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Metals, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 218 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The fatigue lives of IN718, produced by additive manufacturing (AM) as well as conventional wrought material, were successfully determined at 873 K up to 109 cycles. Therefore, ultrasonic fatigue tests were performed under fully revered loading. The AM material was investigated in its as-built condition, whereas conventional material received the typical heat treatment for IN718. Both microstructures showed fundamental differences concerning grain sizes, defect distribution, and texture. The as-built microstructure led to a significant decrease in fatigue strength compared to the heat-treated conventional IN718. The EBM material showed crystallographic crack initiation along the activated slip systems initiated by internal defects. View this paper
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12 pages, 3700 KiB  
Article
Deformation Behavior of Wrought and EBAM Ti-6Al-4V under Scratch Testing
by Artur Shugurov, Alexey Panin, Marina Kazachenok, Lyudmila Kazantseva, Sergey Martynov, Alexander Bakulin and Svetlana Kulkova
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1882; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111882 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1823
Abstract
The microstructure, mechanical properties, and deformation behavior of wrought and electron beam additive manufactured (EBAM) Ti-6Al-4V samples under scratching were studied. As-received wrought Ti-6Al-4V was subjected to thermal treatment to obtain the samples with microstructure and mechanical characteristics similar to those of the [...] Read more.
The microstructure, mechanical properties, and deformation behavior of wrought and electron beam additive manufactured (EBAM) Ti-6Al-4V samples under scratching were studied. As-received wrought Ti-6Al-4V was subjected to thermal treatment to obtain the samples with microstructure and mechanical characteristics similar to those of the EBAM samples. As a result, both alloys consisted of colonies of α phase laths within prior β phase grains and were characterized by close values of hardness. At the same time, the Young’s modulus of the EBAM samples determined by nanoindentation was lower compared with the wrought samples. It was found that despite the same hardness, the scratch depth of the EBAM samples under loading was substantially smaller than that of the wrought alloy. A mechanism was proposed, which associated the smaller scratch depth of EBAM Ti-6Al-4V with α′→α″ phase transformations that occurred in the contact area during scratching. Ab initio calculations of the atomic structure of V-doped Ti crystallites containing α or α″ phases of titanium were carried out to support the proposed mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Alloys II)
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15 pages, 4002 KiB  
Review
The Grain Boundary Wetting Phenomena in the Ti-Containing High-Entropy Alloys: A Review
by Boris B. Straumal, Anna Korneva, Alexei Kuzmin, Gabriel A. Lopez, Eugen Rabkin, Alexander B. Straumal, Gregory Gerstein and Alena S. Gornakova
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111881 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 4104
Abstract
In this review, the phenomenon of grain boundary (GB) wetting by melt is analyzed for multicomponent alloys without principal components (also called high-entropy alloys or HEAs) containing titanium. GB wetting can be complete or partial. In the former case, the liquid phase forms [...] Read more.
In this review, the phenomenon of grain boundary (GB) wetting by melt is analyzed for multicomponent alloys without principal components (also called high-entropy alloys or HEAs) containing titanium. GB wetting can be complete or partial. In the former case, the liquid phase forms the continuous layers between solid grains and completely separates them. In the latter case of partial GB wetting, the melt forms the chain of droplets in GBs, with certain non-zero contact angles. The GB wetting phenomenon can be observed in HEAs produced by all solidification-based technologies. GB leads to the appearance of novel GB tie lines Twmin and Twmax in the multicomponent HEA phase diagrams. The so-called grain-boundary engineering of HEAs permits the use of GB wetting to improve the HEAs’ properties or, alternatively, its exclusion if the GB layers of a second phase are detrimental. Full article
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18 pages, 6431 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Improvement in Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Crack Propagation Resistance of Low Carbon Offshore Structural Steel EH36 by Cu–Cr Microalloying
by Xingdong Peng, Peng Zhang, Ke Hu, Ling Yan and Guanglong Li
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111880 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Improving the mechanical performance of low-carbon offshore steel is of great significance in shipbuilding applications. In this paper, a new Cu-Cr microalloyed offshore structural steel (FH36) was developed based on EH36. The microstructure, mechanical properties, and fatigue crack propagation properties of rolled plates [...] Read more.
Improving the mechanical performance of low-carbon offshore steel is of great significance in shipbuilding applications. In this paper, a new Cu-Cr microalloyed offshore structural steel (FH36) was developed based on EH36. The microstructure, mechanical properties, and fatigue crack propagation properties of rolled plates of FH36, EH36, and normalizing rolled EH36 plates (EH36N) manufactured by a thermo-mechanical control process (TMCP) were analyzed and compared (to simplify, the two rolled specimens are signified by FH36T and EH36T, respectively). FH36T showed an obvious advantage in elongation with the value of 29%, 52.2% higher than the EH36T plates. The normalizing process led to a relatively lower yield stress (338 MPa), but substantially increased the elongation (33%) and lessened the yield ratio from 0.77 to 0.67. Electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed that SFs of the deformation texture of FH36T and EH36N along the transverse direction (TD) and normal direction (ND) were much higher than those of the EH36T plate, which enhanced the lateral movement ability in the width and thickness direction, enhancing the ductility. Moreover, FH36 plates showed a better fatigue crack propagation resistance than rolled EH36 plates. The formation of the jagged shape grain boundaries is believed to induce a decrease of effective stress intensity factor during the fatigue crack propagation process. Full article
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15 pages, 2754 KiB  
Article
Influence of Quenching and Partitioning Parameters on Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties of Medium Manganese Steel for Press-Hardening Application
by Charline Blankart, Sebastian Wesselmecking and Ulrich Krupp
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1879; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111879 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2783
Abstract
It has been proven that through targeted quenching and partitioning (Q & P), medium manganese steels can exhibit excellent mechanical properties combining very high strength and ductility. In order to apply the potential of these steels in industrial press hardening and to avoid [...] Read more.
