, such as adequate design of the floor beams and the beam-columns’ joints, [...] Read more.
Infilled frames are usually modelled in the context of global building analysis using simplified procedures without considering the aspects resulting from the interaction between the panel and the frame. Other aspects, such as adequate design of the floor beams and the beam-columns’ joints, and control of potential sliding shear failure of the columns, that significantly affect the structural response, are also typically not accounted for. In the present work it is intended to look over the literature to evaluate the state of the art regarding the lessons learn from recent earthquakes, the evolution of the structural codes considering the infill masonry panels, and how this influences the evolution of the numerical models and the experimental works to overcome the existent gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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11 pages, 3292 KiB  
Article
Statistical and Practical Evaluation of the Mechanical and Fracture Properties of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete
by Kristýna Hrabová, Jaromír Láník and Petr Lehner
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081082 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1779
Abstract
The sustainability of the construction industry requires new perspectives on existing techniques. For example, fibre concrete has been an integral part of the construction industry for many years and its contribution to enhancing the properties and use of concrete is undeniable, but there [...] Read more.
The sustainability of the construction industry requires new perspectives on existing techniques. For example, fibre concrete has been an integral part of the construction industry for many years and its contribution to enhancing the properties and use of concrete is undeniable, but there are still some questions that need to be answered. The present paper showed the possibilities of statistical evaluation of crack mouth displacement (CMOD) tests performed on 24 fibre concrete specimens. The aim was to point out possible pitfalls and to propose measures based on statistics. The geometrical properties of all samples were determined and correlated with the results of the CMOD test. In this paper, a procedure was considered to compare two different concretes with different fibres at CMOD level. Correlations between geometry and CMOD test results were also demonstrated. Full article
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24 pages, 13830 KiB  
Article
Digital Twin for Xiegong’s Architectural Archaeological Research: A Case Study of Xuanluo Hall, Sichuan, China
by Jie Tan, Jie Leng, Xudong Zeng, Di Feng and Panliang Yu
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071053 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3347
Abstract
Xiegong is a unique element of Chinese historic buildings that could date the heritage dynasty. It is more complicated than the Dougong and represents a high level of artistic and structural achievement. Archaeological research on Xiegong is urgent due to the fast rate [...] Read more.
Xiegong is a unique element of Chinese historic buildings that could date the heritage dynasty. It is more complicated than the Dougong and represents a high level of artistic and structural achievement. Archaeological research on Xiegong is urgent due to the fast rate of erosion rate and the official record of only Dougong without Xiegong. With 3D survey technology, researchers can use 3D digital replicas to record and survey heritage buildings. However, the methodology of applying digital reproductions to facilitate archaeological research is unclear. A comprehensive approach to merging the digital twin into the chronology of forms was proposed based on a literature review of archaeological theory. This multi-methodological approach, including laser scanning, oblique photogrammetry, and BIM, was adopted to develop Xiegong’s architectural archaeology dating research. Using Xuanluo Hall, Sichuan, China, as an example, the site study verified the approach to ensure consistency between 2D and 3D expressions with geometry and semantics. The results indicate that, on the one hand, the digital twin process can help archaeologists recognize historical information. On the other hand, the results of their discrimination can be effectively recorded and easily queried, avoiding the shortcomings of traditional methods of information loss and dispersion. Full article
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15 pages, 901 KiB  
Article
Behaviour-Driven Energy-Saving in Hotels: The Roles of Extraversion and Past Behaviours on Guests’ Energy-Conservation Intention
by Yi-Bin Li, Tian-Yuan Wang, Rui-Xin Lin, Si-Nan Yu, Xuan Liu, Qian-Cheng Wang and Qian Xu
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12070941 - 2 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3134
Abstract
The growing environmental concerns and the significant energy consumption in hotel buildings make the ability to proactively manage energy and lower carbon intensity essential in the global hospitality industry. Activating guests’ energy-conservation behaviours is a potential strategy for sustainable hotel operation and maintenance. [...] Read more.
The growing environmental concerns and the significant energy consumption in hotel buildings make the ability to proactively manage energy and lower carbon intensity essential in the global hospitality industry. Activating guests’ energy-conservation behaviours is a potential strategy for sustainable hotel operation and maintenance. Yet, the psychological mechanism of hotel building energy-conservation intention and the roles of personality traits have not been sufficiently investigated. This study aims to examine the role of guests’ extraversion levels in their hotel building energy-conservation behavioural intention using a modified theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model. The study extends the TPB model with personal norms and past behaviour as two additional factors and employs past behaviour as a moderator to bridge extraversion and other psychological factors. A field experiment was conducted consisting of 530 hotel guests in Shanghai, China. The results demonstrate the relationships between attitude, behavioural control, personal norms, past behaviour and energy-conservation intention. Specifically, extraversion negatively influences perceived behavioural control (PBC) (β = −0.176, p < 0.001) and positively impacts on personal norms (β = 0.290, p < 0.001), both of which significantly contribute to guest energy-saving intention. In addition, past behaviours positively moderate the effects of extraversion on subjective norms and personal norms. This research enriches the hospitality and tourism management literature by shedding novel light on how guests’ personality characteristics influence their pro-environment intentions during their stays in hotel buildings. The findings would drive the hotel building energy management forward through actionable and effective energy-conservation interventions and enhanced guest satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development)
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27 pages, 15807 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Characteristics and Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Mortar-Rock Binary Medium
by Wenyu Tang, Hang Lin, Yifan Chen, Jingjing Feng and Huihua Hu
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050665 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2124
Abstract
The stability of the interface between mortar and rock is very important in engineering construction. In this paper, the all-digital acoustic emission (AE) system is used to detect the direct shear test of the mortar-rock binary medium interface with different sawtooth angles under [...] Read more.
The stability of the interface between mortar and rock is very important in engineering construction. In this paper, the all-digital acoustic emission (AE) system is used to detect the direct shear test of the mortar-rock binary medium interface with different sawtooth angles under different normal stress states. The stress-displacement information and AE signal during the whole shearing process are extracted. The coupling relationship between stress and AE characteristic parameters is discussed. The quantitative relationship between sawtooth angle and shear strength of binary medium is established, and three AE characteristic parameters that can be used to predict structural instability are proposed. The research shows that: With the increase of the normal stress and the sawtooth angle, the shear strength of the mortar-rock binary medium increases. The relationship of that is obtained by least squares fitting. The shear stress-displacement curve is divided into five stages according to the change of deformation law. Through the analysis of AE characteristic parameters, it is found that increasing the sawtooth angle makes the AE count and AE cumulative count increase. Based on the analysis of the characteristic parameters of RA-AF, the changes of shear cracks and tensile cracks within the whole shearing process were obtained, respectively. In the process of binary medium shearing, the AE peak frequency is in the range of 120–340 kHz. Three acoustic emission parameters that can predict the macroscopic damage of binary media are obtained: the AE b value, the ratio of shear crack signals, and the number of signals with a peak frequency of 220 Hz to 320 Hz. Full article
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20 pages, 1974 KiB  
Review
Carbonation and Corrosion Problems in Reinforced Concrete Structures
by Abdulrahman Fahad Al Fuhaid and Akbar Niaz
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050586 - 2 May 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 13690
Abstract
Reinforced concrete (RC) has been commonly used as a construction material for decades due to its high compressive strength and moderate tensile strength. However, these two properties of RC are frequently hampered by degradation. The main degradation processes in RC structures are carbonation [...] Read more.
Reinforced concrete (RC) has been commonly used as a construction material for decades due to its high compressive strength and moderate tensile strength. However, these two properties of RC are frequently hampered by degradation. The main degradation processes in RC structures are carbonation and the corrosion of rebars. The scientific community is divided regarding the process by which carbonation causes structural damage. Some researchers suggest that carbonation weakens a structure and makes it prone to rebar corrosion, while others suggest that carbonation does not damage structures enough to cause rebar corrosion. This paper is a review of the research work carried out by different researchers on the carbonation and corrosion of RC structures. The process of carbonation and the factors that contribute to this process will be discussed, alongside recommendations for improving structures to decrease the carbonation process. The corrosion of rebars, damage to passive layers, volume expansion due to steel oxidation, and crack growth will also be discussed. Available protection methods for reducing carbonation, such as rebar structure coating, cathodic protection, and modifier implementation, will also be reviewed. The paper concludes by describing the most significant types of damage caused by carbonation, testing protocols, and mitigation against corrosion damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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23 pages, 1042 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Machine Learning and Web-Based Process for Damage Score Estimation of Existing Buildings
by Vandana Kumari, Ehsan Harirchian, Tom Lahmer and Shahla Rasulzade
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050578 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3095
Abstract
The seismic vulnerability assessment of existing reinforced concrete (RC) buildings is a significant source of disaster mitigation plans and rescue services. Different countries evolved various Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) techniques and methodologies to deal with the devastating consequences of earthquakes on the structural [...] Read more.
