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Metals, Volume 11, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 183 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The spontaneous deposition of elemental sulfur (S8) caused the serious pitting corrosion of L360 pipelines steel during transport of “sour gas”. The hydrolysis of S8 at low temperature strengthened the environmental difference (especially pH value) under deposition of S8, besides crevice corrosion, resulting in the different corrosion behavior. Based on the combination of the localized corrosion intensity index (LCII) and morphology features, a novel model was proposed to better explain the pitting corrosion mechanisms of L360 pipelines steel under deposition of S8, especially the non-uniform deposition of S8. View this paper
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Article
Surface Characteristics and Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel Treated by Abrasive Blasting
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122065 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 960
Abstract
The effects of blasting with metallic steel grit and non-metallic alumina grit on steel surface characteristics were evaluated. These abrasives are generally used at construction sites and in vacuum blasting. Milled steel specimens were used to investigate the effect of the blasting conditions [...] Read more.
The effects of blasting with metallic steel grit and non-metallic alumina grit on steel surface characteristics were evaluated. These abrasives are generally used at construction sites and in vacuum blasting. Milled steel specimens were used to investigate the effect of the blasting conditions on surface properties. The effect of difference in surface properties on the adhesion strength and corrosion behavior were measured through adhesion tests, polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The limitations of blasting were evaluated using corroded steel specimens, as were the effects of corrosion products, salts, and abrasive material remaining on the blasted steel surface on the adhesion and corrosion resistance of paint. Steel grit more effectively increased the surface roughness than alumina grit; however, with both abrasive materials, the roughness increased with the blast projection angle. However, in the case of alumina grit, some abrasive material remained on the surface; thus, the actual roughness not including the residual abrasive material was more complex and greater than that of the sample blasted with steel grit. According to the adhesion strength test of painted and unpainted specimens, the adhesion force improved with increasing surface roughness and residual abrasive materials. Further, surface roughness was linearly correlated with the adhesion strength of unpainted specimens for both abrasive materials with blasting, and the adhesion strength force with alumina grit was approximately 1.4 times higher than that with steel grit, suggesting that increased roughness and residual abrasive material could benefit adhesion. According to the electrochemical test results, lower roughness and increased residual abrasive material owing to alumina grit on the steel surface enhanced the surface corrosion resistance, confirming the benefit of residual materials. Grinding left behind corrosion products and salts under the steel, resulting in the recurrence of rusting. However, the residue from blasting with alumina suppressed corrosion, thus improving the adhesion and corrosion resistance of the paint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Surface Treatment on Corrosion Behavior of Steels)
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Article
Comparative Multi-Modal, Multi-Scale Residual Stress Evaluation in SLM 3D-Printed Al-Si-Mg Alloy (RS-300) Parts
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2064; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122064 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 942
Abstract
SLM additive manufacturing has demonstrated great potential for aerospace applications when structural elements of individual design and/or complex shape need to be promptly supplied. 3D-printable AlSi10Mg (RS-300) alloy is widely used for the fabrication of different structures in the aerospace industry. The importance [...] Read more.
SLM additive manufacturing has demonstrated great potential for aerospace applications when structural elements of individual design and/or complex shape need to be promptly supplied. 3D-printable AlSi10Mg (RS-300) alloy is widely used for the fabrication of different structures in the aerospace industry. The importance of the evaluation of residual stresses that arise as a result of the 3D-printing process’ complex thermal history is widely discussed in literature, but systematic assessment remains lacking for their magnitude, spatial distribution, and comparative analysis of different evaluation techniques. In this study, we report the results of a systematic study of residual stresses in 3D-printed double tower shaped samples using several approaches: the contour method, blind hole drilling laser speckle interferometry, X-ray diffraction, and Xe pFIB-DIC micro-ring-core milling analysis. We show that a high level of tensile and compressive residual stresses is inherited from SLM 3D-printing and retained for longer than 6 months. The stresses vary (from −80 to +180 MPa) over a significant proportion of the material yield stress (from −⅓ to ¾). All residual stress evaluation techniques considered returned comparable values of residual stresses, regardless of dramatically different dimensional scales, which ranged from millimeters for the contour method, laser speckle interferometry, and XRD down to small fractions of a mm (70 μm) for Xe pFIB-DIC ring-core drilling. The use of residual stress evaluation is discussed in the context of optimizing printing strategies to enhance mechanical performance and long-term durability. Full article
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Article
Fatigue Behavior of Laser-Cut Sheet Metal Parts with Brazed-On Elements
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122063 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Laser cutting is used in the production of formed sheet metal components. However, the cyclic load capacity is reduced compared to other subtractive processes. Laser cutting results in a significant loss of fatigue strength; however, thermal joining has its own effect on the [...] Read more.
Laser cutting is used in the production of formed sheet metal components. However, the cyclic load capacity is reduced compared to other subtractive processes. Laser cutting results in a significant loss of fatigue strength; however, thermal joining has its own effect on the cyclic load capacity. Accordingly, brazing causes a significant reduction in the mechanical strength. However, the open question is what consequences a combination of both processes may have on the overall fatigue strength of sheet metals. Laser-cut samples of AISI 304 with and without a brazed-on element were investigated for their microstructure and mechanical properties. The brazing process was found to have an annealing effect on the microstructure. It was further observed that the fatigue behavior of brazed specimens is dominated by inhomogeneities at the surface of the filler metal fillet located in the geometric notch of the brazed joint. Fatigue strength decreased by almost 50% compared to as-cut specimens. As long as no shared diffusion zone is formed between the laser-cut and the brazed joint, the use of laser cutting for the production of such components appears to be reasonable and does not further contribute to the loss of cyclic strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology of Welding and Joining 2021)
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Article
Hot Wear of Single Phase fcc Materials—Influence of Temperature, Alloy Composition and Stacking Fault Energy
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122062 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 753
Abstract
The severe sliding abrasion of single-phase metallic materials is a complex issue with a gaining importance in industrial applications. Different materials with different lattice structures react distinctly to stresses, as the material reaction to wear of counter and base body is mainly determined [...] Read more.
