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Minerals, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2020) – 109 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Upper Paleozoic Transitional Shale Gas Enrichment Factors: A Case Study of Typical Areas in China
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020194 (registering DOI) - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
Based on the shale gas research experience in North America, large-scale geological evaluations have been conducted in China to determine the enrichment characteristics of deep marine shale gas, leading to the discovery of the Fuling, Changning and Weiyuan shale gas fields. However, research [...] Read more.
Based on the shale gas research experience in North America, large-scale geological evaluations have been conducted in China to determine the enrichment characteristics of deep marine shale gas, leading to the discovery of the Fuling, Changning and Weiyuan shale gas fields. However, research on Upper Paleozoic transitional shale gas remains limited, restricting the subsequent exploration and development. Therefore, taking the Lower Permian Shanxi and Pennsylvanian Taiyuan Formations in the northeastern Ordos Basin and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation in southwestern Guizhou as examples, gas logging, gas desorption, thermal simulation, maximum vitrinite reflectance (Rmax), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the influence of lithological associations, sedimentary facies, gas generation thresholds, and pore evolution on transitional shale gas, and then Upper Paleozoic transitional shale gas enrichment factors of the northeastern Ordos Basin and southwestern Guizhou were analysed. The results show that carbonaceous mudstone adjacent to coal seams presents a high gas content level, and is primarily developed in swamps in the delta plain environment, and swamps and lagoons in the barrier coastal environment. The gas generation threshold maturity (Rmax) of transitional shale is 1.6% and the corresponding threshold depths of the northeastern Ordos Basin and southwestern Guizhou are estimated to be 2265 m and 1050 m. Transitional shale pore evolution is jointly controlled by hydrocarbon generation, clay minerals transformation, and compaction, and may have the tendency to decrease when Rmax < 1.6% or Rmax > 3.0%, but increase when Rmax ranges between 1.6% and 3.0%, while the main influential factors of pore evolution differ in each period. Continuous distribution of transitional shale gas enrichment areas can be formed along the slope adjacent to coal seams with a moderate maturity range (1.6%–3.0%) in the northeastern Ordos Basin, and transitional shale gas can be enriched in the areas adjacent to coal seams with a moderate maturity range (1.6%–3.0%), abundant fractures, and favorable sealing faults in southwestern Guizhou. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Deposits)
Open AccessArticle
Authigenesis at the Urals Massive Sulfide Deposits: Insight from Pyrite Nodules Hosted in Ore Diagenites
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020193 (registering DOI) - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
The pyrite nodules from ore diagenites of the Urals massive sulfide deposits associated with various background sedimentary rocks are studied using optical and electron microscopy and LA-ICP-MS analysis. The nodules are found in sulfide–black shale, sulfide–carbonate–hyaloclastite, and sulfide–serpentinite diagenites of the Saf’yanovskoe, Talgan, [...] Read more.
The pyrite nodules from ore diagenites of the Urals massive sulfide deposits associated with various background sedimentary rocks are studied using optical and electron microscopy and LA-ICP-MS analysis. The nodules are found in sulfide–black shale, sulfide–carbonate–hyaloclastite, and sulfide–serpentinite diagenites of the Saf’yanovskoe, Talgan, and Dergamysh deposits, respectively. The nodules consist of the core made up of early diagenetic fine-crystalline (grained) pyrite and the rim (±intermediate zone) composed of late diagenetic coarse-crystalline pyrite. The nodules are replaced by authigenic sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, and fahlores (Saf’yanovskoe), sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena (Talgan), and pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite (Dergamysh). They exhibit specific accessory mineral assemblages with dominant galena and fahlores, various tellurides and Co–Ni sulfoarsenides in sulfide-black shale, sulfide–hyaloclastite–carbonate, and sulfide-serpentinite diagenites, respectively. The core of nodules is enriched in trace elements in contrast to the rim. The nodules from sulfide–black shale diagenites are enriched in most trace elements due to their effective sorption by associated organic-rich sediments. The nodules from sulfide–carbonate–hyaloclastite diagenites are rich in elements sourced from seawater, hyaloclastites and copper–zinc ore clasts. The nodules from sulfide–serpentinite diagenites are rich in Co and Ni, which are typical trace elements of ultramafic rocks and primary ores from the deposit. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Critical Synergistic Concentration of Binary Surfactant Mixtures
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020192 (registering DOI) - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
This paper presents a simple method for determination of synergism in binary surfactant mixtures. A homologous series of cationic alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (CnTAB, with n = 8, 12, 16, 18) mixed with three non-ionic surfactants (n-octanol, methyl isobutyl carbinol, tri(propylene glycol) butyl [...] Read more.
This paper presents a simple method for determination of synergism in binary surfactant mixtures. A homologous series of cationic alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (CnTAB, with n = 8, 12, 16, 18) mixed with three non-ionic surfactants (n-octanol, methyl isobutyl carbinol, tri(propylene glycol) butyl ether) was chosen as a model system. In addition to the cationic-non-ionic system, the mixture of anionic-non-ionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulphate and tri(propylene glycol) butyl ether) was investigated. The foam behavior of one-component solutions and binary mixtures was characterized as a function of surfactant concentration, number of carbons (n) in alkyl chain of CnTAB as well as type of surfactant. It was shown that synergism in foamability could be produced by the ionic-non-ionic systems, and the concentration below the synergism occurs, called the critical synergistic concentration (CSC), that can be easily predicted based on the surface tension data on individual components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surfactants at Interfaces and Thin Liquid Films)
Open AccessArticle
A Mineralisation Age for the Sediment-Hosted Blackbush Uranium Prospect, North-Eastern Eyre Peninsula, South Australia
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020191 (registering DOI) - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
The Blackbush uranium prospect (~12,580 tonnes U at 85 ppm cut-off) is located on the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia. Blackbush was discovered in 2007 and is currently the single example of sediment-hosted uranium mineralisation investigated in any detail in the Gawler Craton. [...] Read more.