The seismic vulnerability assessment of existing reinforced concrete (RC) buildings is a significant source of disaster mitigation plans and rescue services. Different countries evolved various Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) techniques and methodologies to deal with the devastating consequences of earthquakes on the structural characteristics of buildings and human casualties. Artificial intelligence (AI) methods, such as machine learning (ML) algorithm-based methods, are increasingly used in various scientific and technical applications. The investigation toward using these techniques in civil engineering applications has shown encouraging results and reduced human intervention, including uncertainties and biased judgment. In this study, several known non-parametric algorithms are investigated toward RVS using a dataset employing different earthquakes. Moreover, the methodology encourages the possibility of examining the buildings’ vulnerability based on the factors related to the buildings’ importance and exposure. In addition, a web-based application built on Django is introduced. The interface is designed with the idea to ease the seismic vulnerability investigation in real-time. The concept was validated using two case studies, and the achieved results showed the proposed approach’s potential efficiency. Full article
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19 pages, 9532 KiB  
Article
Wind Pressure Characteristics Based on the Rise–Span Ratio of Spherical Domes with Openings on the Roof
by Min Jae Park, Sung Won Yoon, Yong Chul Kim and Dong Jin Cheon
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050576 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2018
Abstract
Wind loads are a primary concern in dome roof structures with openings such as retractable dome roofs. This is because the openings can cause damage to the cladding owing to high internal pressure. In this study, the wind pressure characteristics of a dome [...] Read more.
Wind loads are a primary concern in dome roof structures with openings such as retractable dome roofs. This is because the openings can cause damage to the cladding owing to high internal pressure. In this study, the wind pressure characteristics of a dome with an opening that varied based on the opening, rise–span ratio, and height span were examined by comparing the results from wind tunnel tests with those from previous studies. The negative pressure dominated the internal pressure of the roof in all regions and was not significantly affected by changes in the rise–span and height–span ratios. The reattachment distance of the windward region increased as the rise–span ratio increased, increasing the negative net pressure and decreasing the positive net pressure owing to a relatively large vortex. The roof inclination angle of the leeward region decreased as the rise–span ratio decreased, resulting in a decrease in the negative net pressure and an increase in the positive net pressure owing to a relatively small vortex. Based on the experimental results, a peak net pressure coefficient for cladding design was proposed for an open dome roof with a rise–span ratio of 0.05. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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24 pages, 5958 KiB  
Article
Collaboration and Risk in Building Information Modelling (BIM): A Systematic Literature Review
by Kherun Nita Ali, Hamed H. Alhajlah and Mukhtar A. Kassem
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050571 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 9816
Abstract
Building information modelling (BIM) has become increasingly popular in construction projects in recent years. Simultaneously, project management has received more attention from academics and practitioners worldwide. Many studies have suggested that perceiving collaboration and risk are critical for successful construction project management. This [...] Read more.
Building information modelling (BIM) has become increasingly popular in construction projects in recent years. Simultaneously, project management has received more attention from academics and practitioners worldwide. Many studies have suggested that perceiving collaboration and risk are critical for successful construction project management. This study investigates the current status and future trends in building information modeling (BIM) literature from the Web of Science database. This review systematically uses bibliometric and systematic literature review (SLR) methods through co-occurrence and co-citation analysis. First, 650 academic documents were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Then, co-occurrence and co-citation analyses were performed along with network visualization to examine research interconnections’ patterns. As a result, relevant keywords, productive authors, and important journals have been highlighted. The prominent research topics within the literature on building information modelling focus on the following topics: collaborative in BIM, integration of BIM, GIS and Internet of Things (IoT), barriers to the integration of BIM, sustainability and BIM, and risk assessment and uncertainty. Finally, the potential research directions are developing towards digital twin technology, integration of BIM and AI, and Augmented Reality (AR) and BIM. The presented findings of only 88 articles discuss the collaboration and risk issue in BIM for the construction industry and thus confirms the need for more studies on this topic to enhance the chances of successfully building information modelling projects. The review focuses only on the academic documents retrieved from the Web of Science database, thus restricting the coverage of the reviewed literature relating to building information modelling collaboration and risk. Full article
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17 pages, 5855 KiB  
Article
HBIM Methodology to Achieve a Balance between Protection and Habitability: The Case Study of the Monastery of Santa Clara in Belalcazar, Spain
by Pablo Manuel Millán-Millán and Joseph Cabeza-Lainez
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050510 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1955
Abstract
The different technical and legal tools intended for heritage protection have augmented the possibilities to acknowledge important monumental complexes. However, a contrast lies in the artistic contexts in which, due to the consolidation of their programmatic typology, such monuments require habitation, unlike more [...] Read more.
The different technical and legal tools intended for heritage protection have augmented the possibilities to acknowledge important monumental complexes. However, a contrast lies in the artistic contexts in which, due to the consolidation of their programmatic typology, such monuments require habitation, unlike more conventional monuments. This article collects the results of an accurate investigation conducted by the authors, whose main objective was to obtain a tool that allows consistent measurement of different indicators in which both the protection of the elements, and the capacity for habitation, are safeguarded. To this aim, we contextualized the research at the Monastery of Santa Clara de la Columna in Belalcázar (Córdoba), a monastery with the highest heritage protection in Spain, and which, in turn, accommodates a religious community. The results have allowed us, for the first time in Andalucia, to define objective habitability parameters, within protected heritage contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced BIM Application in Construction and Buildings)
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17 pages, 7181 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Ventilation Systems to Improve Air Quality in the Occupied Zone in Office Buildings
by Szabolcs Szekeres, Attila Kostyák, Ferenc Szodrai and Imre Csáky
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040493 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2623
Abstract
As a result of COVID-19, many office buildings around the world have downsized their employees, but the comfort parameters in the building had to be kept. The facilities operation rearranged the workstations to keep physical distance and placed plexiglass sheets on the desks [...] Read more.
As a result of COVID-19, many office buildings around the world have downsized their employees, but the comfort parameters in the building had to be kept. The facilities operation rearranged the workstations to keep physical distance and placed plexiglass sheets on the desks for physical protection. A series of measurements have been carried out with workstation set-ups to examine the fresh air rate in the occupied zone. The effect of plexiglass sheets placed on the desks was also examined to see how it changes the airflow pattern in the occupied zone. As the sheets act as a barrier, the primary air does not reach the occupied zone, therefore, the fresh air rate is less. To modify the properties of the ceiling diffusers a new air-ventilation service element was developed. This attachment allows modifying the properties of the ceiling diffusers. Simulations were made at the relevant zones to validate the measurements. Based on design software, the fresh air ratio for a standard ceiling swirl diffuser is 2.46 v% (volume percentage). A numerical model was used to show the fresh air ratio with the system elements for the two different table arrangements, which were 18.3 v% and 21.4 v%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Indoor Environments and Respiratory Health)
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20 pages, 6629 KiB  
Article
A Scientometric Analysis and Systematic Literature Review for Construction Project Complexity
by Hassan Ghaleb, Hamed Hamdan Alhajlah, Abdul Aziz Bin Abdullah, Mukhtar A. Kassem and Mohammed A. Al-Sharafi
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040482 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 10614
Abstract
The construction industry has been experiencing a rapid increase in complex projects for the last two decades. Simultaneously, project complexity has received more attention from academics and practitioners worldwide. Many studies suggest that perceiving complexity is critical for successful construction project management. This [...] Read more.
The construction industry has been experiencing a rapid increase in complex projects for the last two decades. Simultaneously, project complexity has received more attention from academics and practitioners worldwide. Many studies suggest that perceiving complexity is critical for successful construction project management. This study investigates the current status and future trends in construction project complexity (CPC) literature from the Scopus database. This review systematically uses bibliometric and scientometric methods through co-occurrence and co-citation analysis. First, 644 academic documents were retrieved from the Scopus database. Then, co-occurrence and co-citation analysis were performed along with network visualization to examine research interconnections’ patterns. As a result, relevant keywords, productive authors, and important journals have been highlighted. The prominent research topics within the literature on construction project complexity focus on the following topics: identifying and measuring project complexity, schedule performance and cost estimation, system integration and dynamic capabilities, and risk assessment and uncertainty. Finally, the potential research directions are developing towards safety performance, organizational resilience, and integrated project delivery (IPD). The study still has a limitation. The review focuses only on the academic documents retrieved from the Scopus database, thus restricting the coverage of the reviewed literature relating to construction project complexity. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is the first study that provides a systematic review of the literature from the Scopus database on construction project complexity. Full article
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25 pages, 11104 KiB  
Article
Implementation of BIM Energy Analysis and Monte Carlo Simulation for Estimating Building Energy Performance Based on Regression Approach: A Case Study
by Faham Tahmasebinia, Ruifeng Jiang, Samad Sepasgozar, Jinlin Wei, Yilin Ding and Hongyi Ma
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040449 - 5 Apr 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5372
Abstract
The energy performance prediction of buildings plays a significant role in the design phases. Theoretical analysis and statistical analysis are typically carried out to predict energy consumption. However, due to the complexity of the building characteristics, precise energy performance can hardly be predicted [...] Read more.