The severe sliding abrasion of single-phase metallic materials is a complex issue with a gaining importance in industrial applications. Different materials with different lattice structures react distinctly to stresses, as the material reaction to wear of counter and base body is mainly determined by the deformation behavior of the base body. For this reason, fcc materials in particular are investigated in this work because, as shown in previous studies, they exhibit better hot wear behavior than bcc materials. In particular, three austenitic steels are investigated, with pure Ni as well as Ni20Cr also being studied as benchmark materials. This allows correlations to be worked out between the hot wear of the material and their microstructural parameters. For this reason, wear tests are carried out, which are analyzed on the basis of the wear characteristics and scratch marks using Electron Backscatter Diffraction. X-ray experiments at elevated temperatures were also carried out to determine the microstructural parameters. It was found that the stacking fault energy, which influences the strain hardening potential, governs the hot wear behavior at elevated temperatures. These correlations can be underlined by analysis of the wear affected cross section, where the investigated materials have shown clear differences. Full article
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Article
Surface Investigation of Ni81Fe19 Thin Film: Using ARXPS for Thickness Estimation of Oxidation Layers
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122061 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 777
Abstract
This work demonstrates the dependence between magnetic properties and the thickness of NiFe thin films. More importantly, a quantitative study of the surface composition of NiFe thin film exposed to atmospheric conditions has been carried out employing angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). In [...] Read more.
This work demonstrates the dependence between magnetic properties and the thickness of NiFe thin films. More importantly, a quantitative study of the surface composition of NiFe thin film exposed to atmospheric conditions has been carried out employing angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). In this study, we fabricated Ni81Fe19 (NiFe) thin films on Si (100) substrate using electron beam evaporation and investigated their surface morphologies, magnetic properties, and the thickness of the surface oxide layer. The coexistence of metallic and oxidized species on the surface are suggested by the depth profile of ARXPS spectra. The thickness of the oxidized species, including NiO, Ni(OH)2, Fe2O3, and Fe3O4, are also estimated based on the ARXPS results. This work provides an effective approach to clarify the surface composition, as well as the thickness of the oxide layer of the thin films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal-Containing Magnetic Materials)
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Article
Drilling Parameters Analysis on In-Situ Al/B4C/Mica Hybrid Composite and an Integrated Optimization Approach Using Fuzzy Model and Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122060 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 910
Abstract
In-situ hybrid metal matrix composites were prepared by reinforcing AA6061 aluminium alloy with 10 wt.% of boron carbide (B4C) and 0 wt.% to 6 wt.% of mica. Machinability of the hybrid aluminium metal matrix composite was assessed by conducting drilling with [...] Read more.
In-situ hybrid metal matrix composites were prepared by reinforcing AA6061 aluminium alloy with 10 wt.% of boron carbide (B4C) and 0 wt.% to 6 wt.% of mica. Machinability of the hybrid aluminium metal matrix composite was assessed by conducting drilling with varying input parameters. Surface texture of the hybrid composites and morphology of drill holes were examined through scanning electron microscope images. The influence of rotational speed, feed rate and % of mica reinforcement on thrust force and torque were studied and analysed. Statistical analysis and regression analysis were conducted to understand the significance of each input parameter. Reinforcement of mica is the key performance indicator in reducing the thrust force and torque in drilling of the selected material, irrespective of other parameter settings. Thrust force is minimum at mid-speed (2000 rpm) with the lowest feed rate (25 mm/min), but torque is minimum at highest speed (3000 rpm) with lowest feed rate (25 mm/min). Multi-objective optimization through a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm has indicated that 1840 rpm of rotational speed, 25.3 mm/min of feed rate and 5.83% of mica reinforcement are the best parameters for obtaining the lowest thrust force of 339.68 N and torque of 68.98 N.m. Validation through experimental results confirms the predicted results with a negligible error (less than 0.1%). From the analysis and investigations, it is concluded that use of Al/10 wt.% B4C/5.83 wt.% mica composite is a good choice of material that comply with European Environmental Protection Directives: 2000/53/CE-ELV for the automotive sector. The energy and production cost of the components can be very much reduced if the found optimum drill parameters are adopted in the production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Analysis of Metal Cutting Processes)
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Article
Experimental Study on Factors Influencing the Strength Distribution of In Situ Cemented Tailings Backfill
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2059; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122059 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
Previous studies have found that the strength of in situ cemented tailings backfill usually presents an S-shaped distribution, which decreases first, then increases, and decreases thereafter along the direction of slurry flow. In this study, to explore the factors determining the distribution, a [...] Read more.