It has been proven that through targeted quenching and partitioning (Q & P), medium manganese steels can exhibit excellent mechanical properties combining very high strength and ductility. In order to apply the potential of these steels in industrial press hardening and to avoid high scrap rates, it is of utmost importance to determine a robust process window for Q & P. Hence, an intensive study of dilatometry experiments was carried out to identify the influence of quenching temperature (TQ) and partitioning time (tp) on phase transformations, phase stabilities, and the mechanical properties of a lean medium manganese steel. For this purpose, additional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) examinations as well as tensile testing were performed. Based on the dilatometry data, an adjustment of the Koistinen–Marburger (K-M) equation for medium manganese steel was developed. The results show that a retained austenite content of 12–21% in combination with a low-phase fraction of untempered secondary martensite (max. 20%) leads to excellent mechanical properties with a tensile strength higher than 1500 MPa and a total elongation of 18%, whereas an exceeding secondary martensite phase fraction results in brittle failure. The optimum retained austenite content was adjusted for TQ between 130 °C and 150 °C by means of an adapted partitioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alloy and Process Design of Metallic Materials)
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12 pages, 3606 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Current Supply Duration during Stepwise Electrical Sintering of Silver Nanoparticles
by Iksang Lee, Arif Hussain, Hee-Lak Lee, Yoon-Jae Moon, Jun-Young Hwang and Seung-Jae Moon
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1878; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111878 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
We studied the effect of current supply duration at final-step currents during the stepwise electrical sintering of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). Ag NPs ink was inkjet-printed onto Eagle-XG glass substrates. Constant final-step currents of 0.4 and 0.5 A with various time intervals were [...] Read more.
We studied the effect of current supply duration at final-step currents during the stepwise electrical sintering of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). Ag NPs ink was inkjet-printed onto Eagle-XG glass substrates. Constant final-step currents of 0.4 and 0.5 A with various time intervals were applied to the printed samples. The final-step current of 0.5 A damaged the line at a comparatively shorter time duration. On the other hand, the lower final-step current of 0.4 A prevented the line damage at longer time durations while producing comparatively lower Ag NPs specific resistance. The minimum specific resistances of the printed samples sintered at 0.4 and 0.5 A were 3.59 μΩ∙cm and 3.79 μΩ∙cm, respectively. Furthermore, numerical temperature estimation and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were conducted to elaborate on the results. The numerical temperature estimation results implied that the lower estimated peak temperature at the final-step current of 0.4 A helped prevent Ag NP line damage. The SEM micrographs suggested that a high surface porosity—caused by higher sintering peak temperatures—in the case of the 0.5 A final-step current resulted in a comparatively higher Ag NP line-specific resistance. This contribution is a step forward in the development of Ag NP sintering for printed electronics applications. Full article
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16 pages, 6355 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Defects Analyses Using High-Speed Imaging during Aluminum Magnesium Alloy Laser Welding
by Sabin Mihai, Diana Chioibasu, Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Liviu Duta, Marc Leparoux and Andrei C. Popescu
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111877 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2819
Abstract
In this study a continuous wave Ytterbium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Yb: YAG) disk laser has been used for welding of AlMg3 casted alloy. A high-speed imaging camera has been employed to record hot vapor plume features during the process. The purpose was to [...] Read more.
In this study a continuous wave Ytterbium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Yb: YAG) disk laser has been used for welding of AlMg3 casted alloy. A high-speed imaging camera has been employed to record hot vapor plume features during the process. The purpose was to identify a mechanism of pores detection in real-time based on correlations between metallographic analyses and area/intensity of the hot vapor in various locations of the samples. The pores formation and especially the position of these pores had to be kept under control in order to weld thick samples. Based on the characterization of the hot vapor, it has been found that the increase of the vapor area that exceeded a threshold value (18.5 ± 1 mm2) was a sign of pores formation within the weld seam. For identification of the pores’ locations during welding, the monitored element was the hot vapor intensity. The hot vapor core spots having a grayscale level reaching 255 was associated with the formation of a local pore. These findings have been devised based on correlation between pores placement in welds cross-section microscopy images and the hot vapor plume features in those respective positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Assisted Processing of Metals and Alloys)
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17 pages, 10090 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Resistance of CoCrFeNiMn High Entropy Alloy Coating Prepared through Plasma Transfer Arc Claddings
by Pei-Hu Gao, Rui-Tao Fu, Bai-Yang Chen, Sheng-Cong Zeng, Bo Zhang, Zhong Yang, Yong-Chun Guo, Min-Xian Liang, Jian-Ping Li, Yong-Qing Lu, Lu Jia and Dan Zhao
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1876; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111876 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
High entropy alloy attracts great attention for its high thermal stability and corrosion resistance. A CoCrFeNiMn high-entropy alloy coating was deposited on grey cast iron through plasma transfer arc cladding. It formed fine acicular martensite near the grey cast iron, with columnar grains [...] Read more.
High entropy alloy attracts great attention for its high thermal stability and corrosion resistance. A CoCrFeNiMn high-entropy alloy coating was deposited on grey cast iron through plasma transfer arc cladding. It formed fine acicular martensite near the grey cast iron, with columnar grains perpendicular to the interface between the grey cast iron substrate and the cladding layer as well as dendrite in the middle part of the coatings. Simple FCC solid solutions present in the coatings which were similar to the powder’s structure. The coating had a microhardness of 300 ± 21.5 HV0.2 when the cladding current was 80 A for the solid solution strengthening. The HEA coating had the highest corrosion potential of −0.253 V when the plasma current was 60 A, which was much higher than the grey cast iron’s corrosion potential of −0.708 V. Meanwhile, the coating had a much lower corrosion current density of 9.075 × 10−7 mA/cm2 than the grey cast iron’s 2.4825 × 10−6 mA/cm2, which reflected that the CoCrFeNiMn HEA coating had much better corrosion resistance and lower corrosion rate than the grey cast iron for single FCC solid solution phase and a relatively higher concentration of Cr in the grain boundaries than in the grains and this could lead to corrosion protection effects. Full article
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15 pages, 4399 KiB  
Review
Understanding the Radiation Resistance Mechanisms of Nanocrystalline Metals from Atomistic Simulation
by Liang Zhang
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1875; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111875 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2602
Abstract
Metallic materials produce various structural defects in the radiation environment, resulting in serious degradation of material properties. An important way to improve the radiation-resistant ability of materials is to give the microstructure of materials a self-healing ability, to eliminate the structural defects. The [...] Read more.