The energy performance prediction of buildings plays a significant role in the design phases. Theoretical analysis and statistical analysis are typically carried out to predict energy consumption. However, due to the complexity of the building characteristics, precise energy performance can hardly be predicted in the early design stage. This study considers both building information modeling (BIM) and statistical approaches, including several regression models for the prediction purpose. This paper also highlights a number of findings of energy modeling related to building energy performance simulation software, particularly Autodesk Green Building Studio. In this research, the geometric models were created using Autodesk Revit. Based on the energy simulation conducted by Autodesk Green Building Studio (GBS), the energy properties of five prototype and case study models were determined. The GBS simulation was carried out using DOE 2.2 engine. Eight parameters were used in BIM, including building type, location, building area, analysis year, floor-to-ceiling height, floor construction, wall construction, and ceiling construction. The Monte Carlo simulation method was performed to predict precise energy consumption. Among the regression models developed, the single variable linear regression models appear to have high accuracy. Although there exist some limitations in applying the equation in EUI prediction, the rough estimation of energy use was realized. Regression model validation was carried out using the model from the case study and Monte Carlo simulation results. A total of 35 runs of validation were performed, and most differences were maintained within 5%. The results show some limitations in the application of the linear regression model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy in Buildings)
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28 pages, 4194 KiB  
Article
Post-Disaster Temporary Shelters Distribution after a Large-Scale Disaster: An Integrated Model
by Zahra Gharib, Reza Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Ali Bozorgi-Amiri and Maziar Yazdani
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040414 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3950
Abstract
This paper develops an integrated model for the distribution of post-disaster temporary shelters after a large-scale disaster. The proposed model clusters impacted areas using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) method and then prioritizes the points of clusters by affecting factors on the [...] Read more.
This paper develops an integrated model for the distribution of post-disaster temporary shelters after a large-scale disaster. The proposed model clusters impacted areas using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) method and then prioritizes the points of clusters by affecting factors on the route reliability using a permanent matrix. The model’s objectives are to minimize the maximum service time, maximize the route reliability and minimize the unmet demand. In the case of ground relief, the possibility of a breakdown in the vehicle is considered. Due to the disaster’s uncertain nature, the demands of impacted areas are considered in the form of fuzzy numbers, and then the equivalent crisp counterpart of the non-deterministic is made by Jimenez’s method. Since the developed model is multi-objective, the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) and Multi-Objective Firefly Algorithm (MOFA) are applied to find efficient solutions. The results confirm higher accuracy and lower computational time of the proposed MOFA. The findings of this study can contribute to the growing body of knowledge about disaster management strategies and have implications for critical decision-makers involved in post-disaster response projects. Furthermore, this study provides valuable information for national decision-makers in countries with limited experience with disasters and where the destructive consequences of disasters on the built environment are increasing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Management and Disaster Risk Management)
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20 pages, 1624 KiB  
Article
Barriers to BIM-Based Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment for Buildings: An Interpretive Structural Modelling Approach
by Adetayo Onososen and Innocent Musonda
Buildings 2022, 12(3), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12030324 - 8 Mar 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3867
Abstract
With the emergence of Building Information Modelling (BIM) as central to construction design, planning, execution and maintenance, integration into the entire infrastructure sustainability process is imperative for achieving sustainable development. Despite its immense benefit of aiding compliance to sustainable construction, potential barriers continue [...] Read more.
With the emergence of Building Information Modelling (BIM) as central to construction design, planning, execution and maintenance, integration into the entire infrastructure sustainability process is imperative for achieving sustainable development. Despite its immense benefit of aiding compliance to sustainable construction, potential barriers continue to widen the gap in implementation. Therefore, this study adopts the “interpretive structural modelling approach” to advance a ranked structure of the interrelatedness of the barriers to integrating BIM in buildings sustainability assessment. The “Matrice d’Impacts croises-multipication applique a classement analysis (MICMAC)” was utilised to categorise the identified adoption barriers in the model. The identified barriers and relationship with themselves are valuable in discussing the challenges to BIM-based LCA and developing policies and design decisions to drive the process further. Further, it adds to the emerging discussion of BIM from the life cycle sustainability assessment perspective for infrastructure. The findings are critical for policy, stakeholders and extending the body of knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings)
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16 pages, 746 KiB  
Article
The Mechanism of Influencing Green Technology Innovation Behavior: Evidence from Chinese Construction Enterprises
by Xingwei Li, Yicheng Huang, Jingru Li, Xiang Liu, Jinrong He and Jiachi Dai
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020237 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3502
Abstract
The Green Technology Innovation Behavior (GTIB) of construction enterprises is crucial for promoting green development in the construction industry. In order to clarify the mechanism of action affecting the GTIB of construction enterprises, this paper considers the context of green development in the [...] Read more.
The Green Technology Innovation Behavior (GTIB) of construction enterprises is crucial for promoting green development in the construction industry. In order to clarify the mechanism of action affecting the GTIB of construction enterprises, this paper considers the context of green development in the construction industry based on the vector autoregressive model and constructs a theoretical model of GTIB in construction enterprises. Time series data collected by the Chinese government (2000–2018) were used to analyze the mechanism of action of the factors influencing the GTIB of construction enterprises by EViews 10.0. The results of the paper showed the following: (1) direct government investment has the greatest impact on the GTIB of construction enterprises and has made a positive contribution; (2) the added value of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the construction industry has a relatively small impact on the GTIB of construction enterprises; (3) the role of environmental regulation on the GTIB of construction enterprises is non-linear. This paper further broadens the research to the factors influencing the GTIB of construction enterprises. Meanwhile, this paper provides a reference basis for local governments to formulate policies related to the GTIB of construction enterprises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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20 pages, 4859 KiB  
Article
Sound Transmission Loss of a Honeycomb Sandwich Cylindrical Shell with Functionally Graded Porous Layers
by Chanachai Thongchom, Thira Jearsiripongkul, Nima Refahati, Peyman Roudgar Saffari, Pouyan Roodgar Saffari, Sayan Sirimontree and Suraparb Keawsawasvong
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020151 - 1 Feb 2022
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 3481
Abstract
To examine the acousto-structural behavior of a sandwich cylindrical shell benefiting from hexagonal honeycomb structures in its core and functionally graded porous (FGP) layers on its outer and inner surfaces, a comprehensive study based on an analytical model which also considers the effect [...] Read more.
To examine the acousto-structural behavior of a sandwich cylindrical shell benefiting from hexagonal honeycomb structures in its core and functionally graded porous (FGP) layers on its outer and inner surfaces, a comprehensive study based on an analytical model which also considers the effect of an external flow is conducted. A homogenous orthotropic model is used for the honeycomb core while its corresponding material features are found from the modified Gibson’s equation. The distribution pattern of FGP parts is either even or logarithmic-uneven, and a special rule-of-mixture relation governs their properties. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), Hamilton’s principle is exploited to derive the final coupled vibro-acoustic equations, which are then solved analytically to allow us to calculate the amount of sound transmission loss (STL) through the whole structure. This acoustic property is further investigated in the frequency domain by changing a set of parameters, i.e., Mach number, wave approach angle, structure’s radius, volume fraction, index of functionally graded material (FGM), and different honeycomb properties. Overall, good agreement is observed between the result of the present study and previous findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Dynamics of Building Structures)
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31 pages, 11919 KiB  
Review
Carbon Peak and Carbon Neutrality in the Building Sector: A Bibliometric Review
by Zhaohui Sun, Zhili Ma, Minda Ma, Weiguang Cai, Xiwang Xiang, Shufan Zhang, Minxia Chen and Liming Chen
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020128 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 7499
Abstract
Due to large energy consumption and carbon emissions (ECCE) in the building sector, there is huge potential for carbon emission reduction, and this will strongly influence peak carbon emissions and carbon neutrality in the future. To get a better sense of the current [...] Read more.