Previous studies have found that the strength of in situ cemented tailings backfill usually presents an S-shaped distribution, which decreases first, then increases, and decreases thereafter along the direction of slurry flow. In this study, to explore the factors determining the distribution, a similar model test of cemented tailings backfill was carried out. The distribution law of grain size composition and the cement content of backfill materials along the flow direction were experimentally studied, and the comprehensive factor influencing the strength distribution was analyzed. The results show that, firstly, near the feeding point, there are more coarse particles, whereas the content of fine particles is higher farther away. The measured maximum median particle size can be more than three times the minimum value. Secondly, the cement content increases gradually along the flow direction and reaches the peak at the end of the model, which can be more than twice the minimum value, indicating that the degree of segregation is significant. Thirdly, the strength distribution of cemented backfills is comprehensively determined by both the particle size distribution (PSD) and the cement content. The maximum value appears neither at the point with peak median particle size, nor at the point with the highest cement content. Lastly, there is a strong linear correlation between the strength of cemented backfills and the strength factor (SF), which is defined as the product of the uniformity coefficient and cement content of filling materials, indicating that the SF can be used to quantitatively reflect the comprehensive effects of PSD and cement content on the strength. As SF is a comprehensive quantitative index reflecting the distribution of strength, it will be further studied in later research to acquire more experimental results of the relationship between sample strength and SF, which will be meaningful for the quality evaluation of in situ cemented backfills, and the optimization of backfill system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Low-Carbon Technology for Metalliferous Minerals)
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Article
MQL-Assisted Hard Turning of AISI D2 Steel with Corn Oil: Analysis of Surface Roughness, Tool Wear, and Manufacturing Costs
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122058 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Precision hard turning (HT) gained more and more attention in the cutting industry in the last years due to continuous pressure of the global market for reducing costs, minimizing the environmental and health issues, and achieving a cleaner production. Therefore, dry cutting and [...] Read more.
Precision hard turning (HT) gained more and more attention in the cutting industry in the last years due to continuous pressure of the global market for reducing costs, minimizing the environmental and health issues, and achieving a cleaner production. Therefore, dry cutting and minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) became widely used in manufacturing to meet the environmental issues with respect to harmful cutting fluids (CFs). Vegetable oils, in MQL machining, are a promising solutions to petroleum-based CFs; however, the effects and performance on surface roughness and tool wear in HT with ceramic inserts remain unclear. To address this limitation, hardened AIDI D2 steel and pure corn oil, rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, cheap and widely available, have been used to conduct dry and MQL experiments at different cutting speed and feeds. Results show that corn oil is suitable as cutting lubricant in HT, creating a strong anti-wear and anti-friction lubricating film which improves the roughness with 10–15% and tool life with 15–20%, therefore reducing costs. Best surface roughness values (Ra = 0.151 μm, Rz = 0.887 μm, Rpk = 0.261 μm) were obtained at 180 m/min and 0.1 mm/rev. The analysis of variance shows that corn oil has statistical significance on roughness, validating the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Analysis of Metal Cutting Processes)
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Article
The Effect of Tin Content on the Strength of a Carbon Fiber/Al-Sn-Matrix Composite Wire
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122057 - 19 Dec 2021
Viewed by 951
Abstract
The effect of tin content in an Al-Sn alloy in the range from 0 to 100 at.% on its mechanical properties was studied. An increase in the tin content leads to a monotonic decrease in the microhardness and conditional yield stress of the [...] Read more.
The effect of tin content in an Al-Sn alloy in the range from 0 to 100 at.% on its mechanical properties was studied. An increase in the tin content leads to a monotonic decrease in the microhardness and conditional yield stress of the Al-Sn alloy from 305 to 63 MPa and from 32 to 5 MPa, respectively. In addition, Young’s modulus and the shear modulus of the Al-Sn alloy decreases from 65 to 52 GPa and from 24 to 20 GPa, respectively. The effect of tin content in the Al-Sn matrix alloy in the range from 0 to 50 at.% on the strength of a carbon fiber/aluminum-tin-matrix (CF/Al-Sn) composite wire subject to three-point bending was also investigated. Increasing tin content up to 50 at.% leads to a linear increase in the composite wire strength from 1450 to 2365 MPa, which is due to an increase in the effective fiber strength from 65 to 89 at.%. The addition of tin up to 50 at.% to the matrix alloy leads to the formation of weak boundaries between the matrix and the fiber. An increase in the composite wire strength is accompanied by an increase in the average length of the fibers pulled out at the fracture surface. A qualitative model of the relationship between the above parameters is proposed. Full article
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Article
The Casting Rate Impact on the Microstructure in Al–Mg–Si Alloy with Silicon Excess and Small Zr, Sc Additives
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122056 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
The study investigates the effect of casting speed on the solidification microstructure of the aluminum alloy Al0.3Mg1Si with and without the additions of zirconium and scandium. Casting was carried out in steel, copper, and water-cooled chill molds with a [...] Read more.
The study investigates the effect of casting speed on the solidification microstructure of the aluminum alloy Al0.3Mg1Si with and without the additions of zirconium and scandium. Casting was carried out in steel, copper, and water-cooled chill molds with a crystallization rate of 20 °C/s, 10 °C/s, and 30 °C/s, respectively. For each casting mode, the grain structure was investigated by optical microscopy and the intermetallic particles were investigated by scanning and transmission microscopy; in addition, measurements of the microhardness and the electrical conductivity were carried out. An increase in the solidification rate promotes grain refinement in both alloys. At the same time, the ingot cooling rate differently affects the number of intermetallic particles. In an alloy without scandium–zirconium additives, an increase in the ingot cooling rate leads to a decrease in the number of dispersoids due to an increase in the solubility of the alloying elements in a supersaturated solid solution. With the addition of scandium and zirconium, the amount of dispersoids increases slightly. This is because increasing the solubility of the alloying elements in a supersaturated solid solution is leveled by a growth of the number of grain boundaries, promoting the formation of particles of the (AlSi)3ScZr type, including those of the L12 type. In addition, the increase in the crystallization rate increases the number of primary nonequilibrium intermetallic particles which have a eutectic nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys)
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Article
Effect of Multi-Step Austempering Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a High Silicon Carbide-Free Bainitic Steel with Bimodal Bainite Distribution
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122055 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
The effect of multi-step austempering treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel medium carbon high silicon carbide-free bainitic steel was studied. Five different isothermal treatment processes were selected, including single-step isothermal treatments above martensite start temperature (at 350 °C and [...] Read more.