Metallic materials produce various structural defects in the radiation environment, resulting in serious degradation of material properties. An important way to improve the radiation-resistant ability of materials is to give the microstructure of materials a self-healing ability, to eliminate the structural defects. The research and development of new radiation-resistant materials with excellent self-healing ability, based on defects control, is one of the hot topics in materials science. Compared with conventional coarse-grained materials, nanocrystalline metals with a high density of grain boundary (GB) show a higher ability to resist radiation damage. However, the mechanism of GB’s absorption of structural defects under radiation is still unclear, and how to take advantage of the GB properties to improve the radiation resistance of metallic materials remains to be further investigated. In recent decades, atomistic simulation has been widely used to study the radiation responses of different metals and their underlying mechanisms. This paper briefly reviews the progress in studying radiation resistance mechanisms of nanocrystalline metals by employing computational simulation at the atomic scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Modeling of Metallic Materials)
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11 pages, 2883 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Extrapolation Capability of an Artificial Neural Network Algorithm in Combination with Process Signals in Resistance Spot Welding of Advanced High-Strength Steels
by Bassel El-Sari, Max Biegler and Michael Rethmeier
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1874; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111874 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2494
Abstract
Resistance spot welding is an established joining process for the production of safety-relevant components in the automotive industry. Therefore, consecutive process monitoring is essential to meet the high quality requirements. Artificial neural networks can be used to evaluate the process parameters and signals, [...] Read more.
Resistance spot welding is an established joining process for the production of safety-relevant components in the automotive industry. Therefore, consecutive process monitoring is essential to meet the high quality requirements. Artificial neural networks can be used to evaluate the process parameters and signals, to ensure individual spot weld quality. The predictive accuracy of such algorithms depends on the provided training data set, and the prediction of untrained data is challenging. The aim of this paper was to investigate the extrapolation capability of a multi-layer perceptron model. That means, the predictive performance of the model was tested with data that clearly differed from the training data in terms of material and coating composition. Therefore, three multi-layer perceptron regression models were implemented to predict the nugget diameter from process data. The three models were able to predict the training datasets very well. The models, which were provided with features from the dynamic resistance curve predicted the new dataset better than the model with only process parameters. This study shows the beneficial influence of process signals on the predictive accuracy and robustness of artificial neural network algorithms. Especially, when predicting a data set from outside of the training space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality Assessment and Process Management of Welded Joints)
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16 pages, 5185 KiB  
Article
Improvement in the Resistance to Wear of Work-Rolls Used in Finishing Stands of the Hot Strip Mills
by Alberto Cofiño-Villar, Florentino Alvarez-Antolin and Carlos Hugo Alvarez-Perez
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1873; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111873 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1477
Abstract
Work-rolls manufactured through the Indefinite Chill Double Poured (ICDP) method present an exterior work layer manufactured in a martensitic white cast iron alloyed with 4.5 %Ni, 1.7 %Cr, and 0.7 %Nb (wt.%). In its microstructure, there are abundant carbides of the type M [...] Read more.
Work-rolls manufactured through the Indefinite Chill Double Poured (ICDP) method present an exterior work layer manufactured in a martensitic white cast iron alloyed with 4.5 %Ni, 1.7 %Cr, and 0.7 %Nb (wt.%). In its microstructure, there are abundant carbides of the type M3C and MC, which give high resistance to wear, and graphite particles which improve the service behaviour of the rolls against thermal cycling. The core of the rolls is manufactured in grey cast iron of pearlitic matrix and spheroidal graphite. These work-rolls are used in the finishing stands in Hot Strip Mills for rolling slabs proceeding from continuous casting at 1200 °C. Through the application of a Design of Experiments (DoE), an attempt has been made to identify those manufacturing factors which have a significant effect on resistance to wear of these rolls and to find an optimal combination of levels of these factors which allow for improvement in resistance to wear. To increase resistance to wear, it is recommended to situate, simultaneously, the liquidus temperature and the percentage of Si in the respective ranges of 1250–1255 °C and 1.1–1.15 (wt.%). Higher liquidus temperatures favour the presence of the pro-eutectic constituent rather than the eutectic constituent. The outer zone of the work layer, in contact with the metal sheet, which is being rolled, does not show the graphitising effect of Si (0.8–1.15 wt.%). On the contrary, it confirms the hardening effect of the Si in solid solution of the ferrite. The addition of 0.02% of Mg (wt.%) and the inoculation of 6 kg/T of FeB tend to eliminate the graphitising effect of the Si, thus favouring that the undissolved carbon in the austenite is found to form carbides in contrast to the majority formation of graphite. Full article
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16 pages, 1155 KiB  
Article
Error Uncertainty Analysis in Planar Closed-Loop Structure with Joint Clearances
by Yushu Yu, Jinglin Li, Xin Li and Yi Yang
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1872; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111872 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1531
Abstract
For planar closed-loop structures with clearances, the angular and positional error uncertainties are studied. By using the vector translation method and geometric method, the boundaries of the errors are analyzed. The joint clearance is considered as being distributed uniformly in a circle area. [...] Read more.
For planar closed-loop structures with clearances, the angular and positional error uncertainties are studied. By using the vector translation method and geometric method, the boundaries of the errors are analyzed. The joint clearance is considered as being distributed uniformly in a circle area. A virtual link projection method is proposed to deal with the clearance affected length error probability density function (PDF) for open-loop links. The error relationship between open loop and closed loop is established. The open-loop length PDF and the closed-loop angular error PDF both approach being Gaussian distribution if there are many clearances. The angular propagation error of multi-loop structures is also investigated by using convolution. The positional errors of single and multiple loops are both discussed as joint distribution functions. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to verify the proposed methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computation and Simulation on Metals)
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17 pages, 11634 KiB  
Article
Early Crack Propagation in Single Tooth Bending Fatigue: Combination of Finite Element Analysis and Critical-Planes Fatigue Criteria
by Franco Concli, Lorenzo Maccioni, Lorenzo Fraccaroli and Luca Bonaiti
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1871; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111871 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2615
Abstract
Mechanical components, such as gears, are usually subjected to variable loads that induce multiaxial non-proportional stress states, which in turn can lead to failure due to fatigue. However, the material properties are usually available in the forms of bending or shear fatigue limits. [...] Read more.