The Blackbush uranium prospect (~12,580 tonnes U at 85 ppm cut-off) is located on the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia. Blackbush was discovered in 2007 and is currently the single example of sediment-hosted uranium mineralisation investigated in any detail in the Gawler Craton. Uranium is hosted within Eocene sandstones of the Kanaka Beds and, subordinately, within a massive saprolite derived from the subjacent Hiltaba-aged (~1585 Ma) granites, affiliated with the Samphire Pluton. Uranium is mainly present as coffinite in different lithologies, mineralisation styles and mineral associations. In the sandstone and saprolite, coffinite occurs intergrown with framboidal Fe-sulphides and lignite, as well as coatings around, and filling fractures within, grains of quartz. Microprobe U–Pb dating of coffinite hosted in sedimentary units yielded a narrow age range, with a weighted average of 16.98 ± 0.16 Ma (343 individual analyses), strongly indicating a single coffinite-forming event at that time. Coffinite in subjacent saprolite generated a broader age range from 28 Ma to 20 Ma. Vein-hosted coffinite yielded similar ages (from 12 to 25 Ma), albeit with a greater range. Uraninite in the vein is distinctly older (42 to 38 Ma). The 17 ± 0.16 Ma age for sandstone-hosted mineralisation roughly coincides with tectonic movement as indicated by the presence of horst and graben structures in the Eocene sedimentary rocks hosting uranium mineralisation but not in stratigraphically younger sedimentary rocks. The new ages for hydrothermal minerals support a conceptual genetic model in which uranium was initially sourced from granite bedrock, then pre-concentrated into veins within that granite, and is subsequently dissolved and reprecipitated as coffinite in younger sediments as a result of low-temperature hydrothermal activity associated with tectonic events during the Tertiary. The ages obtained here for uranium minerals within the different lithologies in the Blackbush prospect support a conceptual genetic model in which tectonic movement along the reactivated Roopena Fault, which triggered the flow of U-rich fluids into the cover sequence. The timing of mineralisation provides information that can help optimise exploration programs for analogous uranium resources within shallow buried sediments across the region. The model presented here can be predicted to apply to sediment-hosted U-mineralisation in cratons elsewhere. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Third Worldwide Occurrence of Juangodoyite, Na2Cu(CO3)2, and Other Secondary Na, Cu, Mg, and Ca Minerals in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline (Lower Silesia, SW Poland)
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020190 (registering DOI) - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
Na-Cu carbonates are relatively rare secondary minerals in weathering zones of ore deposits. Hereby we describe mineral composition and crystal chemistry of the most important secondary (Na)Cu minerals and their Na- and Mg-bearing associates forming rich paragenesis in Rudna IX mine. A non-bulky [...] Read more.
Na-Cu carbonates are relatively rare secondary minerals in weathering zones of ore deposits. Hereby we describe mineral composition and crystal chemistry of the most important secondary (Na)Cu minerals and their Na- and Mg-bearing associates forming rich paragenesis in Rudna IX mine. A non-bulky Ca-rich dripstone-like paragenesis from Lubin Główny mine is also characterized, using Powder X-Ray Diffraction, Rietveld, and Electron Microprobe methods. Light blue juangodoyite (3rd occurrence worldwide) and darker chalconatronite are the most important members of the Rudna IX paragenesis, being associated with malachite, aragonite (intergrown with hydromagnesite and northupite), and probably cornwallite. Most of the minerals are chemically close to their ideal composition, with minor Mg substitution in malachite. Cu chlorides are mainly represented by clinoatacamite and probably herbertsmithite. Additional, minor phases include trace Cu minerals langite, wroewolfeite, and a lavendulan-group mineral, and monohydrocalcite. Separate halite-rich encrustations are shown to be filled with eriochalcite, ktenasite, and kröhnkite. The most likely to be confirmed coexisting species include paratacamite, wooldridgeite/nesquehonite, johillerite, melanothallite, and kipushite. The Lubin paragenesis mainly comprises aragonite, gypsum, rapidcreekite, and monohydrocalcite, with trace vaterite. Blue colouration is mainly provided by a yet unspecified Ni-, Co-, Mg-, and Mn-bearing Cu-Zn-Ca arsenate mineral close to parnauite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crystallography and Physical Chemistry of Minerals)
Open AccessArticle
The Formation of Barite and Celestite through the Replacement of Gypsum
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020189 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 126
Abstract
Barite (BaSO4) and celestite (SrSO4) are the end-members of a nearly ideal solid solution. Most of the exploitable deposits of celestite occur associated with evaporitic sediments which consist of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) or anhydrite (CaSO4 [...] Read more.
Barite (BaSO4) and celestite (SrSO4) are the end-members of a nearly ideal solid solution. Most of the exploitable deposits of celestite occur associated with evaporitic sediments which consist of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) or anhydrite (CaSO4). Barite, despite having a broader geological distribution is rarely present in these deposits. In this work, we present an experimental study of the interaction between gypsum crystals and aqueous solutions that bear Sr or Ba. This interaction leads to the development of dissolution-crystallization reactions that result in the pseudomorphic replacement of the gypsum crystals by aggregates of celestite or barite, respectively. The monitoring of both replacement reactions shows that they take place at very different rates. Millimeter-sized gypsum crystals in contact with a 0.5 M SrCl2 solution are completely replaced by celestite aggregates in less than 1 day. In contrast, only a thin barite rim replaces gypsum after seven days of interaction of the latter with a 0.5 M BaCl2 solution. We interpret that this marked difference in the kinetics of the two replacement reactions relates the different orientational relationship that exists between the crystals of the two replacing phases and the gypsum substrate. This influence is further modulated by the specific crystal habit of each secondary phase. Thus, the formation of a thin oriented layer of platy barite crystals effectively armors the gypsum surface and prevents its interaction with the Ba-bearing solution, thereby strongly hindering the progress of the replacement reaction. In contrast, the random orientation of celestite crystals with respect to gypsum guarantees that a significant volume of porosity contained in the celestite layer is interconnected, facilitating the continuous communication between the gypsum surface and the fluid phase and guaranteeing the progress of the gypsum-by-celestite replacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Barite)
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Open AccessArticle
Power Generation: Feedstock for High-Value Sulfate Minerals
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020188 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 115
Abstract
Coal-fired power facilities generate a polymetallic effluent (Flue Gas Desulfurization—FGD) rich in sulfate. FGD effluents may be considered an important secondary resource. This paper investigates the recovery of sulfate as barite (BaSO4), a mineral with high commercial value and a critical [...] Read more.
