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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Bio-Based Extraction Methods by Spectroscopic Methods

Laboratory of Technologies for Heritage Materials, University of Neuchâtel, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Swiss National Museum, 8910 Affoltern am Albis, Switzerland
Haute Ecole Arc Conservation-Restauration, HES-SO University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Archaeological Service of Canton Bern, 3001 Bern, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 203;
Received: 31 January 2020 / Revised: 21 February 2020 / Accepted: 22 February 2020 / Published: 24 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Raman Spectroscopy of Minerals)
New technologies are in development regarding the preservation of waterlogged archaeological wood items contaminated with Fe/S species. To this purpose, a bio-based treatment to extract these harmful species before further damages occur is presented. Thiobacillus denitrificans and desferoxamine were employed based on their specific properties to solubilize iron sulfides and uptake iron. The biological treatment was compared with oxidizing and complexing agents (sodium persulfate and ethylene diamine tetraacetate) traditionally used in conservation-restoration. Mock-ups of fresh balsa as well as fresh and archeological oak and pinewood were prepared to simulate degraded waterlogged wood by immersion in corrosive Fe/S solutions. The efficiency of both biological and chemical extraction methods was evaluated through ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopies and validated by statistical approach. Results showed that treatments did not affect the wood composition, meaning that no wood degradation was induced. However, the chemical method tended to bleach the samples and after treatment, reduced sulfur species were still identified by Raman analyses. Finally, statistical approaches allowed validating ATR-FTIR results. View Full-Text
Keywords: waterlogged wood; bio-based extraction; wood degradation; Raman spectroscopy; statistic approach waterlogged wood; bio-based extraction; wood degradation; Raman spectroscopy; statistic approach
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Monachon, M.; Albelda-Berenguer, M.; Lombardo, T.; Cornet, E.; Moll-Dau, F.; Schramm, J.; Schmidt-Ott, K.; Joseph, E. Evaluation of Bio-Based Extraction Methods by Spectroscopic Methods. Minerals 2020, 10, 203.

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