Due to large energy consumption and carbon emissions (ECCE) in the building sector, there is huge potential for carbon emission reduction, and this will strongly influence peak carbon emissions and carbon neutrality in the future. To get a better sense of the current research situation and future trends and to provide a valuable reference and guidance for subsequent research, this study presents a summary of carbon peak and carbon neutrality (CPCN) in buildings using a bibliometric approach. Three areas are addressed in the review through the analysis of 364 articles published from 1990–2021: (1) Which countries, institutions, and individuals have conducted extensive and in-depth research on CPCN in buildings, and what is the status quo of their collaboration and contributions? (2) What subjects and topics have aroused wide interest and enthusiasm among scholars, and what are their time trajectories? (3) What journals and authors have grabbed the attention of many scholars, and what are the research directions related to them? Moreover, we propose future research directions. Filling these gaps will enrich the research body of CPCN and overcome current limitations by developing more methods and exploring other practical applications. Full article
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19 pages, 1384 KiB  
Article
Digital Twins in Built Environments: An Investigation of the Characteristics, Applications, and Challenges
by Muhammad Shahzad, Muhammad Tariq Shafiq, Dean Douglas and Mohamad Kassem
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020120 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 106 | Viewed by 18560
Abstract
The concept of digital twins is proposed as a new technology-led advancement to support the processes of the design, construction, and operation of built assets. Commonalities between the emerging definitions of digital twins describe them as digital or cyber environments that are bidirectionally-linked [...] Read more.
The concept of digital twins is proposed as a new technology-led advancement to support the processes of the design, construction, and operation of built assets. Commonalities between the emerging definitions of digital twins describe them as digital or cyber environments that are bidirectionally-linked to their physical or real-life replica to enable simulation and data-centric decision making. Studies have started to investigate their role in the digitalization of asset delivery, including the management of built assets at different levels within the building and infrastructure sectors. However, questions persist regarding their actual applications and implementation challenges, including their integration with other digital technologies (i.e., building information modeling, virtual and augmented reality, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, and cloud computing). Within the built environment context, this study seeks to analyze the definitions and characteristics of a digital twin, its interactions with other digital technologies used in built asset delivery and operation, and its applications and challenges. To achieve this aim, the research utilizes a thorough literature review and semi-structured interviews with ten industry experts. The literature review explores the merits and the relevance of digital twins relative to existing digital technologies and highlights potential applications and challenges for their implementation. The data from the semi-structured interviews are classified into five themes: definitions and enablers of digital twins, applications and benefits, implementation challenges, existing practical applications, and future development. The findings provide a point of departure for future research aimed at clarifying the relationship between digital twins and other digital technologies and their key implementation challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Twin in the AEC Industry – Advances and Challenges)
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25 pages, 4958 KiB  
Article
Off-Site Construction Three-Echelon Supply Chain Management with Stochastic Constraints: A Modelling Approach
by Samira Al-Sadat Salari, Hediye Mahmoudi, Amir Aghsami, Fariborz Jolai, Soroush Jolai and Maziar Yazdani
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020119 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4633
Abstract
Off-site construction is becoming more popular as more companies recognise the benefits of shifting the construction process away from the construction site and into a controlled manufacturing environment. However, challenges associated with the component supply chain have not been fully addressed. As a [...] Read more.
Off-site construction is becoming more popular as more companies recognise the benefits of shifting the construction process away from the construction site and into a controlled manufacturing environment. However, challenges associated with the component supply chain have not been fully addressed. As a result, this study proposes a model for three-echelon supply chain supply management in off-site construction with stochastic constraints. In this paper, multiple off-site factories produce various types of components and ship them to supplier warehouses to meet the needs of the construction sites. Each construction site is directly served by a supplier warehouse. The service level for each supplier warehouse is assumed to be different based on regional conditions. Because of the unpredictable nature of construction projects, demand at each construction site is stochastic, so each supplier warehouse should stock a certain number of components. The inventory control policy is reviewed regularly and is in (R, s, S) form. Two objectives are considered: minimising total cost while achieving the desired delivery time for construction sites due to their demands and balancing driver workloads during the routeing stage. A grasshopper optimisation algorithm (GOA) and an exact method are used to solve this NP-hard problem. The findings of this study contribute new theoretical and practical insights to a growing body of knowledge about supply chain management strategies in off-site construction and have implications for project planners and suppliers, policymakers, and managers, particularly in companies where an unplanned supply chain exacerbates project delays and overrun costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Management and Disaster Risk Management)
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22 pages, 8324 KiB  
Article
Investigations on the Response of Novel Layered Geopolymer Fibrous Concrete to Drop Weight Impact
by Sundaravadivelu Karthik, Kaliyaperumal Saravana Raja Mohan and Gunasekaran Murali
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020100 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2702
Abstract
In recent years, geopolymer concrete (GC) has become more popular in construction because of its multiple benefits, such as eco-friendliness, high temperature resistance and resistance to chemical attack in harsh environments. However, GC has limited deformation capability and tensile strength compared to ordinary [...] Read more.
In recent years, geopolymer concrete (GC) has become more popular in construction because of its multiple benefits, such as eco-friendliness, high temperature resistance and resistance to chemical attack in harsh environments. However, GC has limited deformation capability and tensile strength compared to ordinary concrete. Geopolymer fibrous concrete (GFC) exhibits high mechanical properties, such as compressive strength and impact strength. This study aimed to develop a novel composite comprising GFC at the tension zone and GC at the compression zone, and vice versa, are these composites were examined. The impact resistance of two-layered GC-GFC with various ratios (25–75, 50–50, 75–25%) was examined. In addition, a single layer specimen comprising GC and GFC was fabricated and tested as the reference specimen. Twenty-nine mixtures were developed and divided into four series. Four different types of fibre were used in this study; short polypropylene fibre, long polypropylene fibre, short steel fibre and long steel fibre. The ACI committee 544 drop weight test was used to evaluate the impact strength of specimens. Results indicated that the impact strength of GFC was significantly improved in long steel fibre-based specimens. In addition, two-layered specimens comprising different fibres—short polypropylene, long polypropylene, short steel and long steel—exhibited a positive influence on impact strength. Compared to a single-layer specimen, inferior impact strength was recorded in the two-layered specimen. Full article
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17 pages, 9111 KiB  
Article
BIM Approach in Construction Safety—A Case Study on Preventing Falls from Height
by Fernanda Rodrigues, João Santos Baptista and Débora Pinto
Buildings 2022, 12(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12010073 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 9668
Abstract
The construction industry has one of the highest occupational accident incidence rates among all economic sectors. Currently, building information modelling (BIM) appears to be a valuable tool for analysing occupational safety issues throughout the construction life cycle of projects, helping to avoid hazards [...] Read more.
The construction industry has one of the highest occupational accident incidence rates among all economic sectors. Currently, building information modelling (BIM) appears to be a valuable tool for analysing occupational safety issues throughout the construction life cycle of projects, helping to avoid hazards and risks and, consequently, increasing safety. This work investigates BIM methodology and the application of related technologies for building safety planning and demonstrates the potential of this technology for the integrated implementation of safety measures during the design phase and construction site management. The first step consisted of a literature review on applying BIM-related technologies for safety in the design and planning phases. Following this, to show the potentialities of construction simulation, a case study based on BIM 4D to prevent falls from height was developed. With BIM 4D, it is possible to follow the construction process over time, giving the construction safety technicians, designers, supervisors and managers the capability to analyse, in each phase, the potential risks and identify which safety measures should be implemented. BIM can effectively integrate safety measures from the design phase to the construction and use phase and enable integrated safety planning within construction planning, leading to reliable safety management throughout the construction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced BIM Application in Construction and Buildings)
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21 pages, 7229 KiB  
Article
Designing Post COVID-19 Buildings: Approaches for Achieving Healthy Buildings
by Satheeskumar Navaratnam, Kate Nguyen, Kajanan Selvaranjan, Guomin Zhang, Priyan Mendis and Lu Aye
Buildings 2022, 12(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12010074 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 13530
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic forced the accessibility, social gathering, lifestyle, and working environment to be changed to reduce the infection. Coronavirus spreads between people in several different ways. Small liquid particles (aerosols, respiratory droplets) from an infected person are transmitted through air and surfaces [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic forced the accessibility, social gathering, lifestyle, and working environment to be changed to reduce the infection. Coronavirus spreads between people in several different ways. Small liquid particles (aerosols, respiratory droplets) from an infected person are transmitted through air and surfaces that are in contact with humans. Reducing transmission through modified heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and building design are potential solutions. A comprehensive review of the engineering control preventive measures to mitigate COVID-19 spread, healthy building design, and material was carried out. The current state-of-the-art engineering control preventive measures presented include ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), bipolar ionization, vertical gardening, and indoor plants. They have potential to improve the indoor air quality. In addition, this article presents building design with materials (e.g., copper alloys, anti-microbial paintings) and smart technologies (e.g., automation, voice control, and artificial intelligence-based facial recognition) to mitigate the infections of communicable diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-COVID Architecture Research)
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14 pages, 2017 KiB  
Article
Operational Carbon Change in Commercial Buildings under the Carbon Neutral Goal: A LASSO–WOA Approach
by Xiwang Xiang, Xin Ma, Zhili Ma and Minda Ma
Buildings 2022, 12(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12010054 - 6 Jan 2022
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 5189
Abstract
The rapid growth of energy consumption in commercial building operations has hindered the pace of carbon emission reduction in the building sector in China. This study used historical data to model the carbon emissions of commercial building operations, the LASSO regression was applied [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of energy consumption in commercial building operations has hindered the pace of carbon emission reduction in the building sector in China. This study used historical data to model the carbon emissions of commercial building operations, the LASSO regression was applied to estimate the model results, and the whale optimization algorithm was used to optimize the nonlinear parameter. The key findings show the following: (1) The major driving forces of carbon emissions from commercial buildings in China were found to be the population size and energy intensity of carbon emissions, and their elastic coefficients were 0.6346 and 0.2487, respectively. (2) The peak emissions of the commercial building sector were 1264.81 MtCO2, and the peak year was estimated to be 2030. Overall, this study analyzed the historical emission reduction levels and prospective peaks of carbon emissions from China’s commercial buildings from a new perspective. The research results are helpful for governments and decision makers to formulate effective emission reduction policies and can also provide references for the low-carbon development of other countries and regions. Full article
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28 pages, 1964 KiB  
Review
Adoption of Blockchain Technology through Digital Twins in the Construction Industry 4.0: A PESTELS Approach
by Benjamin Teisserenc and Samad Sepasgozar
Buildings 2021, 11(12), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11120670 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 70 | Viewed by 10688
Abstract
The key challenges of the building, engineering, construction, operations, and mining (BECOM) industries are the lack of trust, inefficiencies, and the fragmentation of the information value chain into vulnerable data silos throughout the lifecycle of projects. This paper aims to develop a novel [...] Read more.