The effect of multi-step austempering treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel medium carbon high silicon carbide-free bainitic steel was studied. Five different isothermal treatment processes were selected, including single-step isothermal treatments above martensite start temperature (at 350 °C and 370 °C, respectively), and three kinds of two-step routes (370 °C + 300 °C, 370 °C + 250 °C, and 350 °C + 250 °C). In comparison with single-step austempering treatment adopting a two-step process, a microstructure with a bimodal-size distribution of bainitic ferrite and without martensite was obtained. Bainitic transformation was studied using dilatometry both for single-step and two-step routes and the specimens were completely characterised by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and standard tensile tests. The mechanical response of the samples subjected to two-step routes was superior to those treated at a single temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steel Heat Treatment)
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Review
The Evolution of Intermetallic Compounds in High-Entropy Alloys: From the Secondary Phase to the Main Phase
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122054 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1207
Abstract
High-performance structural materials are critical to the development of transportation, energy, and aerospace. In recent years, newly developed high-entropy alloys with a single-phase solid-solution structure have attracted wide attention from researchers due to their excellent properties. However, this new material also has inevitable [...] Read more.
High-performance structural materials are critical to the development of transportation, energy, and aerospace. In recent years, newly developed high-entropy alloys with a single-phase solid-solution structure have attracted wide attention from researchers due to their excellent properties. However, this new material also has inevitable shortcomings, such as brittleness at ambient temperature and thermodynamic instability at high temperature. Efforts have been made to introduce a small number of intermetallic compounds into single-phase solid-solution high-entropy alloys as a secondary phase to their enhance properties. Various studies have suggested that the performance of high-entropy alloys can be improved by introducing more intermetallic compounds. At that point, researchers designed an intermetallic compound-strengthened high-entropy alloy, which introduced a massive intermetallic compound as a coherent strengthening phase to further strengthen the matrix of the high-entropy alloy. Inspired from this, Fantao obtained a new alloy—high-entropy intermetallics—by introducing different alloying elements to multi-principalize the material in a previous study. This new alloy treats the intermetallic compound as the main phase and has advantages of both structural and functional materials. It is expected to become a new generation of high-performance amphibious high-entropy materials across the field of structure and function. In this review, we first demonstrate the inevitability of intermetallic compounds in high-entropy alloys and explain the importance of intermetallic compounds in improving the properties of high-entropy alloys. Secondly, we introduce two new high-entropy alloys mainly from the aspects of composition design, structure, underlying mechanism, and performance. Lastly, the high-entropy materials containing intermetallic compound phases are summarized, which lays a theoretical foundation for the development of new advanced materials. Full article
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Article
Enhancement of Uniform Elongation by Temperature Change during Tensile Deformation in a 0.2C TRIP Steel
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122053 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 825
Abstract
It is important to control the deformation-induced martensitic transformation (DIMT) up to the latter part of the deformation to improve the uniform elongation (U.El) through the TRIP effect. In the present study, tensile tests with decreasing deformation temperatures were conducted to achieve continuous [...] Read more.
It is important to control the deformation-induced martensitic transformation (DIMT) up to the latter part of the deformation to improve the uniform elongation (U.El) through the TRIP effect. In the present study, tensile tests with decreasing deformation temperatures were conducted to achieve continuous DIMT up to the latter part of the deformation. As a result, the U.El was improved by approximately 1.5 times compared with that in the tensile test conducted at 296 K. The enhancement of the U.El in the temperature change test was discussed with the use of neutron diffraction experiments. In the continuous DIMT behavior, a maximum transformation rate of about 0.4 was obtained at a true strain (ε) of 0.2, which was larger than that in the tensile test at 296 K. The tensile deformation behavior of ferrite (α), austenite (γ), and deformation-induced martensite (α′) phases were investigated from the viewpoint of the fraction weighted phase stress. The tensile test with a decreasing deformation temperature caused the increase of the fraction weighted phase stress of α and that of α′, which was affected by the DIMT behavior, resulting in the increase in the work hardening, and also controlled the ductility of α and α′, resulting in the enhancement of the U.El. Especially, the α phase contributed to maintaining high strength instead of α′ at a larger ε. Therefore, not only the DIMT behavior but also the deformation behavior of γ, α, and α′ are important in order to improve U.El due to the TRIP effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels)
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Article
Effect of Ta and W Additions on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Tilt-Cast Ti-45Al-5Nb-2C Alloy
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2052; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122052 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
The effect of Ta and W additions on microstructure and mechanical properties of tilt-cast Ti-45Al-5Nb-2C (at.%) alloy was investigated. Three alloys with nominal composition Ti-45Al-5Nb-2C-2X (in at.%), where X is Ta or W, were prepared by vacuum induction melting in graphite crucibles followed [...] Read more.
The effect of Ta and W additions on microstructure and mechanical properties of tilt-cast Ti-45Al-5Nb-2C (at.%) alloy was investigated. Three alloys with nominal composition Ti-45Al-5Nb-2C-2X (in at.%), where X is Ta or W, were prepared by vacuum induction melting in graphite crucibles followed by tilt casting into graphite moulds. The microstructure of the tilt-cast alloys consists of the α2(Ti3Al) + γ(TiAl) lamellar grains, single γ phase, (Ti,Nb,X)2AlC particles with a small amount of (Ti,Nb,X)C, and β/B2 phase identified only in W containing alloy. The EDS analysis shows that Ta segregates into the carbide particles and reduces dissolution of Nb in both (Ti,Nb,Ta)C and (Ti,Nb,Ta)2AlC phases. The alloying with W reduces Nb content in both carbide phases and leads to stabilisation of β/B2 phase in the lamellar α2 + γ regions. The alloying with Ta and W does not affect the volume fraction of the carbide particles but influences their size and morphology. While the alloying with Ta and W has no significant effect on Vickers hardness and the indentation elastic modulus of the studied alloys, the addition of Ta affects the nanohardness and elastic modulus of the (Ti,Nb,Ta)2AlC phase. The addition of W significantly increases the Vickers microhardness of the lamellar α2 + γ regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TiAl-Based Alloys and Their Applications)
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Article
Formation of Complex Inclusions in Gear Steels for Modification of Manganese Sulphide
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122051 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 723
Abstract
Suitable MnS inclusions in gear steel can significantly improve the steel machinability and reduce the manufacturing costs. Two gear steel samples with different sulphur contents were prepared via aluminium deoxidation followed by calcium treatment. The shape, size, composition and percentage distribution of the [...] Read more.