Coal-fired power facilities generate a polymetallic effluent (Flue Gas Desulfurization—FGD) rich in sulfate. FGD effluents may be considered an important secondary resource. This paper investigates the recovery of sulfate as barite (BaSO4), a mineral with high commercial value and a critical raw material. Using equimolar BaCl2, >99% desulfurization of an FGD effluent produced by a coal-fired power plant operating in central Poland was achieved, yielding up to 16.5 kg high purity barite m−3. The recovered barite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric (TGA), scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM), surface properties (PZC), density, and chemical stability (TCLP), and was compared with a commercial reference material. Barite recovery also led to the reduction in concentration of Al (86%), Cu (52%), K (69%), Mo (62%), Se (40%), Sr (91%), and U (75%) initially present in the FGD effluent. TCLP results indicate the entrapment and the stabilization of ~70% Se and ~90% Al in the barite structure. Based on this dataset, an in-depth characterization of the recovered barite is presented, and the removal mechanism of the elements is discussed. The study also provides a preliminary cost benefit analysis of the process. To our best knowledge, this is the first work showing barite recovery and metal removal from FGD effluents using a one-step process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Barite)
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Open AccessArticle
Pickeringite from the Stone Town Nature Reserve in Ciężkowice (the Outer Carpathians, Poland)
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020187 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 118
Abstract
Pickeringite, ideally MgAl2(SO4)4·22H2O, is a member of the halotrichite group minerals XAl2(SO4)4·22H2O that form extensive solid solutions along the joints of the X = Fe-Mg-Mn-Zn. The few [...] Read more.
Pickeringite, ideally MgAl2(SO4)4·22H2O, is a member of the halotrichite group minerals XAl2(SO4)4·22H2O that form extensive solid solutions along the joints of the X = Fe-Mg-Mn-Zn. The few comprehensive reports on natural halotrichites indicate their genesis to be mainly the low-pH oxidation of pyrite or other sulfides in the Al-rich environments of weathering rock-forming aluminosilicates. Pickeringite discussed here occurs within the efflorescences on sandstones from the Stone Town Nature Reserve in Ciężkowice (the Polish Outer Carpathians), being most probably the first find on such rocks in Poland. This paper presents mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the pickeringite (based on SEM-EDS, XRPD, EPMA and RS methods) and suggests its possible origin. It belongs to the pickeringite–apjohnite (Mg-Mn joints) series and has the calculated formula Mg0.75Mn0.21Zn0.02Cu0.01Al2.02(S0.99 to 1.00O4)4·22H2O (based on 16O and 22H2O). The unit cell parameters refined for the monoclinic system space group P21/c are: a = 6.1981(28) Å, b= 24.2963(117) Å, c = 21.2517(184) Å and β = 100.304(65)°. The Raman spectra (SO4) bands are the intensive 994 cm1 and a low-intensive 975 cm11), low-intensive 1081, 1123 and 1145 cm13), 524, 467 and 425cm12), 615 cm14), while those at 344 and 310 cm1 are attributed to νg H2O and at 223 cm1 to the lattice modes. Crystallization of pickeringite within the particular tor resulted from a certain set of conditions: climatic (e.g., season, temperature, humidity), physicochemical (e.g., pH, concentration), mineral (the presence of pyrite), and site-related (location and efflorescence protection). The sulfate ions could have been derived from oxidation of pyrite in the Ciężkowice sandstones and possibly are related to local mineral waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crystallography and Physical Chemistry of Minerals)
Open AccessArticle
Metallogenic Setting and Evolution of the Pados-Tundra Cr-Bearing Ultramafic Complex, Kola Peninsula: Evidence from Sm–Nd and U–Pb Isotopes
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020186 - 19 Feb 2020
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Abstract
The article presents new Sm–Nd and U–Pb geochronological data on rocks of the poorly studied Pados-Tundra Cr-bearing complex. It is part of the Notozero mafic–ultramafic complex (western Kola Peninsula) and occurs at the border of the Paleoproterozoic Lapland Granulite Belt and the Archean [...] Read more.
The article presents new Sm–Nd and U–Pb geochronological data on rocks of the poorly studied Pados-Tundra Cr-bearing complex. It is part of the Notozero mafic–ultramafic complex (western Kola Peninsula) and occurs at the border of the Paleoproterozoic Lapland Granulite Belt and the Archean Belomorian composite terrain. The Pados-Tundra complex hosts two major zones, the Dunite and Orthopyroxenite Blocks. Dunites are associated with four levels of chromite mineralization. Isotope Sm–Nd studies of dunites, harzburgites, and orthopyroxenites from the central part of the complex have been carried out. The isochron Sm–Nd age on 11 whole-rock samples from a rhythmically layered series of the complex is 2485 ± 38 Ma; the mineral Sm–Nd isochron for harzburgites shows the age of 2475 ± 38 Ma. It corresponds with the time of large-scale rifting that originated in the Fennoscandian Shield. When the rhythmically layered series of the intrusion and its chromite mineralization were formed, hornblendite dykes intruded. The U–Pb and Sm–Nd research has estimated their age at ca. 2080 Ma, which is likely to correspond with the occurrence of the Lapland–Kola Ocean. According to isotope Sm–Nd dating on metamorphic minerals (rutile, amphibole), the age of postmetamorphic cooling of rocks in the complex to 650–600 °С is 1872 ± 76 Ma. The U–Pb age on rutile from a hornblendite dyke (1804 ± 10 Ma) indicates further cooling to 450–400 °C. The conducted research has determined the early Proterozoic age of rocks in the rhythmically layered series in the Pados-Tundra complex. It is close to the age of the Paleoproterozoic ore magmatic system in the Fennoscandian Shield that developed 2.53–2.40 Ga ago. Later episodes of alterations in rocks are directly related to main metamorphic episodes in the region at the turn of 1.9 Ga. Results of the current study expand the geography of the vast Paleoproterozoic East Scandinavian Large Igneous Province and can be applied for further studies of similar mafic–ultramafic complexes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Chemical Weathering of Granite in Ice and Its Implication for Weathering in Polar Regions
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020185 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 79
Abstract
Recently, it has been reported that some chemical reactions are enhanced in below-freezing conditions. Despite the high denudation typical of polar regions, chemical weathering that occurs under ice has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the dissolution of granite in ice. [...] Read more.
Recently, it has been reported that some chemical reactions are enhanced in below-freezing conditions. Despite the high denudation typical of polar regions, chemical weathering that occurs under ice has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the dissolution of granite in ice. The mixture of granite and deionized water (DW) or solution adjusted to pH 2 or 3 was split into two groups: the test group was frozen at –20 °C, while the control was maintained at room temperature. After 29 days of batch experiments, the filtrate was analyzed to measure the concentrations of cations and silica. The filtered powder was analyzed to investigate the mineral compositions and crystallinities of the granite before and after the experiments. Despite the low temperature, a significant quantity of cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) were dissolved out, even from the ice samples. During X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, the decreased crystallinities of granite in ice samples were identified regardless of the pH condition. To verify the observed freeze concentration effect, the concentration of granite in the ice grain boundaries was observed using optical microscopy with a cold chamber. The low concentration of silica in the ice samples could explain the silica anomaly in polar regions. This study also provides a new perspective for the dissolution mechanism in polar regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clays and Micro-Organisms: From Nature to Industry)
Open AccessArticle
Low Temperature Serpentinite Replacement by Carbonates during Seawater Influx in the Newfoundland Margin
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020184 - 18 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Serpentinite replacement by carbonates in the seafloor is one of the main carbonation processes in nature providing insights into the mechanisms of CO2 sequestration; however, the onset of this process and the conditions for the reaction to occur are not yet fully [...] Read more.