The key challenges of the building, engineering, construction, operations, and mining (BECOM) industries are the lack of trust, inefficiencies, and the fragmentation of the information value chain into vulnerable data silos throughout the lifecycle of projects. This paper aims to develop a novel conceptual model for the implementation of blockchain technology (BCT) for digital twin(s) (DT) in the BECOM industry 4.0 to improve trust, cyber security, efficiencies, information management, information sharing, and sustainability. A PESTELS approach is used to review the literature and identify the key challenges affecting BCT adoption for the BECOM industry 4.0. A review of the technical literature on BCT combined with the findings from PESTELS analysis permitted researchers to identify the key technological factors affecting BCT adoption in the industry. This allowed offering a technological framework—namely, the decentralized digital twin cycle (DDTC)—that leverages BCT to address the key technological factors and to ultimately enhance trust, security, decentralization, efficiency, traceability, and transparency of information throughout projects’ lifecycles. The study also identifies the gaps in the integration of BCT with key technologies of industry 4.0, including the internet of things (IoT), building information modeling (BIM), and DT. The framework offered addresses key technological factors and narrows key gaps around network governance, scalability, decentralization, interoperability, energy efficiency, computational requirements, and BCT integration with IoT, BIM, and DT throughout projects’ lifecycles. The model also considers the regulatory aspect and the environmental aspect, and the circular economy (CE). The theoretical framework provides key technological building blocks for industry practitioners to develop the DDTC concept further and implement it through experimental works. Finally, the paper provides an industry-specific analysis and technological approach facilitating BCT adoption through DT to address the key challenges and improve sustainability for the BECOM industry 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction 4.0)
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22 pages, 6932 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation and Design Recommendations for Web Crippling Strength of Cold-Formed Steel Channels with Web Holes under Interior-One-Flange Loading at Elevated Temperatures
by Zhiyuan Fang, Krishanu Roy, Hao Liang, Keerthan Poologanathan, Kushal Ghosh, Abdeliazim Mustafa Mohamed and James B. P. Lim
Buildings 2021, 11(12), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11120666 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 3880
Abstract
This paper investigates the interior-one-flange web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channels at elevated temperatures. The stress-strain curves of G250 and G450 grade cold-formed steel (CFS) channels at ambient and elevated temperatures were taken from the literature and the temperatures were varied from [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the interior-one-flange web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channels at elevated temperatures. The stress-strain curves of G250 and G450 grade cold-formed steel (CFS) channels at ambient and elevated temperatures were taken from the literature and the temperatures were varied from 20 to 700 °C. A detailed parametric analysis comprising 3474 validated finite element models was undertaken to investigate the effects of web holes and bearing length on the web crippling behavior of these channels at elevated temperatures. From the parametric study results, it was found that the web crippling strength reduction factor is sensitive to the changes of the hole size, hole location, and the bearing length, with the parameters of hole size and hole location having the largest effect on the web crippling reduction factor. However, the web crippling strength reduction factor remains stable when the temperature is changed from 20 to 700 °C. Based on the parametric analysis results, the web crippling strength reduction factors for both ambient and elevated temperatures are proposed, which outperformed the equations available in the literature and in the design guidelines of American standard (AISI S100-16) and Australian/New Zealand standard (AS/NZS 4600:2018) for ambient temperatures. Then, a reliability analysis was conducted, the results of which showed that the proposed design equations could closely predict the reduced web crippling strength of CFS channel sections under interior-one-flange loading conditions at elevated temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings: 10th Anniversary)
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17 pages, 1633 KiB  
Article
The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Dynamic Site Layout Planning in Large-Scale Construction Projects
by Ahmed W. A. Hammad, Bruno B. F. da Costa, Carlos A. P. Soares and Assed N. Haddad
Buildings 2021, 11(12), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11120602 - 1 Dec 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3447
Abstract
Construction sites are increasingly complex, and their layout have an impact on productivity, safety, and efficiency of construction operations. Dynamic site layout planning (DSLP) considers the adjustment of construction facilities on-site, on an evolving basis, allowing the relocation of temporary facilities according to [...] Read more.
Construction sites are increasingly complex, and their layout have an impact on productivity, safety, and efficiency of construction operations. Dynamic site layout planning (DSLP) considers the adjustment of construction facilities on-site, on an evolving basis, allowing the relocation of temporary facilities according to the stages of the project. The main objective of this study is to develop a framework for integrating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their capacity for effective photogrammetry with site layout planning optimisation and Building Information Modelling (BIM) for automating site layout planning in large construction projects. The mathematical model proposed is based on a mixed integer programming (MIP) model, which was employed to validate the framework on a realistic case study provided by an industry partner. Allocation constraints were formulated to ensure the placement of the facilities in feasible regions. Using information from the UAV, several parameters could be considered, including proximity to access ways, distances between the facilities, and suitability of locations. Based on the proposed framework, a layout was developed for each stage of the project, adapting the location of temporary facilities according to current progress on-site. As a result, the use of space was optimised, and internal transport costs were progressively reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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17 pages, 3165 KiB  
Article
Carbon Neutral Roadmap of Commercial Building Operations by Mid-Century: Lessons from China
by Shufan Zhang, Xiwang Xiang, Zhili Ma, Minda Ma and Chenchen Zou
Buildings 2021, 11(11), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11110510 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4244
Abstract
Carbon neutrality has positive impacts on people, nature and the economy, and buildings represent the “last mile” sector in the transition to carbon neutrality. Carbon neutrality is characterized by the decarbonization of operations and maintenance, in addition to zero emissions in electricity and [...] Read more.
Carbon neutrality has positive impacts on people, nature and the economy, and buildings represent the “last mile” sector in the transition to carbon neutrality. Carbon neutrality is characterized by the decarbonization of operations and maintenance, in addition to zero emissions in electricity and other industry sectors. Taking China’s commercial buildings as an example, this study is the first to perform an extensive data analysis for a step-wise carbon neutral roadmap of building operations via the analysis of a dynamic emission scenario. The results reveal that the carbon emissions abatement of commercial building operations from 2001 to 2018 was 1460.85 (±574.61) mega-tons of carbon dioxide (Mt CO2). The carbon emissions of commercial building operations will peak in the year 2039 (±5) at 1364.31 (±258.70) Mt, with emission factors and energy intensity being the main factors influencing the carbon peak. To move toward carbon neutral status, an additional 169.73 Mt CO2 needs to be cut by 2060, and the low emission path toward carbon neutrality will lead to the realization of the carbon peak of commercial buildings in 2024, with total emissions of 921.71 Mt. It is believed that cutting emissions from the operation of buildings in China will require a multi-sectoral synergistic strategy. It is suggested that government, residents, enterprises, and other stakeholders must better appreciate the challenges to achieve a substantial carbon reduction and the need for urgent action in the building sector in order to achieve carbon neutrality. Full article
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24 pages, 1267 KiB  
Review
Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Ash-Incorporated Concrete: One Step towards Environmental Justice
by Jiaqi Li
Buildings 2021, 11(11), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11110495 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5378
Abstract
Municipal solid waste and cement manufacture are two sources of environmental justice issues in urban and suburban areas. Waste utilization is an attractive alternative to disposal for eliminating environmental injustice, reducing potential hazards, and improving urban sustainability. The re-use and recycling of municipal [...] Read more.