Suitable MnS inclusions in gear steel can significantly improve the steel machinability and reduce the manufacturing costs. Two gear steel samples with different sulphur contents were prepared via aluminium deoxidation followed by calcium treatment. The shape, size, composition and percentage distribution of the inclusions present in the steel samples were analyzed using an electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) technique. The average diameter of MnS precipitated on an oxide inclusion is less than 5 µm. It was found that the steel with high sulphur content contains a greater number of elongated MnS precipitates than low sulphur steel. Moreover, there are more oxide inclusions such as calcium-aluminates and spinels with a small amount of solid solution of (Ca,Mn)S in low content sulphur steel after calcium treatment, which indicates the modification of solid alumina inclusions into liquid aluminates. The typical inclusions generated in high sulphur steel are sulphide encapsulating oxide inclusions and some core oxides were observed as spinel. The formation mechanisms of complex inclusions with different sulphur and calcium contents are discussed. The results are in good agreement with thermodynamic calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fundamentals of Advanced Pyrometallurgy)
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Article
Identification of a Spatio-Temporal Temperature Model for Laser Metal Deposition
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122050 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
Laser-based additive manufacturing enables the production of complex geometries via layer-wise cladding. Laser metal deposition (LMD) uses a scanning laser source to fuse in situ deposited metal powder layer by layer. However, due to the excessive number of influential factors in the physical [...] Read more.
Laser-based additive manufacturing enables the production of complex geometries via layer-wise cladding. Laser metal deposition (LMD) uses a scanning laser source to fuse in situ deposited metal powder layer by layer. However, due to the excessive number of influential factors in the physical transformation of the metal powder and the highly dynamic temperature fields caused by the melt pool dynamics and phase transitions, the quality and repeatability of parts built by this process is still challenging. In order to analyze and/or predict the spatially varying and time dependent thermal behavior in LMD, extensive work has been done to develop predictive models usually by using finite element method (FEM). From a control-oriented perspective, simulations based on these models are computationally too expensive and are thus not suitable for real-time control applications. In this contribution, a spatio-temporal input–output model based on the heat equation is proposed. In contrast to other works, the parameters of the model are directly estimated from measurements of the LMD process acquired with an infrared (IR) camera during processing specimens using AISI 316 L stainless steel. In order to deal with noisy data, system identification techniques are used taking different disturbing noise into account. By doing so, spatio-temporal models are developed, enabling the prediction of the thermal behavior by means of the radiance measured by the IR camera in the range of the considered processing parameters. Furthermore, in the considered modeling framework, the computational effort for thermal prediction is reduced compared to FEM, thus enabling the use in real-time control applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Processes in Metals)
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Article
Corrosion Nature in [CoN/AlN]n Multilayers Obtained from Laser Ablation
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2049; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122049 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 613
Abstract
The aim of this work is the improvement of the electrochemical behavior of industrial steel using [CoN/AlN]n multilayered system via reactive Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique with a Nd: YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) on Silicon (100) and AISI 302 steel substrates. [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is the improvement of the electrochemical behavior of industrial steel using [CoN/AlN]n multilayered system via reactive Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique with a Nd: YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) on Silicon (100) and AISI 302 steel substrates. In this work was varied systematically the bilayer period (Λ) and the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the chemical composition was determined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The maximum corrosion resistance for the coating with (Λ) equal to 34.7 nm, corresponding to n = 30 bilayered. The polarization resistance and corrosion rate were around 7.62 × 105 kOhm × cm2 and 7.25 × 10−5 mm/year, these values were 6.3 × 105 and 78.6 times better than those showed by the uncoated 302 stainless steel substrate (1.2 kOhm × cm2 and 0.0057 mm/year), respectively. The improvement of the electrochemical behavior of the steel 302 coated with this [CoN/AlN]n can be attributed to the presence of several interfaces that act as obstacles for the inward and outward diffusions of Cl ions, generating an increment in the corrosion resistance. The electrochemical results found in the [CoN/AlN]n open a possibility of future applications in mechanical devices that require high demands in service conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Surface Modification of Metallic Materials)
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Article
Inconel 713C Coating by Cold Spray for Surface Enhancement of Inconel 718
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2048; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122048 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
Inconel 713C is a nickel-based superalloy usually considered as a material of poor weldability due to its susceptibility to hot cracking in the heat-affected zones. Cold spray, a solid-state deposition technology that does not involve melting, can be proposed as a methodology to [...] Read more.