Mechanical components, such as gears, are usually subjected to variable loads that induce multiaxial non-proportional stress states, which in turn can lead to failure due to fatigue. However, the material properties are usually available in the forms of bending or shear fatigue limits. Multiaxial fatigue criteria can be used to bridge the gap between the available data and the actual loading conditions. However, different criteria could lead to different results. The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the accuracy of different criteria applied to real mechanical components. With respect to this, five different criteria based on the critical plane concept (i.e., Findley, Matake, McDiarmid, Papadopoulos, and Susmel) have been investigated. These criteria were selected because they not only assess the level of damage, but also predict the direction of crack propagation just after nucleation. Therefore, measurements (crack position and direction) on different fractured gear samples tested via Single Tooth Bending Fatigue (STBF) tests on two gear geometries were used as reference. The STBF configuration was numerically simulated via Finite Elements (FE) analyses. The results of FE were elaborated based on the above-mentioned criteria. The numerical results were compared with the experimental ones. The result of the comparison showed that all the fatigue criteria agree in identifying the most critical point. The Findley and Papadopulus criteria proved to be the most accurate in estimating the level of damage. The Susmel criterion turns out to be the most conservative one. With respect to the identification of the direction of early propagation of the crack, the Findley criterion revealed the most appropriate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods for Fatigue and Fracture)
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10 pages, 6928 KiB  
Article
Micromechanisms of Deformation and Fracture in Porous L-PBF 316L Stainless Steel at Different Strain Rates
by Nataliya Kazantseva, Pavel Krakhmalev, Mikael Åsberg, Yulia Koemets, Maxim Karabanalov, Denis Davydov, Igor Ezhov and Olga Koemets
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111870 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
The process of an unstable plastic flow associated with the strain rate sensitivity of mechanical properties was studied in porous 316L austenitic steel samples manufactured by laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF). Different micromechanisms of deformation and fracture of porous samples dependent on strain [...] Read more.
The process of an unstable plastic flow associated with the strain rate sensitivity of mechanical properties was studied in porous 316L austenitic steel samples manufactured by laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF). Different micromechanisms of deformation and fracture of porous samples dependent on strain rate were found. It was found that despite the porosity, the specimens showed high strength, which increased with the loading rate. Porosity led to lower ductility of the studied specimens, in comparison with literature data for low porous 316L L-PBF samples and resulted in de-localization of plastic deformation. With an increase in strain rate, nucleation of new pores was less pronounced, so that at the highest strain rate of 8 × 10−3 s−1, only pore coalescence was observed as the dominating microscopic mechanism of ductile fracture. Full article
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15 pages, 608 KiB  
Article
Investigation on Vanadium Chemistry in Basic-Oxygen-Furnace (BOF) Slags—A First Approach
by Sophie Wunderlich, Thomas Schirmer and Ursula E. A. Fittschen
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1869; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111869 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag accounts for the majority of all residual materials produced during steelmaking and may typically contain certain transition metals. Vanadium, in particular, came into focus in recent years because of its potential environmental toxicity as well as its economic [...] Read more.
Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag accounts for the majority of all residual materials produced during steelmaking and may typically contain certain transition metals. Vanadium, in particular, came into focus in recent years because of its potential environmental toxicity as well as its economic value. This study addresses the vanadium chemistry in BOF slags to better understand its recovery and save handling of the waste stream. The experimental results from the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) study show that vanadium is preferably incorporated in calcium orthosilicate-like compounds (COS), with two variations occurring, a low vanadium COS (COS-Si) (approx. 1 wt.%), and a high vanadium COS (COS-V) (up to 18 wt.%). Additionally, vanadium is incorporated in dicalcium ferrite-like compounds (DFS) with an average amount of 3 wt.%. Using powder x-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD), EPMA, and virtual component models, stoichiometric formulas of the main vanadium-bearing phases were postulated. The stoichiometries give an estimate of the oxidation states of vanadium in the respective hosts. According to these results, trivalent vanadium is incorporated on the Fe-position in dicalcium ferrite solid solution (DFS), and V4+ and V5+ are incorporated on the Si-position of the COS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Slag Metallurgy)
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34 pages, 8955 KiB  
Article
On the Microstructure and Properties of the Nb-23Ti-5Si-5Al-5Hf-5V-2Cr-2Sn (at.%) Silicide-Based Alloy—RM(Nb)IC
by Nikos Vellios, Paul Keating and Panos Tsakiropoulos
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1868; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111868 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2211
Abstract
The microstructure, isothermal oxidation, and hardness of the Nb-23Ti-5Si-5Al-5Hf-5V-2Cr-2Sn alloy and the hardness and Young’s moduli of elasticity of its Nbss and Nb5Si3 were studied. The alloy was selected using the niobium intermetallic composite elaboration (NICE) alloy design methodology. [...] Read more.
The microstructure, isothermal oxidation, and hardness of the Nb-23Ti-5Si-5Al-5Hf-5V-2Cr-2Sn alloy and the hardness and Young’s moduli of elasticity of its Nbss and Nb5Si3 were studied. The alloy was selected using the niobium intermetallic composite elaboration (NICE) alloy design methodology. There was macrosegregation of Ti and Si in the cast alloy. The Nbss, αNb5Si3, γNb5Si3, and HfO2 phases were present in the as-cast or heat-treated alloy plus TiN in the near-the-surface areas of the latter. The vol.% of Nbss was about 80%. There were Ti- and Ti-and-Hf-rich areas in the solid solution and the 5-3 silicide, respectively, and there was a lamellar microstructure of these two phases. The V partitioned to the Nbss, where the solubilities of Al, Cr, Hf, and V increased with increasing Ti concentration. At 700, 800, and 900 °C, the alloy did not suffer from catastrophic pest oxidation; it followed parabolic oxidation kinetics in the former two temperatures and linear oxidation kinetics in the latter, where its mass change was the lowest compared with other Sn-containing alloys. An Sn-rich layer formed in the interface between the scale and the substrate, which consisted of the Nb3Sn and Nb6Sn5 compounds at 900 °C. The latter compound was not contaminated with oxygen. Both the Nbss and Nb5Si3 were contaminated with oxygen, with the former contaminated more severely than the latter. The bulk of the alloy was also contaminated with oxygen. The alloying of the Nbss with Sn increased its elastic modulus compared with Sn-free solid solutions. The hardness of the alloy, its Nbss, and its specific room temperature strength compared favourably with many refractory metal-complex-concentrated alloys (RCCAs). The agreement of the predictions of NICE with the experimental results was satisfactory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Refractory Alloys)
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8 pages, 2909 KiB  
Article
One-Step Electrodeposition of Superhydrophobic Coating on 316L Stainless Steel
by Andrea Zaffora, Francesco Di Franco, Bartolomeo Megna and Monica Santamaria
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1867; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111867 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
Superhydrophobic coatings were fabricated through a one-step electrochemical process onto the surface of 316L stainless steel samples. The presence of hierarchical structures at micro/nanoscale and manganese stearate into the coatings gave superhydrophobicity to the coating, with contact angle of ~160°, and self-cleaning ability. [...] Read more.