Municipal solid waste and cement manufacture are two sources of environmental justice issues in urban and suburban areas. Waste utilization is an attractive alternative to disposal for eliminating environmental injustice, reducing potential hazards, and improving urban sustainability. The re-use and recycling of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash in the construction industry has drawn significant attention. Incorporating MSWI ash in cement and concrete production is a potential path that mitigates the environmental justice issues in waste management and the construction industry. This paper presents a critical overview of the pretreatment methods that optimize MSWI ash utilization in cement/concrete and the influences of MSWI ash on the performance of cement/concrete. This review aims to elucidate the potential advantages and limitations associated with the use of MSWI ash for producing cement clinker, alternative binder (e.g., alkali-activated material), cement substitutes, and aggregates. A brief overview of the generation and characteristics of MSWI ash is reported, accompanied by identifying opportunities for the use of MSWI ash-incorporated products in industrial-scale applications and recognizing associated environmental justice implications. Full article
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11 pages, 11650 KiB  
Article
Effect of Amount of Fibre and Damage Level on Service Life of SFR Recycled Concrete in Aggressive Environment
by Petr Lehner and Marie Horňáková
Buildings 2021, 11(10), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11100489 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2694
Abstract
The paper presents a numerical calculation of the service life of concrete structures considering the effect of chlorides in the case of the material properties of structural lightweight waste aggregate concrete. Different amounts of fibres (0.0%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) and different values of [...] Read more.
The paper presents a numerical calculation of the service life of concrete structures considering the effect of chlorides in the case of the material properties of structural lightweight waste aggregate concrete. Different amounts of fibres (0.0%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) and different values of compressive preloading (0%, 50%, and 100% of the ultimate strength capacity-USC) were considered. The subject of the research was the comparison of the influence of the constant diffusion coefficient and the time-dependent diffusion coefficient regarding the service life of the selected structure. Nine groups of material characteristics in combination with two numerical models are compared. A time-dependent diffusion coefficient and maturation coefficient, which were determined based on long-term monitoring (up to 461 days), were accepted for the numerical modelling. Thanks to time-dependent parameters, it is possible to observe the results of the theoretical service life of the structure and the influence of the mentioned factors. The analysed structure can be considered as the upper layer of an industrial floor in a chemical plant. It is important to determine the theoretical service life at which the structure shall be inspected or replaced. The results, in general, show that a higher amount of fibres reduces the service life as well as the preloading of the structure. An exception was a mixture with 1% of fibre loaded to 50% USC, which shows a lower diffusion coefficient than the specimens without preloading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Utilization of Waste Materials in Building Engineering)
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18 pages, 3815 KiB  
Review
Environmental Product Declarations of Structural Wood: A Review of Impacts and Potential Pitfalls for Practice
by Freja Nygaard Rasmussen, Camilla Ernst Andersen, Alexandra Wittchen, Rasmus Nøddegaard Hansen and Harpa Birgisdóttir
Buildings 2021, 11(8), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080362 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5613
Abstract
The use of wood and timber products in the construction of buildings is repeatedly pointed towards as a mean for lowering the environmental footprint. With several countries preparing regulation for life cycle assessment of buildings, practitioners from industry will presumably look to the [...] Read more.
The use of wood and timber products in the construction of buildings is repeatedly pointed towards as a mean for lowering the environmental footprint. With several countries preparing regulation for life cycle assessment of buildings, practitioners from industry will presumably look to the pool of data on wood products found in environmental product declarations (EPDs). However, the EPDs may vary broadly in terms of reporting and results. This study provides a comprehensive review of 81 third-party verified EN 15804 EPDs of cross laminated timber (CLT), glulam, laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and timber. The 81 EPDs represent 86 different products and 152 different product scenarios. The EPDs mainly represent European production, but also North America and Australia/New Zealand productions are represented. Reported global warming potential (GWP) from the EPDs vary within each of the investigated product categories, due to density of the products and the end-of-life scenarios applied. Median results per kg of product, excluding the biogenic CO2, are found at 0.26, 0.24, and 0.17 kg CO2e for CLT, glulam, and timber, respectively. Results further showed that the correlation between GWP and other impact categories is limited. Analysis of the inherent data uncertainty showed to add up to ±41% to reported impacts when assessed with an uncertainty method from the literature. However, in some of the average EPDs, even larger uncertainties of up to 90% for GWP are reported. Life cycle assessment practitioners can use the median values from this study as generic data in their assessments of buildings. To make the EPDs easier to use for practitioners, a more detailed coordination between EPD programs and their product category rules is recommended, as well as digitalization of EPD data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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32 pages, 2948 KiB  
Review
Application of Low-Cost Sensors for Building Monitoring: A Systematic Literature Review
by Behnam Mobaraki, Fidel Lozano-Galant, Rocio Porras Soriano and Francisco Javier Castilla Pascual
Buildings 2021, 11(8), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080336 - 4 Aug 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5859
Abstract
In recent years, many scholars have dedicated their research to the development of low-cost sensors for monitoring of various parameters. Despite their high number of applications, the state of the art related to low-cost sensors in building monitoring has not been addressed. To [...] Read more.
In recent years, many scholars have dedicated their research to the development of low-cost sensors for monitoring of various parameters. Despite their high number of applications, the state of the art related to low-cost sensors in building monitoring has not been addressed. To fill this gap, this article presents a systematic review, following well-established methodology, to analyze the state of the art in two aspects of structural and indoor parameters of buildings, in the SCOPUS database. This analysis allows to illustrate the potential uses of low-cost sensors in the building sector and addresses the scholars the preferred communication protocols and the most common microcontrollers for installation of low-cost monitoring systems. In addition, special attention is paid to describe different areas of the two mentioned fields of building monitoring and the most crucial parameters to be monitored in buildings. Finally, the deficiencies in line with limited number of studies carried out in various fields of building monitoring are overviewed and a series of parameters that ought to be studied in the future are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Accurate Solutions for Monitoring in Buildings)
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24 pages, 3126 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of Construction 4.0 in the Context of the BIM 4.0 Premise
by Hana Begić and Mario Galić
Buildings 2021, 11(8), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080337 - 4 Aug 2021
Cited by 74 | Viewed by 10588
Abstract
This paper presents a systematic review of Construction 4.0 in the context of the building information modeling (BIM) 4.0 premise. It comprises a review of the industry in the pre-fourth industrial revolution (4IR) age, the current and anticipated development of the 4IR, Construction [...] Read more.
This paper presents a systematic review of Construction 4.0 in the context of the building information modeling (BIM) 4.0 premise. It comprises a review of the industry in the pre-fourth industrial revolution (4IR) age, the current and anticipated development of the 4IR, Construction 4.0’s origin and applications, and the synergy of its main drivers, i.e., the synergy of BIM with the internet of things (IoT) and big data (BD). The main aim of the paper is to determine the Construction 4.0 drivers and to what extent are they initialized by the 4IR, their development and their synergy with BIM, and the direction of BIM’s implementation in the construction phase. It was found that the main drivers of Construction 4.0, which originated from the 4IR, are BIM, IoT, and BD, but with specific implementations. The results of the analysis of BIM with IoT and/or BD revealed that the integrative approaches combining the aforementioned drivers show signs of project enhancement by providing significant benefits, such as improved real-time monitoring, data exchange and analysis, construction planning, and modeling. Furthermore, it was revealed that the main drivers are mostly applied in the project’s preconstruction phase, which is continuously developing and becoming more automated. The state-of-the-art review presented in this paper suggests that BIM is in transition, adopting Construction 4.0 to become BIM 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction 4.0: Challenges, Trends and Achievements)
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24 pages, 5806 KiB  
Review
Characterizing Positive Energy District (PED) through a Preliminary Review of 60 Existing Projects in Europe
by Xingxing Zhang, Santhan Reddy Penaka, Samhita Giriraj, Maria Nuria Sánchez, Paolo Civiero and Han Vandevyvere
Buildings 2021, 11(8), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080318 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 5805
Abstract
Positive Energy District (PED) is recently proposed to be an integral part of a district/urban energy system with a corresponding positive influence. Thus, the PED concept could become the key solution to energy system transition towards carbon neutrality. This paper intends to report [...] Read more.