Serpentinite replacement by carbonates in the seafloor is one of the main carbonation processes in nature providing insights into the mechanisms of CO2 sequestration; however, the onset of this process and the conditions for the reaction to occur are not yet fully understood. Preserved serpentine rim with pseudomorphs of carbonate after serpentine and lobate-shaped carbonate grains are key structural features for replacement of serpentinite by carbonates. Cathodoluminescence microscopy reveals that Ca-rich carbonate precipitation in serpentinite is associated with a sequential assimilation of Mn. Homogeneous δ18O values at the µm-scale within grains and host sample indicate low formation temperature (<20 °C) from carbonation initiation, with a high fluid to rock ratio. δ13C (1–3 ± 1‰) sit within the measured values for hydrothermal systems (−3–3‰), with no systematic correlation with the Mn content. δ13C values reflect the inorganic carbon dominance and the seawater source of CO2 for carbonate. Thermodynamic modeling of fluid/rock interaction during seawater transport in serpentine predicts Ca-rich carbonate production, at the expense of serpentine, only at temperatures below 50 °C during seawater influx. Mg-rich carbonates can also be produced when using a model of fluid discharge, but at significantly higher temperatures (150 °C). This has major implications for the setting of carbonation in present-day and in fossil margins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological and Mineralogical Sequestration of CO2)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantifying the Distribution Characteristics of Geochemical Elements and Identifying Their Associations in Southwestern Fujian Province, China
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020183 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 112
Abstract
The distribution of geochemical elements in the surficial media is the end product of geochemical dispersion under complex geological conditions. This study explored the frequency and spatial distribution characteristics of geochemical elements and their associations. It quantifies the frequency distribution via mean, variance, [...] Read more.
The distribution of geochemical elements in the surficial media is the end product of geochemical dispersion under complex geological conditions. This study explored the frequency and spatial distribution characteristics of geochemical elements and their associations. It quantifies the frequency distribution via mean, variance, skewness and kurtosis, followed by measuring the spatial distribution characteristics (i.e., spatial autocorrelation, heterogeneity and self-similarity) via semivariogram, q-statistic and multifractal spectrum, and further identify the elemental associations based on these distribution parameters using hierarchical clustering. A criterion was defined to identify the importance of parameters in the clustering procedure. A case study processing a geochemical dataset of stream sediment samples collected in southwestern Fujian province of China was carried out to illustrate and validate the procedure. The results indicate that studies of the frequency and spatial distribution characteristics of geochemical elements can enhance the knowledge of geochemical dispersions. The associations identified based on the frequency and spatial distribution parameters are different from those obtained by conventional cluster analysis. Spatial distribution characteristics cannot be neglected when investigating the distribution patterns of geochemical elements and their associations. The findings can enhance the knowledge of the geochemical dispersion in the study area and might benefit the following-up mineral exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Deposits)
Open AccessArticle
Mineralogical Constraints on the Potassic and Sodic-Calcic Hydrothermal Alteration and Vein-Type Mineralization of the Maronia Porphyry Cu-Mo ± Re ± Au Deposit in NE Greece
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020182 - 18 Feb 2020
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Abstract
The Maronia Cu-Mo ± Re ± Au deposit is spatially related to a microgranite porphyry that intruded an Oligocene monzonite along the Mesozoic Circum-Rhodope belt in Thrace, NE Greece. The magmatic rocks and associated metallic mineralization show plastic and cataclastic features at the [...] Read more.
The Maronia Cu-Mo ± Re ± Au deposit is spatially related to a microgranite porphyry that intruded an Oligocene monzonite along the Mesozoic Circum-Rhodope belt in Thrace, NE Greece. The magmatic rocks and associated metallic mineralization show plastic and cataclastic features at the south-eastern margin of the deposit that implies emplacement at the ductile-brittle transition, adjacent to a shear zone at the footwall of the Maronia detachment fault. The conversion from ductile to brittle deformation caused a rapid upward magmatic fluid flow and increased the volume of water that interacted with the host rocks through high permeable zones, which produced extensive zones of potassic and sodic-calcic alteration. Potassic alteration is characterized by secondary biotite + K-feldspar (orthoclase) + magnetite + rutile + quartz ± apatite and commonly contains sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite). Sodic-calcic alteration consists of actinolite + sodic-calcic plagioclase (albite/oligoclase/andesine) + titanite + magnetite + chlorite + quartz ± calcite ± epidote-allanite. The high-oxidation state of the magmas and the hydrothermal fluid circulation were responsible for the metal and sulfur enrichments of the aqueous fluid phase, an increase in O2 gas content, the breakdown of the magmatic silicates and the production of the extensive potassic and sodic-calcic alterations. Brittle deformation also promoted the rapid upward fluid flow and caused interactions with the surrounding host rocks along the high temperature M-, EB-, A- and B-type veins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Deposits)
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Open AccessReview
E. S. Fedorov Promoting the Russian-German Scientific Interrelationship
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020181 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 104
Abstract
At the dawn of crystal structure analysis, the close personal contact between researchers in Russia and Germany, well documented in the “Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie”, contributed significantly to the evolution of our present knowledge of the crystalline state. The impact of the [...] Read more.