Superhydrophobic coatings were fabricated through a one-step electrochemical process onto the surface of 316L stainless steel samples. The presence of hierarchical structures at micro/nanoscale and manganese stearate into the coatings gave superhydrophobicity to the coating, with contact angle of ~160°, and self-cleaning ability. Corrosion resistance of 316L samples was also assessed also after the electrodeposition process through Electrochemical Impedance Spectra recorded in an aqueous solution mimicking seawater condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Protection of Stainless Steels)
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15 pages, 4925 KiB  
Article
Effect of La and Sc Co-Addition on the Mechanical Properties and Thermal Conductivity of As-Cast Al-4.8% Cu Alloys
by Zhao-Xi Song, Yuan-Dong Li, Wen-Jing Liu, Hao-Kun Yang, Yang-Jing Cao and Guang-Li Bi
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111866 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
The effects of La and La+Sc addition on mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of Al-4.8Cu alloy were comprehensively studied. The as-cast samples were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and first-principles methods. The results reveal that the [...] Read more.
The effects of La and La+Sc addition on mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of Al-4.8Cu alloy were comprehensively studied. The as-cast samples were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and first-principles methods. The results reveal that the grain morphology of Al-4.8Cu alloy changes from dendrite to fine equiaxed grain with La, La+Sc addition. The average grain size of Al-Cu-La (Al-4.8Cu-0.4La) and Al-Cu-La-Sc (Al-4.8Cu-0.4La-0.4Sc) decreased by 37.2% (70.36 μm) and 63.3% (119.64 μm) respectively compared with Al-Cu (Al-4.8Cu). Al-Cu-La has the highest elongation among the three which is 34.4% (2.65%) higher than Al-Cu. Al-Cu-La-Sc has the highest ultimate tensile strength and yield strength which are 55.1% (80.9 MPa) and 65.2% (62.1 MPa) higher than Al-Cu, respectively. The thermal conductivity of Al-Cu-La and Al-Cu-La-Sc is 10.0% (18.797 W·m−1·k−1) and 6.5% (12.178 W·m−1·k−1) higher than Al-Cu alloy respectively. Compared with Al-Cu, Al-Cu-La has less shrinkage and porosity, the presence of Al4La and AlCu3 contribute a lot to the decrease of specific heat capacity and the increase of plasticity and toughness. The porosity of Al-Cu-La-Sc does not significantly decrease compared with Al-Cu-La, the presence of Al3Sc and AlCuSc bring about the increase of specific heat capacity and brittleness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Alloys)
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20 pages, 5723 KiB  
Article
Physicomechanical Nature of Acoustic Emission Preceding Wire Breakage during Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) of Advanced Cutting Tool Materials
by Sergey N. Grigoriev, Petr M. Pivkin, Mikhail P. Kozochkin, Marina A. Volosova, Anna A. Okunkova, Artur N. Porvatov, Alexander A. Zelensky and Alexey B. Nadykto
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1865; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111865 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2432
Abstract
The field of applied wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is rapidly expanding due to rapidly increasing demand for parts made of hard-to-machine materials. Hard alloys composed of WC, TiC and Co are advanced cutting materials widely used in industry due to the excellent [...] Read more.
The field of applied wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is rapidly expanding due to rapidly increasing demand for parts made of hard-to-machine materials. Hard alloys composed of WC, TiC and Co are advanced cutting materials widely used in industry due to the excellent combination of hardness and toughness, providing them obvious advantages over other cutting materials, such as cubic boron nitride, ceramics, diamond or high-speed steel. A rational choice of the WEDM modes is extremely important to ensure the dimensional quality of the manufactured cutting inserts, while roughness of the machined surface on the cutting edge is of great importance with regards to the application of wear-resistant coatings, which increases tool life. However, the stock control systems of CNC WEDM machines, which are based on assessment of electrical parameters such as amperage and voltage, are unable to timely detect conditions at which a threat of wire breakage appears and to prevent wire breakage by stopping the electrode feed and flushing out the interelectrode gap (IEG) when hard alloys with high heat resistance and low heat conductivity, such as WC, TiC and Co composites, are being machined, due to the inability to distinguish the working pulses and pulses that expend a part of their energy heating and removing electroerosion products contaminating the working zone. In this paper, the physicomechanical nature of the WEDM of hard alloy WC 88% + TiC 6% + Co 6% was investigated, and the possibility of using acoustic emission parameters for controlling WEDM stability and productivity were explored. Acoustic emission (AE) signals were recorded in octave bands with central frequencies of 1–3 and 10–20 kHz. It was found that at the initial moment, when the dielectric fluid is virtually free of contaminants, the amplitude of the high-frequency component of the VA signal has its highest value. However, as the contamination of the working zone by electroerosion products increases, the amplitude of the high-frequency component of the AE signal decreases while the low-frequency component increases in an octave of 1–3 kHz. By the time of the wire breakage, the amplitude of the high-frequency component in the octave of 10–20 kHz had reduced by more than 5-fold, the amplitude of the low-frequency component in the octave of 1–3 kHz had increased by more than 2-fold, and their ratio, coefficient Kf, decreased by 12-fold. To evaluate the efficiency of Kf as a diagnostic parameter, the quality of the surface being machined was investigated. The analysis of residual irregularities on the surface at the electrode breakage point showed the presence of deep cracks and craters typical of short-circuit machining. It was also found that the workpiece surface was full of deposits/sticks, whose chemical composition was identical to that of the wire material. The presence of the deposits evidenced heating and melting of the wire due to the increased concentration of contaminants causing short circuits. It was also shown that the wire breakage was accompanied by the “neck” formation, which indicated simultaneous impacts of the local heating of the wire material and tensile forces. Due to the elevated temperature, the mechanical properties the wire material are quickly declining, a “neck” is being formed, and, finally, the wire breaks. At the wire breakage point, sticks/deposits of the workpiece material and electroerosion products were clearly visible, which evidenced a partial loss of the pulses’ energy on heating the electroerosion products and electrodes. A further increase in the contamination level led to short circuits and subsequent breakage of the wire electrode. It was shown that in contrast to the conventional controlling scheme, which is based on the assessment of amperage and voltage only, the analysis of VA signals clearly indicates the risk of wire breakage due to contamination of the working zone, discharge localization and subsequent short circuits. The monotonic dependence of WEDM productivity on AE parameters provides the possibility of adaptive adjustment of the wire electrode feed rate to the highest WEDM productivity at a given contamination level. As the concentration of contaminants increases, the feed rate of the wire electrode should decrease until the critical value of the diagnostic parameter Kf, at which the feed stops and the IEG flushes out, is reached. The link between the AE signals and physicomechanical nature of the WEDM of advanced cutting materials with high heat resistance and low heat conductivity in different cutting modes clearly shows that the monitoring of AE signals can be used as a main or supplementary component of control systems for CNC WEDM machines. Full article
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15 pages, 7616 KiB  
Article
Shearing Characteristics of Cu-Cu Joints Fabricated by Two-Step Process Using Highly <111>-Oriented Nanotwinned Cu
by Jia-Juen Ong, Dinh-Phuc Tran, Shih-Chi Yang, Kai-Cheng Shie and Chih Chen
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1864; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111864 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2484
Abstract
Cu-Cu bonding has the potential to break through the extreme boundary of scaling down chips’ I/Os into the sub-micrometer scale. In this study, we investigated the effect of 2-step bonding on the shear strength and electrical resistance of Cu-Cu microbumps using highly <111>-oriented [...] Read more.