Inconel 713C is a nickel-based superalloy usually considered as a material of poor weldability due to its susceptibility to hot cracking in the heat-affected zones. Cold spray, a solid-state deposition technology that does not involve melting, can be proposed as a methodology to deposit Inconel 713C for surface enhancement of other target components. In this study, Inconel 713C coating was deposited on Inconel 718 substrate with a high-pressure cold spray system. The coating was characterized in terms of microstructure, hardness, and wear properties. The cold-sprayed Inconel 713C coating has a low porosity level and refined grain structures. Microhardness of the Inconel 713C coating was much higher than the Inconel 718 substrate. The sliding wear tests showed that the wear resistance of the cold-sprayed Inconel 713C coating is three times higher than the Inconel 718 substrate, making the coating a suitable protective layer. The main wear mechanisms of the coating include oxidation, tribo-film formation, and adhesive wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Welding, Joining and Surface Coating Technology)
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Article
Fracture Toughness Characteristics of High-Manganese Austenitic Steel Plate for Application in a Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122047 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 660
Abstract
High-manganese austenitic steel was developed to improve the fracture toughness and safety of steel under cryogenic temperatures, and its austenite structure was formed by increasing the Mn content. The developed high-manganese austenitic steel was alloyed with austenite-stabilizing elements (e.g., C, Mn, and Ni) [...] Read more.
High-manganese austenitic steel was developed to improve the fracture toughness and safety of steel under cryogenic temperatures, and its austenite structure was formed by increasing the Mn content. The developed high-manganese austenitic steel was alloyed with austenite-stabilizing elements (e.g., C, Mn, and Ni) to increase cryogenic toughness. It was demonstrated that 30 mm thickness high-manganese austenitic steel, as well as joints welded with this steel, had a sufficiently higher fracture toughness than the required toughness values evaluated under the postulated stress conditions. High-manganese austenitic steel can be applied to large offshore and onshore LNG storage and fuel tanks located in areas experiencing cryogenic conditions. Generally, fracture toughness decreases at lower temperatures; therefore, cryogenic steel requires high fracture toughness to prevent unstable fractures. Brittle fracture initiation and arrest tests were performed using 30 mm thickness high-manganese austenitic steel and SAW joints. The ductile fracture resistance of the weld joints (weld metal, fusion line, fusion line + 2 mm) was investigated using the R-curve because a crack in the weld joint tends to deviate into the weld metal in the case of undermatched joints. The developed high-manganese austenitic steel showed little possibility of brittle fracture and a remarkably unstable ductile fracture toughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Residual Stress Analysis of Welded Structure)
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Article
Numerical Investigation of Segregation Evolution during the Vacuum Arc Remelting Process of Ni-Based Superalloy Ingots
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2046; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122046 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 721
Abstract
Segregation defects greatly affect the service performance and working life of castings during the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process. However, the corresponding research on the prediction of segregation defects is still not comprehensive. Through considering the influence of water-cooled crucible on the electromagnetic [...] Read more.
Segregation defects greatly affect the service performance and working life of castings during the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process. However, the corresponding research on the prediction of segregation defects is still not comprehensive. Through considering the influence of water-cooled crucible on the electromagnetic field inside an ingot, a full-scale model for the comprehensive prediction of freckles and macrosegregation defects during the VAR process is developed in this paper. The macroscopic solute transport phenomenon and the segregation behavior of Ni-5.8 wt% Al-15.2 wt% Ta alloy are predicted. The results indicate that the freckles are mainly concentrated in the lower region of the ingot. With the growth of the ingot, the solute enrichment channels gradually develop into solute enrichment regions, and the channel segregation evolves into macrosegregation. The Lorentz force mainly affects the flow pattern at the top of the molten pool, while the complex flow of multiple vortices is dominated by thermosolutal buoyancy. The maximum and minimum relative segregation ratio inside the ingot can reach 290% and −90%, respectively, and the positive segregation region accounts for about 79% of the total volume. This paper provides a new perspective for understanding the segregation behavior inside the ingot by studying the segregation evolution during the VAR process. Full article
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Article
Effect of Sigma Phase in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Superduplex Stainless Steel
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2045; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122045 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 690
Abstract
In the present study, the thermal program in wire and arc additive manufacturing has been varied in terms of heat input and interpass temperature. Three walls were completed with subsequent Charpy V impact toughness and crack-tip opening displacement fracture toughness, together with a [...] Read more.
In the present study, the thermal program in wire and arc additive manufacturing has been varied in terms of heat input and interpass temperature. Three walls were completed with subsequent Charpy V impact toughness and crack-tip opening displacement fracture toughness, together with a detailed microstructure characterization using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results clearly demonstrate that the formation of sigma phase may deteriorate the toughness of superduplex components. Such formation may take place under prolonged cooling time, which may occur when subsequent passes are deposited with too high interpass temperatures. This transformation behavior may limit the productivity in additive manufacturing of such steels and care must be taken in selection of proper combination of arc energy and interpass temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Components)
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Article
Influence of High Pressure Sliding and Rotary Swaging on Creep Behavior of P92 Steel at 500 °C
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2044; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122044 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 638
Abstract
High-pressure sliding (HPS) and rotary swaging (RS) at room temperature were used to form severely deformed microstructures in martensitic creep-resistant P92 steel. The deformed microstructures contained markedly different ratios of low- and high-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs/HAGBs). The application of the RS method, with [...] Read more.