Positive Energy District (PED) is recently proposed to be an integral part of a district/urban energy system with a corresponding positive influence. Thus, the PED concept could become the key solution to energy system transition towards carbon neutrality. This paper intends to report and visualize the initial analytical results of 60 existing PED projects in Europe about their main characteristics, including geographical information, spatial-temporal scale, energy concepts, building archetypes, finance source, keywords, finance model and challenges/barriers. As a result, a dedicated date base is developed and it could be further expanded/interoperated through an interactive dashboard. It is found that Norway and Italy have the most PED projects so far. Many PED projects state a ‘yearly’ time scale while nearly 1/3 projects have less than 0.2 km2 area in terms of spatial scale. The private investment together with regional/national grants is commonly observed. A mixture of residential, commercial and office/social buildings are found. The most common renewable energy systems include solar energy, district heating/cooling, wind and geothermal energy. Challenges and barriers for PED related projects vary from the planning stage to the implementation stage. Furthermore, the text mining approach is applied to examine the keywords or concentrations of PED-related projects at different stages. These preliminary results are expected to give useful guidance for future PED definitions and proposals of ‘reference PED’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Net-Zero/Positive Energy Buildings and Districts)
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25 pages, 140735 KiB  
Article
Facial Expression-Based Experimental Analysis of Human Reactions and Psychological Comfort on Glass Structures in Buildings
by Chiara Bedon and Silvana Mattei
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11050204 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 5254
Abstract
For engineering applications, human comfort in the built environment depends on several objective aspects that can be mathematically controlled and limited to reference performance indicators. Typical examples include structural, energy and thermal issues, and others. Human reactions, however, are also sensitive to a [...] Read more.
For engineering applications, human comfort in the built environment depends on several objective aspects that can be mathematically controlled and limited to reference performance indicators. Typical examples include structural, energy and thermal issues, and others. Human reactions, however, are also sensitive to a multitude of aspects that can be associated with design concepts of the so-called “emotional architecture”, through which subjective feelings, nervous states and emotions of end-users are evoked by constructional details. The interactions of several objective and subjective parameters can make the “optimal” building design challenging, and this is especially the case for new technical concepts, constructional materials and techniques. In this paper, a remote experimental methodology is proposed to explore and quantify the prevailing human reactions and psychological comfort trends for building occupants, with a focus on end-users exposed to structural glass environments. Major advantages were taken from the use of virtual visual stimuli and facial expression automatic recognition analysis, and from the active support of 30 volunteers. As shown, while glass is often used in constructions, several intrinsic features (transparency, brittleness, etc.) are responsible for subjective feelings that can affect the overall psychological comfort of users. In this regard, the use of virtual built environments and facial expression analysis to quantify human reactions can represent an efficient system to support the building design process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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16 pages, 5637 KiB  
Review
Differentiating Digital Twin from Digital Shadow: Elucidating a Paradigm Shift to Expedite a Smart, Sustainable Built Environment
by Samad M. E. Sepasgozar
Buildings 2021, 11(4), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11040151 - 2 Apr 2021
Cited by 169 | Viewed by 15248
Abstract
Construction projects and cities account for over 50% of carbon emissions and energy consumption. Industry 4.0 and digital transformation may increase productivity and reduce energy consumption. A digital twin (DT) is a key enabler in implementing Industry 4.0 in the areas of construction [...] Read more.
Construction projects and cities account for over 50% of carbon emissions and energy consumption. Industry 4.0 and digital transformation may increase productivity and reduce energy consumption. A digital twin (DT) is a key enabler in implementing Industry 4.0 in the areas of construction and smart cities. It is an emerging technology that connects different objects by utilising the advanced Internet of Things (IoT). As a technology, it is in high demand in various industries, and its literature is growing exponentially. Previous digital modeling practices, the use of data acquisition tools, human–computer–machine interfaces, programmable cities, and infrastructure, as well as Building Information Modeling (BIM), have provided digital data for construction, monitoring, or controlling physical objects. However, a DT is supposed to offer much more than digital representation. Characteristics such as bi-directional data exchange and real-time self-management (e.g., self-awareness or self-optimisation) distinguish a DT from other information modeling systems. The need to develop and implement DT is rising because it could be a core technology in many industrial sectors post-COVID-19. This paper aims to clarify the DT concept and differentiate it from other advanced 3D modeling technologies, digital shadows, and information systems. It also intends to review the state of play in DT development and offer research directions for future investigation. It recommends the development of DT applications that offer rapid and accurate data analysis platforms for real-time decisions, self-operation, and remote supervision requirements post-COVID-19. The discussion in this paper mainly focuses on the Smart City, Engineering and Construction (SCEC) sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Energy Efficiency in Smart Cities and Construction)
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33 pages, 14527 KiB  
Review
Overview on the Nonlinear Static Procedures and Performance-Based Approach on Modern Unreinforced Masonry Buildings with Structural Irregularity
by Abide Aşıkoğlu, Graça Vasconcelos and Paulo B. Lourenço
Buildings 2021, 11(4), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11040147 - 1 Apr 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4828
Abstract
Performance-based design plays a significant role in the structural and earthquake engineering community to ensure both safety and economic feasibility. Its application to masonry building design/assessment is limited and requires straightforward rules considering the characteristics of masonry behavior. Nonlinear static procedures mainly cover [...] Read more.
Performance-based design plays a significant role in the structural and earthquake engineering community to ensure both safety and economic feasibility. Its application to masonry building design/assessment is limited and requires straightforward rules considering the characteristics of masonry behavior. Nonlinear static procedures mainly cover regular frame system structures, and their application to both regular and irregular masonry buildings require further investigation. The present paper addresses two major issues: (i) the definition of irregularity in masonry buildings, and (ii) the applicability of classical nonlinear static procedures to irregular masonry buildings. It is observed that the irregularity definition is not comprehensive and has different descriptions among the seismic codes as well as among researchers, particularly in the case of masonry buildings. The lack of global language may result in the misuse of the procedures, while adjustments may be essential due to irregularity effects. Therefore, irregularity indices given by different codes and research studies are discussed. Furthermore, an overview of nonlinear static procedures implemented within the framework of the performance-based approach and improvements proposed for its application in masonry buildings is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings)
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23 pages, 9054 KiB  
Article
Properties of Cementitious Materials with Recycled Aggregate and Powder Both from Clay Brick Waste
by Huixia Wu, Jianzhuang Xiao, Chaofeng Liang and Zhiming Ma
Buildings 2021, 11(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11030119 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4795
Abstract
The utilization of recycled brick aggregate (RBA) and recycled brick powder (RBP) in cementitious materials helps the reclamation of clay brick waste in construction and demolition waste. This work studied the properties of cementitious materials with RBA as aggregate and RBP as supplementary [...] Read more.
The utilization of recycled brick aggregate (RBA) and recycled brick powder (RBP) in cementitious materials helps the reclamation of clay brick waste in construction and demolition waste. This work studied the properties of cementitious materials with RBA as aggregate and RBP as supplementary cementitious material. The RBA has lower apparent density and higher water absorption than natural aggregate, and RBP with an irregular micro-structure contains high content of silicon and aluminum oxides and possesses excellent pozzolanic activity. Incorporating RBP decreases the fluidity and increases the setting time, but the incorporated RBP improves the pore structure and decreases the average pore diameter of cementitious materials, thereby decreasing the permeability. Utilizing RBA increases the drying shrinkage, while the incorporated RBP decreases the drying shrinkage of cementitious materials; the mortar with 50% RBA and 30% RBP has the lower drying shrinkage than the common mortar without RBA and RBP. Incorporating RBA and high-volume RBP decreases the mechanical strength, while there is no obvious decrease in the mechanical strength for the mortar with 50% RBA and 30% RBP. Moreover, the flexural strength to compressive strength ratio increases with RBA and RBP incorporating. Utilizing RBA increases the water transport, while the water transport properties decrease with the RBP incorporation; incorporating appropriate content of RBA and RBP can obtain the cementitious materials with low permeability. Particularly, a significant decrease in chloride ingress occurs with the substitution of RBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advanced Concrete Materials in Construction)
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22 pages, 24775 KiB  
Article
Operational Modal Analysis, Model Update and Fragility Curves Estimation, through Truncated Incremental Dynamic Analysis, of a Masonry Belfry
by Ilaria Capanna, Riccardo Cirella, Angelo Aloisio, Rocco Alaggio, Franco Di Fabio and Massimo Fragiacomo
Buildings 2021, 11(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11030120 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3768
Abstract
Masonry towers, located in seismic zones, are vulnerable and prone to damages up to compromise their stability. The scatter of data on the mechanical properties of masonry, geometry and boundary conditions determine a lack of building knowledge on their expected behaviour. Therefore the [...] Read more.