Cu-Cu bonding has the potential to break through the extreme boundary of scaling down chips’ I/Os into the sub-micrometer scale. In this study, we investigated the effect of 2-step bonding on the shear strength and electrical resistance of Cu-Cu microbumps using highly <111>-oriented nanotwinned Cu (nt-Cu). Alignment and bonding were achieved at 10 s in the first step, and a post-annealing process was further conducted to enhance its bonding strength. Results show that bonding strength was enhanced by 2–3 times after a post-annealing step. We found 50% of ductile fractures among 4548 post-annealed microbumps in one chip, while the rate was less than 20% for the as-bonded counterparts. During the post-annealing, interfacial grain growth and recrystallization occurred, and the bonding interface was eliminated. Ductile fracture in the form of zig-zag grain boundary was found at the original bonding interface, thus resulting in an increase in bonding strength of the microbumps. Full article
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16 pages, 6925 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ferritic Morphology on Yield Strength of CGHAZ in a Low Carbon Mo-V-N-Ti-B Steel
by Leping Wang, Huibing Fan, Genhao Shi, Qiuming Wang, Qingfeng Wang and Fucheng Zhang
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1863; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111863 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
For investigating the impact of ferritic morphology on yield strength (YS) of the high-heat-input welding induced coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of a low carbon Mo-V-N-Ti-B steel, a group of particular welding heat inputs were designed to obtain different ferritic microstructures in CGHAZ. The [...] Read more.
For investigating the impact of ferritic morphology on yield strength (YS) of the high-heat-input welding induced coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of a low carbon Mo-V-N-Ti-B steel, a group of particular welding heat inputs were designed to obtain different ferritic microstructures in CGHAZ. The tensile properties were estimated from typical samples with ferritic microstructures. The mixed microstructures dominated by the intragranular polygonal ferrite (IGPF), the intragranular acicular ferrite (IGAF), and the granular bainite (GB) were obtained at the heat inputs of 35, 65, 85 and 120 kJ/cm, respectively. When the main microstructure changed from IGPF to IGAF and GB, YS increased first and then decreased. The microstructure consisting mainly of IGAF possessed the maximum YS. As the main microstructure changed from IGPF to IGAF and GB, the contribution of grain refinement strengthening to YS was estimated to be elevated remarkably. This means the strength of CGHAZ in a low-carbon steel subjected to the high-heat-input welding could be enhanced by promoting the fine-grained AF and GB formation. Full article
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17 pages, 7710 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Investigation of Conventional and Hammering-Assisted Incremental Sheet Forming Processes for AA1050 H14 Sheets
by Harshal Y. Shahare, Abhay Kumar Dubey, Pavan Kumar, Hailiang Yu, Alexander Pesin, Denis Pustovoytov and Puneet Tandon
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1862; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111862 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2296
Abstract
Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is emerging as one of the popular dieless forming processes for the small-sized batch production of sheet metal components. However, the parts formed by the ISF process suffer from poor surface finish, geometric inaccuracy, and non-uniform thinning, which leads [...] Read more.
Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is emerging as one of the popular dieless forming processes for the small-sized batch production of sheet metal components. However, the parts formed by the ISF process suffer from poor surface finish, geometric inaccuracy, and non-uniform thinning, which leads to poor part characteristics. Hammering, on the other hand, plays an important role in relieving residual stresses, and thus enhances the material properties through a change in grain structure. A few studies based on shot peening, one of the types of hammering operation, revealed that shot peening can produce nanostructure surfaces with different characteristics. This paper introduces a novel process, named the Incremental Sheet Hammering (ISH) process, i.e., integration of incremental sheet forming (ISF) process and hammering to improve the efficacy of the ISF process. Controlled hammering in the ISF process causes an alternating motion at the tool-sheet interface in the local deformation zone. This motion leads to enhanced material flow and subsequent improvement in the surface finish. Typical toolpath strategies are incorporated to impart the tool movement. The mechanics of the process is further explored through explicit-dynamic numerical models and experimental investigations on 1 mm thick AA1050 sheets. The varying wall angle truncated cone (VWATC) and constant wall angle truncated cone (CWATC) test geometries are identified to compare the ISF and ISH processes. The results indicate that the formability is improved in terms of wall angle, forming depth and forming limits. Further, ISF and ISH processes are compared based on the numerical and experimental results. The indicative statistical analysis is performed which shows that the ISH process would lead to an overall 10.99% improvement in the quality of the parts primarily in the surface finish and forming forces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Metallurgy of Light Alloys and Composite Materials)
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13 pages, 29693 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Inhibition Properties of Thiazolidinedione Derivatives for Copper in 3.5 wt.% NaCl Medium
by Hassane Lgaz, Sourav Kr. Saha, Han-seung Lee, Namhyun Kang, Fatima Zahra Thari, Khalid Karrouchi, Rachid Salghi, Khalid Bougrin and Ismat Hassan Ali
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1861; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111861 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2526
Abstract
Copper is the third-most-produced metal globally due to its exceptional mechanical and thermal properties, among others. However, it suffers serious dissolution issues when exposed to corrosive mediums. Herein, two thiazolidinedione derivatives, namely, (Z)-5-(4-methylbenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (MTZD) and (Z)-3-allyl-5-(4-methylbenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (ATZD), were synthesized [...] Read more.