At the dawn of crystal structure analysis, the close personal contact between researchers in Russia and Germany, well documented in the “Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie”, contributed significantly to the evolution of our present knowledge of the crystalline state. The impact of the Russian crystallographer E. S. Fedorov upon German scientists such as A. Schoenflies and P. Groth and the effect of these contacts for Fedorov are highlighted hundred years after the death of the latter. A creative exchange of ideas paved the way for the analysis of crystal structures with the aid of X-ray diffraction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Dynamic Analysis Methods into Assessment of Geometric Properties of Chalcedonite Aggregates Obtained by Means of Gravitational Upgrading Operations
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020180 - 18 Feb 2020
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Abstract
The aim of the paper is an assessment of geometrical properties of regular and irregular particles of chalcedonite enrichment products carried out in a laboratory ring jig. The investigative program included experiments of aggregate enrichment, along with visual analyses made for the obtained [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper is an assessment of geometrical properties of regular and irregular particles of chalcedonite enrichment products carried out in a laboratory ring jig. The investigative program included experiments of aggregate enrichment, along with visual analyses made for the obtained products, separately for regular and irregular particles. Several shape coefficients were calculated, and the most effective ones in terms of assessment of particle regularity were selected from among them. Particle size distributions for feed and enrichment products were also determined using the idea of minimum Feret’s diameter, and the intensity of dust emission by individual products was measured as well. The results obtained by the visual system were discussed in the context of their application in the assessment of enrichment operations carried out in a water jig. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Mineral Engineering Conference—MEC 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on Preparation of Ferropericlase by Oxalate Coprecipitation
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020179 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 152
Abstract
It is always a goal of scientists to develop new techniques to identify the composition of mantle materials and understand geodynamic processes accurately. Ferropericlase (Mg,Fe)O is a prominent mineral in the lower mantel. It is a common practice in the research community to [...] Read more.
It is always a goal of scientists to develop new techniques to identify the composition of mantle materials and understand geodynamic processes accurately. Ferropericlase (Mg,Fe)O is a prominent mineral in the lower mantel. It is a common practice in the research community to prepare ferropericlase using a solid-phase synthesis method or high-pressure experiment synthesis method. This conventional method contains a number of ambiguities a great deal of time is needed. In this paper, we have addressed the drawbacks of the conventional technique using a liquid-phase synthesis method to prepare ferropericlase. During the experiment, oxalic acid was added to a mixed solution of ferrous sulfate and magnesium chloride and mixed according to the molar ratio. The formed magnesium iron oxalate precipitate was sintered and reduced into the final sample. Furthermore, the final sample was analyzed using XRD and SEM. Compared to the solid-phase method, this coprecipitation method could produce ferropericlase with a shorter sintering time, lower sintering temperature, and a reduction in the amount of gas consumed. XRD and SEM results show that the liquid-phase method produced samples with better composition homogeneity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Precipitation of Rare Earth Elements with Various Precipitants
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020178 - 17 Feb 2020
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Abstract
The effective and selective leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) from various sources is frequently possible in practice by adopting a carefully coordinated strategy incorporating a selective precipitation of these elements from undesired ones in solution. In this study, the behavior of chemical [...] Read more.
The effective and selective leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) from various sources is frequently possible in practice by adopting a carefully coordinated strategy incorporating a selective precipitation of these elements from undesired ones in solution. In this study, the behavior of chemical precipitation of REEs with commonly used precipitants such as sulfate, carbonate, fluoride, phosphate, and oxalate was examined using thermodynamic principles and calculations. It was found that the pH of the system has a profound effect on determining particular chemical species of precipitants, which are subsequently responsible for the precipitation of REEs. The role of various anions such as Cl, NO3, and SO42− derived from the acid used in the leaching process on the precipitation behavior of REEs was examined. These anions form complexes with REEs and display a very positive effect on the precipitation behavior. The nitrate environment exhibits most conducive to precipitation followed by sulfate and then chloride. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaching of Rare Earth Elements from Various Sources)
Open AccessArticle
Diagenetic Origin of Bipyramidal Quartz and Hydrothermal Aragonites within the Upper Triassic Saline Succession of the Iberian Basin: Implications for Interpreting the Burial–Thermal Evolution of the Basin
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020177 - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 191
Abstract
Within the Upper Triassic successions in the Iberian Basin (Spain), the occurrence of both idiomorphic bipyramidal quartz crystals as well as pseudohexagonal aragonite crystals are related to mudstone and evaporite bearing sequences. Bipyramidal-euhedral quartz crystals occur commonly at widespread locations and similar idiomorphic [...] Read more.
Within the Upper Triassic successions in the Iberian Basin (Spain), the occurrence of both idiomorphic bipyramidal quartz crystals as well as pseudohexagonal aragonite crystals are related to mudstone and evaporite bearing sequences. Bipyramidal-euhedral quartz crystals occur commonly at widespread locations and similar idiomorphic crystals have been described in other formations and ages from Europe, America, Pakistan, and Africa. Similarly, pseudohexagonal aragonite crystals are located at three main sites in the Iberian Range and are common constituents of deposits of this age in France, Italy, and Morocco. This study presents a detailed description of the geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the bipyramidal quartz crystals to decipher their time of formation in relation to the diagenetic evolution of the sedimentary succession in which they formed. Petrographic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses permit the separation of an inner part of quartz crystals with abundant anhydrite and organic-rich inclusions. This inner part resulted from near-surface recrystallization (silicification) of an anhydrite nodule, at temperatures that were <40 °C. Raman spectra reveal the existence of moganite and polyhalite, which reinforces the evaporitic character of the original depositional environment. The external zone of the quartz contains no anhydrite or organic inclusions and no signs of evaporites in the Raman spectra, being interpreted as quartz overgrowths formed during burial, at temperatures between 80 to 90 °C. Meanwhile, the aragonite that appears in the same Keuper deposits was precipitated during the Callovian, resulting from the mixing of hydrothermal fluids with infiltrated waters of marine origin, at temperatures ranging between 160 and 260 °C based on fluids inclusion analyses. Although both pseudohexagonal aragonite crystals and bipyramidal quartz appear within the same succession, they formed at different phases of the diagenetic and tectonic evolution of the basin: bipyramidal quartz crystals formed in eo-to mesodiagenetic environments during a rifting period at Upper Triassic times, while aragonite formed 40 Ma later as a result of hydrothermal fluids circulating through normal faults. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Different Insights into Silicate Rectorite Modification and Its Role in Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewater
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020176 - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 148
Abstract
In the field of water management, the separation of metal contaminants from wastewater is very important and challenging. This study systematically investigated the effect and underlying mechanism of silicate rectorite (REC) on the removal of heavy metal ions (Cr(VI) and Pb(II)) from wastewater. [...] Read more.