High-pressure sliding (HPS) and rotary swaging (RS) at room temperature were used to form severely deformed microstructures in martensitic creep-resistant P92 steel. The deformed microstructures contained markedly different ratios of low- and high-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs/HAGBs). The application of the RS method, with an imposed equivalent strain of 1.4, led to the formation of a heterogeneous microstructure with a high number of LAGBs, while the HPS method, with an imposed equivalent strain of 7.8, led to the formation of a relatively homogeneous ultrafine-grained microstructure with a significant predominance of HAGBs. Microstructure analyses after creep testing showed that the microstructure of RS- and HPS-processed P92 steel is quite stable, but a slight coarsening of subgrains and grains during creep testing can be observed. Constant load tensile creep tests at 500 °C and initial stresses ranging from 300 to 900 MPa revealed that the specimens processed by HPS exhibited higher creep strength (slower minimum creep rate) and ductility compared to the coarse-grained and RS-processed P92 steel. However, the HPS-processed P92 steel also exhibited lower values of stress exponent n than the other investigated states of P92 steel. For this reason, the differences in minimum creep rates determined for different states decrease with decreasing values of applied stress, and at applied stresses lower than 500 MPa, the creep resistance of the RS-processed state is higher than the creep resistance of the HPS-processed state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Severe Plastic Deformation Techniques of Metal Alloys)
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Article
Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of Al-Zn and Al-Bi-Zn Alloys Deformed by ECAP
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2043; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122043 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 614
Abstract
It is well known that ultrafine grained and nanocrystalline materials show enhanced strength, while they are susceptible to thermally induced grain coarsening. The present work aims to enhance the thermal stability of ultrafine Al grains produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) via [...] Read more.
It is well known that ultrafine grained and nanocrystalline materials show enhanced strength, while they are susceptible to thermally induced grain coarsening. The present work aims to enhance the thermal stability of ultrafine Al grains produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) via dynamically precipitation. Detailed characterization by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been carried out to reveal the microstructural evolution during both ECAP and post-ECAP annealing. After five passes of ECAP, both Al-8Zn and Al-6Bi-8Zn alloys show an ultrafine grain structure together with dynamic precipitated nanoscale Zn particles along grain boundaries. Upon annealing at 200 °C, ultrafine grains in the Al-8Zn and Al-6Bi-8Zn alloys show a remarkable thermal stability compared to the Al-8Bi alloy, which is mainly due to the presence of nanoscale Zn precipitates along grain boundaries. The present work reveals that nanoscale Zn particles have a positive effect on preserving the ultrafine grains during annealing, which is useful for the design of UFG Al alloys with improved thermal stability. Full article
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Article
Basic Tool Design Guidelines for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2042; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122042 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process that has multiple advantages over fusion welding. The design of tools for the FSW process is a factor of interest, considering its fundamental role in obtaining sound welds. There are some commercially available alternatives [...] Read more.
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process that has multiple advantages over fusion welding. The design of tools for the FSW process is a factor of interest, considering its fundamental role in obtaining sound welds. There are some commercially available alternatives for FSW tools, but unlike conventional fusion welding consumables, their use is limited to very specific conditions. In this work, equations to act as guidelines in the design process for FSW tools are proposed for the 2XXX, 5XXX, 6XXX, and 7XXX aluminum series and any given thickness to determine: pin length, pin diameter, and shoulder diameter. Over 80 sources and 200 tests were used and detailed to generate these expressions. As a verification approach, successful welds by authors outside the scope of the original review and the tools used were evaluated under this development and used as case studies or verification for the guidelines. Variations between designs made using the guidelines and those reported by other researchers remain under 21%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Friction Stir Welding and Processing)
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Article
Simulation for Cu Atom Diffusion Leading to Fluctuations in Solder Properties and Cu6Sn5 Growth during Multiple Reflows
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122041 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 693
Abstract
The multiple reflows process is widely used in 3D packaging in the field of electronic packaging. The growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) is more important to the reliability of solder joints. In this paper, experimental measurement combined with simulation calculation were [...] Read more.
The multiple reflows process is widely used in 3D packaging in the field of electronic packaging. The growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) is more important to the reliability of solder joints. In this paper, experimental measurement combined with simulation calculation were preformed to investigate the evolution of Cu concentration in solders during multiple reflows, as well as its effects on the growth behavior of IMC and solder properties. The concentration of Cu in solder fluctuated, increasing with the increase of reflow times, which led to the fluctuation in the growth rate of the IMC. Furthermore, the Vickers hardness and melting point of the solder fluctuated during the multiple reflow processes due to the fluctuation in the Cu concentration. The data generated during this study could help to develop machine learning tools in relation to the study of interfacial microstructure evolution during multiple reflows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data-Driven Approaches in Modeling of Intermetallics)
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Article
High-Temperature Corrosion Performance of FeAl-Based Alloys Containing Carbon in Molten Salt
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2040; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122040 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Corrosion behavior of FeAl-based alloys containing carbon produced through arc melting in argon atmosphere has been studied at 500 °C to 700 °C. The samples were tested in the aggressive environment of molten salts (80%V2O5/20%Na2SO4). [...] Read more.
Corrosion behavior of FeAl-based alloys containing carbon produced through arc melting in argon atmosphere has been studied at 500 °C to 700 °C. The samples were tested in the aggressive environment of molten salts (80%V2O5/20%Na2SO4). The corrosion behavior was observed by weight change method and the layer products formed were examined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The different phase components were observed in the surface layer after the test in Fe-22Al alloy. A protective Al2O3 layer was confirmed for Fe-22Al alloy containing carbon only. However, an additional TiO layer was also observed in Fe-22Al alloy containing carbon with Ti addition. The microstructural and XRD examinations revealed that this additional TiO layer protects better against penetration of corrosive media. The corrosion resistance behavior of FeAl-based alloys were addressed on the basis of microstructural evidence. Full article
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Article
A Novel Approach to Inhibit Intergranular Corrosion in Ferritic Stainless Steel Welds Using High-Speed Laser Cladding
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122039 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 851
Abstract
Ferritic stainless steels are prone to localized corrosion phenomena such as pitting corrosion or intergranular corrosion, in particular when jointed by fusion welding processes. State-of-the-art techniques to avoid intergranular corrosion mainly consist of alternating alloy concepts or post-weld heat-treatments—all of which are associated [...] Read more.