Masonry towers, located in seismic zones, are vulnerable and prone to damages up to compromise their stability. The scatter of data on the mechanical properties of masonry, geometry and boundary conditions determine a lack of building knowledge on their expected behaviour. Therefore the assessment of the seismic capacity represents a critical task. This paper contributes to the issue of seismic analysis of masonry towers, focusing a meaningful case study: the St.Silvestro belfry in L’Aquila, Italy. The tower, severely damaged by the 2009 earthquake sequence, underwent extensive restoration works, endeavoured to mitigate its vulnerability. The observed seismic damage, the performed no-destructive testing campaign and the accomplished rehabilitation measures are described in the paper. The authors appraised the actual seismic performances of the St.Silvestro belfry, reinforced by the last restoration works. At first, the Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) is carried out to enhance building knowledge. In a second step, a refined finite element model is calibrated on the results from OMA to seize the actual dynamic response. Ultimately, by using the updated finite element model, the authors estimate the fragility curves in terms of peak ground acceleration using truncated incremental dynamic analyses. Full article
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24 pages, 331 KiB  
Review
Combating Urban Heat Island Effect—A Review of Reflective Pavements and Tree Shading Strategies
by V. R. Sankar Cheela, Michele John, Wahidul Biswas and Prabir Sarker
Buildings 2021, 11(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11030093 - 3 Mar 2021
Cited by 74 | Viewed by 14056
Abstract
Pavements occupy about 40% of urban land cover, with 75–80% black top roads, playing a critical role in urban connectivity and mobility. Solar energy is absorbed and stored in pavements leading to an increase in surface temperatures. Decreasing green cover is further contributing [...] Read more.
Pavements occupy about 40% of urban land cover, with 75–80% black top roads, playing a critical role in urban connectivity and mobility. Solar energy is absorbed and stored in pavements leading to an increase in surface temperatures. Decreasing green cover is further contributing to rise in regional temperatures. Due to this activity, the city experiences urban heat island (UHI). This study presents a critical review of the literature on mitigation measures to combat UHI using reflective pavements with an emphasis on durability properties and impacts of tree canopy. The strategies with a focus on application of chip seals, white toppings, and coatings were discussed. Role of surface reflectance, including those from asphalt and concrete pavements, albedo improvements, and technological trends, application of waste materials, and industrial by-products are presented. Also, urban tree shading systems’ contribution to pavement temperature and microclimate systems is presented. The review shows that the development of mitigation measures using tree shading systems can reduce the pavement temperature during daytime and increase human thermal comfort. The outcomes of this review provide a scope for future studies to develop sustainable and state-of-the-art engineering solutions in the field of reflective coatings and urban forest systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
29 pages, 4479 KiB  
Review
Fire Resistance Behaviour of Geopolymer Concrete: An Overview
by Salmabanu Luhar, Demetris Nicolaides and Ismail Luhar
Buildings 2021, 11(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11030082 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 88 | Viewed by 9308
Abstract
Even though, an innovative inorganic family of geopolymer concretes are eye-catching potential building materials, it is quite essential to comprehend the fire and thermal resistance of these structural materials at a very high temperature and also when experiencing fire with a view to [...] Read more.
Even though, an innovative inorganic family of geopolymer concretes are eye-catching potential building materials, it is quite essential to comprehend the fire and thermal resistance of these structural materials at a very high temperature and also when experiencing fire with a view to make certain not only the safety and security of lives and properties but also to establish them as more sustainable edifice materials for future. The experimental and field observations of degree of cracking, spalling and loss of strength within the geopolymer concretes subsequent to exposure at elevated temperature and incidences of occurrences of disastrous fires extend an indication of their resistance against such severely catastrophic conditions. The impact of heat and fire on mechanical attributes viz., mechanical-compressive strength, flexural behavior, elastic modulus; durability—thermal shrinkage; chemical stability; the impact of thermal creep on compressive strength; and microstructure properties—XRD, FTIR, NMR, SEM as well as physico-chemical modifications of geopolymer composites subsequent to their exposures at elevated temperatures is reviewed in depth. The present scientific state-of-the-art review manuscript aimed to assess the fire and thermal resistance of geopolymer concrete along with its thermo-chemistry at a towering temperature in order to introduce this novel, most modern, user and eco-benign construction materials as potentially promising, sustainable, durable, thermal and fire-resistant building materials promoting their optimal and apposite applications for construction and infrastructure industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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18 pages, 5133 KiB  
Article
Resistance of an Optimized Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete to Projectile Impact
by Anna L. Mina, Michael F. Petrou and Konstantinos G. Trezos
Buildings 2021, 11(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11020063 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3365
Abstract
The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) concrete slabs, under projectile impact. Mixture performance under impact loading was examined using bullets with 7.62 mm diameter and initial velocity 800 m/s. The UHPFRC, used [...] Read more.
The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) concrete slabs, under projectile impact. Mixture performance under impact loading was examined using bullets with 7.62 mm diameter and initial velocity 800 m/s. The UHPFRC, used in this study, consists of a combination of steel fibers of two lengths: 6 mm and 13 mm with the same diameter of 0.16 mm. Six composition mixtures were tested, four UHPFRC, one ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), without steel fibers, and high strength concrete (HSC). Slabs with thicknesses of 15, 30, 50, and 70 mm were produced and subjected to real shotgun fire in the field. Penetration depth, material volume loss, and crater diameter were measured and analyzed. The test results show that the mixture with a combination of 3% 6 mm and 3% of 13 mm length of steel fibers exhibited the best resistance to projectile impact and only the slabs with 15 mm thickness had perforation. Empirical models that predict the depth of penetration were compared with the experimental results. This material can be used as an overlay to buildings or to construct small precast structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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15 pages, 907 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Cloud Computing Success Factors for Sustainable Construction Industry: The Case of Nigeria
by Ayodeji Emmanuel Oke, Ahmed Farouk Kineber, Ibraheem Albukhari, Idris Othman and Chukwuma Kingsley
Buildings 2021, 11(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11020036 - 23 Jan 2021
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 7000
Abstract
Cloud Computing has become a valuable platform for sustainability in many countries. This study evaluates the cloud computing implementation and its Critical Success Factors (CSFs) towards ensuring sustainable construction projects in Nigeria. Data were collected from previous literature, supplemented by a quantitative approach [...] Read more.
Cloud Computing has become a valuable platform for sustainability in many countries. This study evaluates the cloud computing implementation and its Critical Success Factors (CSFs) towards ensuring sustainable construction projects in Nigeria. Data were collected from previous literature, supplemented by a quantitative approach via a questionnaire survey. Data were collected from 104 construction professionals while cloud computing CSFs were examined using Relative Importance Ranking (RII) and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). The results show that cloud computing’s awareness level is 96.2%, which means that the respondents are aware of cloud computing concept. Furthermore, the result shows that most of the respondents are adopting the concept. The analysis of the CSFs indicated that reliable data storage, performance as well as cost of accessibility and availability were the four most significant CSFs to cloud computing applications. Analysis of the CSFs through EFA generated four main components which include human satisfaction, organization, client’s acceptance, and industry-based. Consequently, this study contributed to existing body of knowledge by highlighting the cloud computing CSFs for achieving sustainable construction project. As such, the results could be a game-changer in the construction industry—not only in Nigeria but also in developing nations where construction projects are implemented through similar style and procedure. This study would be a benchmark for supporting decision-makers to improve data fragmentation, in which the use of data is paramount to the execution of construction works. Finally, the results of this study would be useful for enhancing sustainability and general management of construction projects through cloud computing implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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31 pages, 4762 KiB  
Article
Positioning Positive Energy Districts in European Cities
by Oscar Lindholm, Hassam ur Rehman and Francesco Reda
Buildings 2021, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11010019 - 4 Jan 2021
Cited by 84 | Viewed by 11681
Abstract
There are many concepts for buildings with integrated renewable energy systems that have received increased attention during the last few years. However, these concepts only strive to streamline building-level renewable energy solutions. In order to improve the flexibility of decentralized energy generation, individual [...] Read more.
There are many concepts for buildings with integrated renewable energy systems that have received increased attention during the last few years. However, these concepts only strive to streamline building-level renewable energy solutions. In order to improve the flexibility of decentralized energy generation, individual buildings and energy systems should be able to interact with each other. The positive energy district (PED) concept highlights the importance of active interaction between energy generation systems, energy consumers and energy storage within a district. This paper strives to inform the public, decision makers and fellow researchers about the aspects that should be accounted for when planning and implementing different types of PEDs in different regions throughout the European Union. The renewable energy environment varies between different EU regions, in terms of the available renewable energy sources, energy storage potential, population, energy consumption behaviour, costs and regulations, which affect the design and operation of PEDs, and hence, no PED is like the other. This paper provides clear definitions for different types of PEDs, a survey of the renewable energy market circumstances in the EU and a detailed analysis of factors that play an essential role in the PED planning process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Net-Zero/Positive Energy Buildings and Districts)
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