Copper is the third-most-produced metal globally due to its exceptional mechanical and thermal properties, among others. However, it suffers serious dissolution issues when exposed to corrosive mediums. Herein, two thiazolidinedione derivatives, namely, (Z)-5-(4-methylbenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (MTZD) and (Z)-3-allyl-5-(4-methylbenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (ATZD), were synthesized and applied for corrosion protection of copper in 3.5 wt.% NaCl medium. The corrosion inhibition performance of tested compounds was evaluated at different experimental conditions using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization curves (PPC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). EIS results revealed that the addition of studied inhibitors limited the dissolution of copper in NaCl solution, leading to a high polarization resistance compared with the blank solution. In addition, PPC suggested that tested compounds had a mixed-type effect, decreasing anodic and cathodic corrosion reactions. Moreover, surface characterization by AFM indicated a significant decrease in surface roughness of copper after the addition of inhibitors. Outcomes from the present study suggest that ATZD (IE% = 96%) outperforms MTZD (IE% = 90%) slightly, due to the presence of additional –C3H5 unit (–CH2–CH = CH2) in the molecular scaffold of MTZD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Coating with Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials on Metals)
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18 pages, 7891 KiB  
Article
Thermographic Analysis of Composite Metallization through Cold Spray
by Asghar Heydari Astaraee, Antonio Salerno, Sara Bagherifard, Pierpaolo Carlone, Hetal Parmar, Antonello Astarita, Antonio Viscusi and Chiara Colombo
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1860; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111860 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2058
Abstract
Cold Spray is an innovative technology to create coatings through the impact of metallic particles on substrates. Its application to composites’ surfaces is recently attracting the attention of the scientific community thanks to the possibility to functionalize and improve their thermal and wear [...] Read more.
Cold Spray is an innovative technology to create coatings through the impact of metallic particles on substrates. Its application to composites’ surfaces is recently attracting the attention of the scientific community thanks to the possibility to functionalize and improve their thermal and wear properties. Within this context, the generation of the first metal-to-composite layer is fundamental. This work presented an experimental investigation of a composite panel, reinforced with glass fibers and coated with aluminum particles. The coating investigation was carried out through active pulsed thermography, analyzing the thermal response of single and double hatches. The thermal outputs were compared with a standard microscopic analysis, with a critical discussion supporting the identification of factors that influence the thermal response to the pulse: (1) layer’s thickness; (2) cold spray coverage; (3) layer compactness; (4) particle-substrate adhesion; (5) particle’s oxidation; and (6) surface roughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cold Spray Deposition of Metallic Coatings on Polymers)
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15 pages, 6358 KiB  
Article
Parameter Identification of the Yoshida-Uemori Hardening Model for Remanufacturing
by Xuhui Xia, Mingjian Gong, Tong Wang, Yubo Liu, Huan Zhang and Zelin Zhang
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1859; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111859 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2096
Abstract
The deformation of plastics during production and service means that retired parts often possess different mechanical states, and this can directly affect not only the properties of remanufactured mechanical parts, but also the design of the remanufacturing process itself. In this paper, we [...] Read more.
The deformation of plastics during production and service means that retired parts often possess different mechanical states, and this can directly affect not only the properties of remanufactured mechanical parts, but also the design of the remanufacturing process itself. In this paper, we describe the stress-strain relationship for remanufacturing, in particular the cyclic deformation of parts, by using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method to acquire the Yoshida-Uemori (Y-U) hardening model parameters. To achieve this, tension-compression experimental data of AA7075-O, standard PSO, oscillating second-order PSO (OS-PSO) and variable weight PSO (VW-PSO) were acquired separately. The influence of particle numbers on the inverse analysis efficiency was studied based on standard PSO. Comparing the results of PSO variations showed that: (1) standard PSO is able to avoid local solutions and obtain Y-U model parameters to the same degree of precision as the OS-PSO; (2) by adjusting section weight, the VW-PSO could improve local fitting accuracy and adapt to asymmetric deformation; (3) by reducing particle numbers to a certain extent, the efficiency of analysis can be improved while also maintaining accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Modeling of Metallic Materials)
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20 pages, 4573 KiB  
Article
Grey-Based Taguchi Multiobjective Optimization and Artificial Intelligence-Based Prediction of Dissimilar Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Performance
by Jeyaganesh Devaraj, Aiman Ziout and Jaber E. Abu Qudeiri
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111858 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2175
Abstract
The quality of a welded joint is determined by key attributes such as dilution and the weld bead geometry. Achieving optimal values associated with the above-mentioned attributes of welding is a challenging task. Selecting an appropriate method to derive the parameter optimality is [...] Read more.
The quality of a welded joint is determined by key attributes such as dilution and the weld bead geometry. Achieving optimal values associated with the above-mentioned attributes of welding is a challenging task. Selecting an appropriate method to derive the parameter optimality is the key focus of this paper. This study analyzes several versatile parametric optimization and prediction models as well as uses statistical and machine learning models for further processing. Statistical methods like grey-based Taguchi optimization is used to optimize the input parameters such as welding current, wire feed rate, welding speed, and contact tip to work distance (CTWD). Advanced features of artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system (ANFIS) models are used to predict the values of dilution and the bead geometry obtained during the welding process. The results corresponding to the initial design of the welding process are used as training and testing data for ANN and ANFIS models. The proposed methodology is validated with various experimental results outside as well as inside the initial design. From the observations, the prediction results produced by machine learning models delivered significantly high relevance with the experimental data over the regression analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Simulation of Metals Welding Process)
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14 pages, 7035 KiB  
Article
Masking Effect of LPSO Structure Phase on Wear Transition in Mg97Zn1Y2 Alloy
by Fujun Tao, Hongfei Duan, Lijun Zhao and Jian An
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111857 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
Room- and elevated-temperature wear tests were conducted using a pin-on-disk testing machine to study wear behavior of Mg97Zn1Y2 alloy and role of long-period-stacking-ordered (LPSO) structure phase in mild–severe wear transition (SWT). Variation of wear rate exhibited a three-stage [...] Read more.
Room- and elevated-temperature wear tests were conducted using a pin-on-disk testing machine to study wear behavior of Mg97Zn1Y2 alloy and role of long-period-stacking-ordered (LPSO) structure phase in mild–severe wear transition (SWT). Variation of wear rate exhibited a three-stage characteristic with load at various test temperatures, i.e., a gradual increasing stage, a slightly higher plateau stage, and a rapid rising stage. The wear mechanisms in the three stages were identified using scanning electron microscope (SEM), from which the first stage was confirmed as mild wear, and the other two stages were verified as severe wear. The interdendritic LPSO structure phase was elongated into strips along the sliding direction with Mg matrix deformation in the subsurface, plate-like LPSO structure phase precipitated at elevated temperatures of 150 and 200 °C. The fiber enhancement effect and precipitation effect of LPSO structure phase resulted in a little difference in wear rate between the first and second stages, i.e., a masking effect on SWT. Microstructure and microhardness were examined in the subsurfaces, from which the mechanism for SWT was confirmed to be dynamic recrystallization (DRX) softening. There is an apparently linear correlation between the critical load for SWT and test temperature, indicating that SWT is governed by a common critical DRX temperature. Full article
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16 pages, 4339 KiB  
Article
Linking In Situ Melt Pool Monitoring to Melt Pool Size Distributions and Internal Flaws in Laser Powder Bed Fusion
by Claudia Schwerz and Lars Nyborg
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1856; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111856 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3706
Abstract
In situ monitoring of the melt pools in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) has enabled the elucidation of process phenomena. There has been an increasing interest in also using melt pool monitoring to identify process anomalies and control the quality of the manufactured [...] Read more.