Ferritic stainless steels are prone to localized corrosion phenomena such as pitting corrosion or intergranular corrosion, in particular when jointed by fusion welding processes. State-of-the-art techniques to avoid intergranular corrosion mainly consist of alternating alloy concepts or post-weld heat-treatments—all of which are associated with increased production costs. Hence, the present investigation seeks to introduce a novel approach for the inhibition of intergranular corrosion in ferritic stainless steel welds through the use of high-speed laser cladding. Here, vulnerable sites prone to intergranular corrosion along the weld seam area are coated with a chemically resistant alloy, whereby an overlap is achieved. Optical and electron microscopy as well as computer tomography and tensile tests reveal that the detrimental effects of intergranular corrosion in both stabilized and unstabilized ferritic stainless steel are substantially reduced. In addition to that, the effects of varying overlap widths on the identified corrosion phenomena are studied. Moreover, the resulting dilution and precipiation phenomena at the clad–sheet interface are thoroughly characterized by electron backscatter diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, whereby interrelationships to corrosion resistance can be drawn. As a result of this investigation, the number of techniques for the inhibition of intergranular corrosion is enlarged, and substantial cost-saving potentials in the manufacturing industry are unlocked. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Surface Treatment on Corrosion Behavior of Steels)
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Article
Effect of Post-Deposition Solution Treatment and Ageing on Improving Interfacial Adhesion Strength of Cold Sprayed Ti6Al4V Coatings
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2038; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122038 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 839 | Correction
Abstract
This study aims at investigating the effect of post-deposition solution treatment and ageing (STA) on improving the interfacial adhesion strength in cold spray (CS) Ti6Al4V coatings deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates, measured by the adhesive-free collar-pin pull-off (CPP) test. Solution treatment was performed at [...] Read more.
This study aims at investigating the effect of post-deposition solution treatment and ageing (STA) on improving the interfacial adhesion strength in cold spray (CS) Ti6Al4V coatings deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates, measured by the adhesive-free collar-pin pull-off (CPP) test. Solution treatment was performed at 940 °C for 1 h and ageing was carried out at 480 °C for 8 h. Investigations were carried out for specimens with three different pre-treatments of the substrate surface, namely grit-blasted, as-machined (faced on lathe machine), and ground. Additionally, the effect of post-deposition STA was studied in terms of phase analysis, microstructure, and porosity level. It was observed that STA led to complete interfacial mixing resulting in significantly improved adhesion strength (by more than 520%) with the maximum measured value of greater than 766 MPa for ground substrates, reaching 81% of the ultimate tensile strength of mill annealed Ti6Al4V. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Cold Spray Technique)
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Article
Effects of Residual Stresses on the Fatigue Lifetimes of Self-Piercing Riveted Joints of AZ31 Mg Alloy and Al5052 Al Alloy Sheets
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2037; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122037 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 651
Abstract
During the self-piercing riveting (SPR) process, residual stress develops due to the high plastic deformation of the sheet materials. In this study, the effect of the residual stress on the fatigue lifetime of SPR joints with dissimilar magnesium AZ31 alloy and aluminum Al5052 [...] Read more.
During the self-piercing riveting (SPR) process, residual stress develops due to the high plastic deformation of the sheet materials. In this study, the effect of the residual stress on the fatigue lifetime of SPR joints with dissimilar magnesium AZ31 alloy and aluminum Al5052 alloy sheets was evaluated. The residual stress distribution was derived through a simulation of the SPR process by the FEA (finite element analysis). The measured values by the X-ray diffraction technique confirmed that the validity of the simulation has a maximum error of 17.2% with the experimental results. The fatigue strength of the SPR joint was evaluated at various loading angles using tensile-shear and cross-shaped specimens. It was found that the compressive residual stresses of the joint reduce the stress amplitude by 13% at 106 cycles lifetime, resulting in extension of its lifetime to approximately 3.4 million cycles from 106 cycles lifetime. Finally, it was confirmed that the fatigue life of SPR joints was appropriately predicted within a factor of three using the relationship between the fatigue life and the equivalent stress intensity factor. The fatigue resistance of the magnesium AZ31 alloy on the upper sheet was found to govern fatigue lifetimes of SPR joints of dissimilar magnesium AZ31 alloy sheets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development of Lightweight Metal Automotive Components)
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Article
The Role of Silica in the Chlorination–Volatilization of Cobalt Oxide by Using Calcium Chloride
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122036 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 584
Abstract
The role of silica in the chlorination–volatilization of cobalt oxide, using calcium chloride, is investigated in this paper. It is found that the Co volatilization percentage of the CoO–Fe2O3–CaCl2 system is not larger than 12.1%. Silica plays an [...] Read more.
The role of silica in the chlorination–volatilization of cobalt oxide, using calcium chloride, is investigated in this paper. It is found that the Co volatilization percentage of the CoO–Fe2O3–CaCl2 system is not larger than 12.1%. Silica plays an important role in the chlorination–volatilization of cobalt oxide by using calcium chloride. In the CoO–SiO2–Fe2O3–CaCl2 system, the Co volatilization percentage is initially positively related to the molar ratio of SiO2 to CaCl2, and remains almost constant when the molar ratio of SiO2 to CaCl2 rises from zero to eight. The critical molar ratios of SiO2 to CaCl2 are 1 and 2 when the molar ratios of CaCl2 to CoO are 8.3 and 16.6, respectively. The Co volatilization percentage remains almost constant with the increase in CaO concentration, and decreases when Al2O3 and MgO are added. Ca2SiO3Cl2 is determined after roasting at 1073 K and 1173 K, and disappears at temperatures in excess of 1273 K in the calcines from the CoO–SiO2–CaCl2 system. CaSiO3 always exists in the calcines at temperatures in excess of 973 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fundamentals of Advanced Pyrometallurgy)
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