In the field of water management, the separation of metal contaminants from wastewater is very important and challenging. This study systematically investigated the effect and underlying mechanism of silicate rectorite (REC) on the removal of heavy metal ions (Cr(VI) and Pb(II)) from wastewater. The adsorption and removal capacity of REC was further improved by its novel modification with ferric chloride hexahydrate. Compared to natural REC, the modified rectorite (Fe-REC) showed comparatively superior adsorption efficiency for both Cr(VI) and Pb(II) due to the chemisorption of Fe3+ on the REC surface as its oxidation state (Fe–O, Fe–OH, Fe–OOH). Adsorption on Cr(VI) attributed to the reaction between iron hydroxy complexes (FeOH2+, Fe(OH)2+ and Fe(OH)3(aq)) and Cr(VI) species (HCrO4 and CrO42−) in the aqueous solution. This reaction was perfectly consistent with the binding energy shifts in O 1s and Fe 2p species, as reflected by XPS analysis. While, the existence of –Al–OH and –Si–OH in silicate REC slurry reacted with PbOH+ colloids produced from lead ions hydrolysis to promote Pb(II) adsorption. Zeta potential after modification and removal occurred to shift positively or negatively to testify the adsorption of Fe3+ and heavy metal ions. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms conformed adsorption process for Cr(VI) and Pb(II), respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Metal Concentration in Road-Side Trees from an Industrial Area Using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020175 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 178
Abstract
Historical pollution can be elucidated with variations of elements’ concentration in tree rings by using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). However, the capacity of chemical elements’ absorption significantly depends on the tree species and element types. Metal concentrations in the [...] Read more.
Historical pollution can be elucidated with variations of elements’ concentration in tree rings by using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). However, the capacity of chemical elements’ absorption significantly depends on the tree species and element types. Metal concentrations in the rings for five species (Platanus occidentalis, Salix koreensis, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Pinus densiflora, Ginkgo biloba) were investigated in light of metal pollution history in ambient air of D industrial site located in Daejeon, Korea. The calibration for LA-ICP-MS was performed using cellulose-matrix matched standards with 13C normalization. Tree ring series except for Ginkgo sp. showed that the accumulation rates of Pb and Cd were higher between 1992 and 1999. Other elements, such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Cd, Zn, and Sr, showed a variation in the rings, likely due to the different physiological processes of element uptake and radial mobility. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the annual rings of Pinus sp. corresponded to the metal monitoring data for the ambient air with the correlation coefficients of 0.879 and 0.579, respectively. Moreover, Cd in Platanus sp. and Pb in Salix sp. showed a positive correlation to ambient metal concentration compared to Chamaecyparis sp. and Ginkgo sp. Therefore, caution should be taken to select candidate elements as well as tree species to reconstruct the ambient air metal pollution history by measuring the concentration of metal in the tree ring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Mineralogy and Biogeochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
TLS and SfM Approach for Bulk Density Determination of Excavated Heterogeneous Raw Materials
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020174 - 14 Feb 2020
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Abstract
A frequently recurring problem in the extraction of mineral resources (especially heterogeneous mineral resources) is the rapid operative determination of the extracted quantity of raw material in a surface quarry. This paper deals with testing and analyzing the possibility of using unconventional methods [...] Read more.
A frequently recurring problem in the extraction of mineral resources (especially heterogeneous mineral resources) is the rapid operative determination of the extracted quantity of raw material in a surface quarry. This paper deals with testing and analyzing the possibility of using unconventional methods such as digital close-range photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning in the process of determining the bulk density of raw material under in situ conditions. A model example of a heterogeneous deposit is the perlite deposit Lehôtka pod Brehmi (Slovakia). Classical laboratory methods for determining bulk density were used to verify the results of the in situ method of bulk density determination. Two large-scale samples (probes) with an approximate volume of 7 m3 and 9 m3 were realized in situ. 6 point samples (LITH) were taken for laboratory determination. By terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurement from 2 scanning stations, point clouds with approximately 163,000/143,000 points were obtained for each probe. For Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry, 49/55 images were acquired for both probes, with final point clouds containing approximately 155,000/141,000 points. Subsequently, the bulk densities of the bulk samples were determined by the calculation from in situ measurements by TLS and SfM photogrammetry. Comparison of results of the field in situ measurements (1841 kg∙m−3) and laboratory measurements (1756 kg∙m−3) showed only a 4.5% difference in results between the two methods for determining the density of heterogeneous raw materials, confirming the accuracy of the used in situ methods. For the determination of the loosening coefficient, the material from both large-scale samples was transferred on a horizontal surface. Their volumes were determined by TLS. The loosening coefficient for the raw material of 1.38 was calculated from the resulting values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Metallurgy)
Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for the Special Issue: “Physical Separation and Enrichment”
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020173 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 154
Abstract
Physical separation methods have been used in mineral industry for centuries to separate valuable minerals from gangues using differences in their physical properties[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Separation and Enrichment)
Open AccessReview
Biocompatible Hydrotalcite Nanohybrids for Medical Functions
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020172 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 156
Abstract
Biocompatible hydrotalcite nanohybrids, i.e., layered double hydroxide (LDH) based nanohybrids have attracted significant attention for biomedical functions. Benefiting from good biocompatibility, tailored drug incorporation, high drug loading capacity, targeted cellular delivery and natural pH-responsive biodegradability, hydrotalcite nanohybrids have shown great potential in drug/gene [...] Read more.
Biocompatible hydrotalcite nanohybrids, i.e., layered double hydroxide (LDH) based nanohybrids have attracted significant attention for biomedical functions. Benefiting from good biocompatibility, tailored drug incorporation, high drug loading capacity, targeted cellular delivery and natural pH-responsive biodegradability, hydrotalcite nanohybrids have shown great potential in drug/gene delivery, cancer therapy and bio-imaging. This review aims to summarize recent progress of hydrotalcite nanohybrids, including the history of the hydrotalcite-like compounds for application in the medical field, synthesis, functionalization, physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake mechanism, as well as their related applications in biomedicine. The potential and challenges will also be discussed for further development of LDHs both as drug delivery carriers and diagnostic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clays and Micro-Organisms: From Nature to Industry)
Open AccessArticle
The Role of Magma Mixing in Generating Granodioritic Intrusions Related to Cu–W Mineralization: A Case Study from Qiaomaishan Deposit, Eastern China
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020171 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 145
Abstract
The newly exploited Qiaomaishan Cu−W deposit, located in the Xuancheng ore district in the MLYRB, is a middle-sized Cu–W skarn-type polymetallic deposit. As Cu–W mineralization is a rare and uncommon type in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Belt (MLYRB), few studies have been carried [...] Read more.