In situ monitoring of the melt pools in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) has enabled the elucidation of process phenomena. There has been an increasing interest in also using melt pool monitoring to identify process anomalies and control the quality of the manufactured parts. However, a better understanding of the variability of melt pools and the relation to the incidence of internal flaws are necessary to achieve this goal. This study aims to link distributions of melt pool dimensions to internal flaws and signal characteristics obtained from melt pool monitoring. A process mapping approach is employed in the manufacturing of Hastelloy X, comprising a vast portion of the process space. Ex situ measurements of melt pool dimensions and analysis of internal flaws are correlated to the signal obtained through in situ melt pool monitoring in the visible and near-infrared spectra. It is found that the variability in melt pool dimensions is related to the presence of internal flaws, but scatter in melt pool dimensions is not detectable by the monitoring system employed in this study. The signal intensities are proportional to melt pool dimensions, and the signal is increasingly dynamic following process conditions that increase the generation of spatter. Full article
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16 pages, 10059 KiB  
Article
Microstructural Evolution and Electrochemical Behavior of Solution Treated, Hot Rolled and Aged MgDyZnZr Alloy
by Bruno Xavier de Freitas, Leonardo A. Antonini, Paula L. C. T. Cury, Viviane L. F. da Silva, Nabil Chaia, Célia R. Tomachuk, Stéphane Mathieu, Gilberto C. Coelho, Claudinei dos Santos and Carlos A. Nunes
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1855; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111855 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1468
Abstract
In order to develop a potential route to fabricate plates and clips for orthopedic applications, a Mg–3.4Dy–0.2Zn–0.4Zr (wt.%) alloy was produced and analyzed in different conditions: solution treated at 525 °C for 3 h, hot rolled and hot rolled and aged at 250 [...] Read more.
In order to develop a potential route to fabricate plates and clips for orthopedic applications, a Mg–3.4Dy–0.2Zn–0.4Zr (wt.%) alloy was produced and analyzed in different conditions: solution treated at 525 °C for 3 h, hot rolled and hot rolled and aged at 250 °C. The aging behavior of the rolled alloy was investigated during isothermal aging at 250 °C, and a significant peak was observed at 10 h. The electrochemical behavior was evaluated in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution at 37 ± 0.5 °C by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The 525 °C-3 h and hot rolled specimens exhibited corrosion rates of 2.0 and 1.7 mm/year, respectively. The hot rolled and aged at 250 °C for 10 h specimen presented a grain size of 11.8 ± 1.7 μm with an intense macrotexture of the basal {0002} plane, hardness of 73 ± 3 HV and higher impedance modulus and obtained the highest corrosion resistance with a corrosion rate of 0.9 mm/year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Metallic Biomaterials)
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10 pages, 4077 KiB  
Article
Wear Behaviors of Stainless Steel and Lubrication Effect on Transitions in Lubrication Regimes in Sliding Contact
by Yoon-Seok Lee, Shunnosuke Yamagishi, Masataka Tsuro, Changwook Ji, Seungchan Cho, Yangdo Kim and Moonhee Choi
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111854 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
The wear behavior of AISI304 stainless steel was investigated under dry, water-, and oil-lubricated conditions. A block-on-disk wear test was conducted in this work, since the test conditions could be controlled easily. For oil-lubricated contact, a significant amount of thin and elongated cutting [...] Read more.
The wear behavior of AISI304 stainless steel was investigated under dry, water-, and oil-lubricated conditions. A block-on-disk wear test was conducted in this work, since the test conditions could be controlled easily. For oil-lubricated contact, a significant amount of thin and elongated cutting chip-like debris was observed. This is attributed to the high lubricating effect of oil. Strain-induced martensitic (SIM) transformation was observed for all AISI304 blocks after the wear test, while AISI304 consisted of a single γ-austenite phase prior to the wear test. The Stribeck curve and the corresponding lubrication regimes were also considered to explain the wear behaviors and lubrication effect of AISI304. In comparison to the dry or water-lubricated conditions, which fall in the boundary lubrication regime at a low rotation speed, it is considered that the high viscosity of the oil-based lubricant causes the lubrication condition to enter the mixed lubrication regime early at a lower speed, thus reducing the specific wear rate over the 100–300 rpm range. Full article
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11 pages, 5349 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Hot Deformation Conditions on Structure and Mechanical Properties of AlCr/AlCrSi Powder Composites
by Elena N. Korosteleva, Gennady A. Pribytkov and Victoria V. Korzhova
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111853 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
Aluminum matrix composites usually contain strengthening particles of refractory compounds (SiC, Al2O3) that do not react with the Al matrix. There is a problem in producing the Al matrix composite with inclusion of metals that can generate intermetallic compounds [...] Read more.
Aluminum matrix composites usually contain strengthening particles of refractory compounds (SiC, Al2O3) that do not react with the Al matrix. There is a problem in producing the Al matrix composite with inclusion of metals that can generate intermetallic compounds with aluminum. In this case, a conventional sintering of powder mixtures results in high porosity due to volume growth. That is why some new methods of producing dense Al matrix composites are required. A possibility to create a dense powder Al-based composite containing hard components, such as chromium and silicon, without using the sintering process, is considered. This paper presents study results of structural and mechanical properties of Al-Cr and Al-Cr-Si composites produced by hot compaction of powder mixtures. An analysis of the relationship between mechanical properties and structures of Al-Cr and Al-Cr-Si composites is carried out. Optimal values for thermomechanical processing modes that ensure sufficient strength and plasticity are determined. It is shown that strong bonding of the aluminum particles occurs under hot deformation, and an aluminum matrix is formed that provides acceptable composite bending strength as a result. The presence of chromium and silicon hard inclusions is not a significant obstacle for aluminum plastic flow. Al-Cr and Al-Cr-Si composites produced by hot deformation of the powder mixtures can be used as cathode material for the deposition of wear-resistant nitride coatings on metalworking tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure/Property Relationship in Metallic Powder Metallurgy)
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