The newly exploited Qiaomaishan Cu−W deposit, located in the Xuancheng ore district in the MLYRB, is a middle-sized Cu–W skarn-type polymetallic deposit. As Cu–W mineralization is a rare and uncommon type in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Belt (MLYRB), few studies have been carried out, and the geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of Qiaomaishan intrusive rocks related to Cu–W mineralization are not well documented. We studied two types of ore-bearing intrusive rocks in the Qiaomaishan region, i.e., pure granodiorite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry with mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs). Age characterization using zircon LA–ICP–MS showed that they were formed almost simultaneously, around 134.9 to 135.1 Ma. Granodiorite porphyries are high Mg# adakites, characterized by high-K calc-alkaline and metaluminous features that are enriched in LILEs (e.g., Sr and Ba) and LREEs, but depleted in HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti) and HREEs. Moreover, they have enriched Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic compositions (with whole-rock (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.706666−0.706714), negative εNd(t) values of −9.1 to −8.6, negative zircon εHf(t) values of −12.2 to −6.7, and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) between 1.5 and 2.0 Ga). However, compared to host rocks, the granodiorite porphyry with MMEs shows variable geochemical compositions, e.g., high Mg#, Cr, Ni, and V contents and enriched with LILEs. In addition, they have more depleted ISr, εNd(t), and εHf(t) values (0.706025 to 0.706269, −6.4 to −7.4, and −10.6 to −5.7, respectively), overlapping with regions of Early Cretaceous mafic rocks derived from enriched lithospheric mantle in the MLYRB. Coupled with significant disequilibrium textures and geochemical features of host rocks and MMEs, we propose that those rocks have resulted from mixing the felsic lower crust-derived magma and the mafic magma generated from the enriched mantle. The mixed magmas subsequently rose to shallow crust to form the ore-bearing rocks and facilitate Cu–W mineralization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Granite-Related Mineralization Systems )
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Open AccessArticle
Coupling between Diagenetic Environment and Porosity Evolution—A Quantitative Study of the Zhuhai Formation in the Huizhou Sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020170 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 154
Abstract
The diagenetic environment is vital in controlling reservoir quality by influencing diagenetic processes, especially porosity evolution. The Zhuhai Formation is a critical exploration target in the Huizhou Sag. However, there are considerable differences between the reservoirs in the west (Huixi) and east (Huidong) [...] Read more.
The diagenetic environment is vital in controlling reservoir quality by influencing diagenetic processes, especially porosity evolution. The Zhuhai Formation is a critical exploration target in the Huizhou Sag. However, there are considerable differences between the reservoirs in the west (Huixi) and east (Huidong) Huizhou Sag with only a 400 m difference in burial depth. To investigate causes of these differences, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cathodoluminescence analysis, fluorescence analysis, and fluid inclusion analysis are employed for the petrological and diagenetic characterization of the target formation. Moreover, image analysis software is used to qualitatively evaluate the impacts of diagenesis on porosity. The results show that the digenetic environments in Huixi and Huidong are different. Huixi is characterized by a high content of feldspar with a stronger dissolution phenomenon than that observed in Huidong. The main cement types in Huixi are siliceous cement and kaolinite. Moreover, Huixi had a low palaeo-temperature, low palaeo-salinity, and low palaeo-pH diagenetic environment. In contrast, Huidong is accessible via deep faults and rich in lithic fragments which show visible deformation. Moreover, cements in this area include carbonate, gypsum, quartz overgrowth, kaolinite, and chlorite. This evidence confirms that the diagenetic environment in Huidong was a high palaeo-temperature and high palaeo-salinity environment with high palaeo-pH. Additionally, the palaeo-pH evolved following the sequence of weakly alkaline, acidic, alkaline and acidic. Microscopy evidence indicates that the Dongsha Uplift was a likely source of Huixi sediments during the deposition of the Zhuhai Formation. The determination of the porosity evolution shows that compaction and lithic fragment content are the main controlling factors on the reservoir quality of the Zhuhai Formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Deposits)
Open AccessArticle
Stability of Cu-Sulfides in Submarine Tailing Disposals: A Case Study from Repparfjorden, Northern Norway
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020169 - 13 Feb 2020
Viewed by 142
Abstract
Mine tailings that were produced during the exploitation of the Ulveryggen siliciclastic sediment-hosted Cu deposit in northern Norway were disposed into the inner part of Repparfjorden from 1972 to 1978/1979. This study focuses on the mineralogy and geochemistry of the submarine mine tailings [...] Read more.
Mine tailings that were produced during the exploitation of the Ulveryggen siliciclastic sediment-hosted Cu deposit in northern Norway were disposed into the inner part of Repparfjorden from 1972 to 1978/1979. This study focuses on the mineralogy and geochemistry of the submarine mine tailings and underlying natural marine sediments from the inner part of Repparfjorden, as well as on the primary Ulveryggen ore. The ore mineralization from the neighboring Nussir carbonate sediment-hosted Cu deposit was studied too, due to the forthcoming mining of both deposits. Bornite and chalcopyrite are the major Cu-sulfides, and are characterized by low concentrations of potentially toxic elements including Cd, Hg, and As. The tailing material occupies the uppermost 9 cm of Repparfjorden sediments. It is characterized by predomination of a silty component with elevated Cu (up to 747.7 ppm), Ni (up to 87 ppm), and Cr (up to 417 ppm) concentrations. The high Cu concentration is related to the deposition of mine tailings. In contrast, Ni and Cr concentrations are close to those in naturally occurring stream sediments from the feeding river, Repparfjordelva, reflecting the compatibility of these elements with hosting mafic volcanics, which are widely spread in the Repparfjord Tectonic Window. Copper in the uppermost part of the sediments is bound to the acid-soluble fraction while Ni and Cr are bound to the residual fraction. Artificial placement of large masses of fine-grained material, i.e., smothering, resulted in a diminished biological activity and/or physical distortion of mostly benthic fauna, which was reflected in total organic carbon (TOC) values as low as 0.15% in the uppermost strata. Sulfide minerals are found both in natural marine sediments and in the mine tailings. They are generally well-preserved with an exception for chalcopyrite from the uppermost part of the submarine tailing, which shows signs of incipient weathering. Thermodynamic modeling confirmed that redox potential and pH are important factors in the weathering of sulfides. Available ligands contribute to the Cu speciation. In near-neutral to slightly alkaline conditions a presence of carbonates can lead to the mobilization of Cu in form of CuCO3 complexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits)
Open AccessArticle
Deep Mineral Exploration of the Jinchuan Cu–Ni Sulfide Deposit Based on Aeromagnetic, Gravity, and CSAMT Methods
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020168 - 13 Feb 2020
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Abstract
The exploration of deep mineral resources is an important prerequisite for meeting the continuous demand of resources. The geophysical method is one of the most effective means of exploring the deep mineral resources with a large depth and a high resolution. Based on [...] Read more.
The exploration of deep mineral resources is an important prerequisite for meeting the continuous demand of resources. The geophysical method is one of the most effective means of exploring the deep mineral resources with a large depth and a high resolution. Based on the study of the geological background, petrophysical properties, and aeromagnetic anomaly characteristics of the Jinchuan Cu–Ni sulfide deposit, which is famous throughout the world, this paper uses the widely used gravity, aeromagnetic, and CSAMT (controlled source audio-frequency magnetotellurics) methods with a complementary resolution to reveal the favorable prospecting position. In order to obtain better inversion results, the SL0 norm tight support focusing regularization inversion method is introduced to process the section gravity and aeromagnetic data of the mining area. By combining the results with CSAMT, it is found that the medium-low resistivity, high density, and the high magnetic anomaly areas near the structural belt can nicely correspond with the known ore-bearing rock masses in the mining area. At the same time, according to the geophysical exploration model and geological and physical property data, four favorable ore-forming prospect areas are delineated in the deep part of the known mining area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Methods and Applications for Mineral Exploration)
Open AccessArticle
The Formation of Dunite Channels within Harzburgite in the Wadi Tayin Massif, Oman Ophiolite: Insights from Compositional Variability of Cr-Spinel and Olivine in Holes BA1B and BA3A, Oman Drilling Project
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020167 - 13 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Holes BA1B and BA3A were drilled into the Wadi Tayin Massif, southern ophiolite complex of Oman, a fragment of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere obducted onto the Arabian continent. Within the sequence, we have studied a portion of the shallow mantle, composed mainly of [...] Read more.
Holes BA1B and BA3A were drilled into the Wadi Tayin Massif, southern ophiolite complex of Oman, a fragment of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere obducted onto the Arabian continent. Within the sequence, we have studied a portion of the shallow mantle, composed mainly of strongly serpentinised harzburgite that embeds dunitic levels, the biggest being over 150 m thick. The formation of thick dunitic channels, already approached via published structural and mathematical models, is here investigated with a mineral chemistry approach. We focused on Cr-spinel, the only widespread phase preserved during serpentinization, whose TiO2 content displays a wide variability from low in harzburgite, (TiO2 < 0.25 wt. %), typical of non-metasomatised ophiolite mantle, to moderately high in dunite (TiO2 < 1.10 wt. %) characterizing a rock/melt interactions. The high variability of TiO2, accompanied by similar patterns of Cr# and Mg# is observed, in a fractal pattern, at all scales of investigation, from the whole channel scale to the single thin section, where it affects even single grain zonings. Our results suggest that the over 150 m thick dunite channel here investigated was formed by coalescence of different scale melt channels and reaction zones with different sizes, confirming the published structural model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Deposits Related to Mantle Rocks)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Stress Sensor for In-Situ High-Pressure Deformation Experiments Using Radial X-ray Diffraction
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020166 - 13 Feb 2020
Viewed by 158
Abstract
We developed a stress sensor for in-situ deformation experiments using synchrotron radial X-ray diffraction. This stress sensor provided nearly diffraction-plane-independent stress that, when used in series with a sample, reduced the uncertainty of the average stress estimation acting on a sample. Here, we [...] Read more.
We developed a stress sensor for in-situ deformation experiments using synchrotron radial X-ray diffraction. This stress sensor provided nearly diffraction-plane-independent stress that, when used in series with a sample, reduced the uncertainty of the average stress estimation acting on a sample. Here, we present the results of a study where pyrope was used as a stress sensor. Using a Deformation-DIA (D-DIA) high-pressure deformation apparatus, pyrope, olivine and alumina were deformed in the same run/cell assembly placed in series along the compression direction. Deformation experiments were conducted at pressures between 4 and 5 GPa and temperatures between 730 and 1273 K with strain-rates between 10−5 and 10−6 s−1. Stresses estimated from various (hkl) planes in pyrope were nearly the same; i.e., pyrope is plastically isotropic with ≤10 % variation with (hkl). However, stresses from various (hkl) planes in olivine and alumina varied by approximately a factor of 3. Comparisons between average stresses inferred from pyrope and those from different diffraction planes in olivine and alumina showed that the average stress in these materials evolved from low-end stress, estimated from various (hkl) planes at small strain, to high-end stress at a large strain. This suggests that the rate-controlling slip system in these materials changes from the soft to the hard slip system with strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Physics—In Memory of Orson Anderson)
Open AccessArticle
Geochemistry and Geochronology of Southern Norilsk Intrusions, SW Siberian Traps
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020165 - 13 Feb 2020
Viewed by 115
Abstract
The Norilsk ore region is characterized by the occurrence of numerous intrusions comprising the PGE–Cu–Ni deposits. The Turumakit area, within the Southern Norilsk Trough, also contains many mineralized mafic intrusions of probably similar economic potential to the known Norilsk deposits. We study igneous [...] Read more.
The Norilsk ore region is characterized by the occurrence of numerous intrusions comprising the PGE–Cu–Ni deposits. The Turumakit area, within the Southern Norilsk Trough, also contains many mineralized mafic intrusions of probably similar economic potential to the known Norilsk deposits. We study igneous rocks from three boreholes within the Turumakit area, sampling gabbro-dolerites and trachydolerites related to the Norilsk and Ergalakh complexes, as well as an outcrop of the Daldykan gabbro-dolerite intrusion. Our petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data, as well as the U–Pb dating of extracted baddeleyites and zircons, primarily discriminate between the sub-alkaline rocks of the main Turumakit area and the Ergalakh trachydolerites located in the Norilsk and Talnakh ore junctions. Coarser grained Turumakit trachydolerites (with pegmatite segregations) contrast finer grained Ergalakh trachydolerites by having: (1) higher TiO2 (up to 5.5 wt %) compared with 2.2 wt %–3.3 wt % in the typical Ergalakh rocks; (2) low U, lower La/Yb and La/Sm ratios (5–7), in contrast to 8–10 ppm, 2.5–2.6 and 3.0–3.3, respectively, for the Ergalakh trachydolerites; and (3) their age was determined by U–Pb methods on baddeleyite and zircon (244.8 ± 2.7 Ma), and it appears likely that the mafic rocks traditionally attributed to the Ergalakh complex within the Turumakit area are younger than the Norilsk intrusions (250 ± 1.4 Ma). These data strongly indicate an emplacement of Turumakit intrusions during the end of a ~5 Myr magmatic evolution of the Norilsk district. It is therefore proposed that the sub-alkaline rocks of the Turumakit area belong to a separate intrusive complex within the Norilsk district. Full article
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