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TLS and SfM Approach for Bulk Density Determination of Excavated Heterogeneous Raw Materials

Faculty of mining, ecology, process control and geotechnologies, Technical University of Košice, 04001 Košice, Slovakia
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Minerals 2020, 10(2), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020174
Received: 20 January 2020 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 14 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Metallurgy)
A frequently recurring problem in the extraction of mineral resources (especially heterogeneous mineral resources) is the rapid operative determination of the extracted quantity of raw material in a surface quarry. This paper deals with testing and analyzing the possibility of using unconventional methods such as digital close-range photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning in the process of determining the bulk density of raw material under in situ conditions. A model example of a heterogeneous deposit is the perlite deposit Lehôtka pod Brehmi (Slovakia). Classical laboratory methods for determining bulk density were used to verify the results of the in situ method of bulk density determination. Two large-scale samples (probes) with an approximate volume of 7 m3 and 9 m3 were realized in situ. 6 point samples (LITH) were taken for laboratory determination. By terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurement from 2 scanning stations, point clouds with approximately 163,000/143,000 points were obtained for each probe. For Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry, 49/55 images were acquired for both probes, with final point clouds containing approximately 155,000/141,000 points. Subsequently, the bulk densities of the bulk samples were determined by the calculation from in situ measurements by TLS and SfM photogrammetry. Comparison of results of the field in situ measurements (1841 kg∙m−3) and laboratory measurements (1756 kg∙m−3) showed only a 4.5% difference in results between the two methods for determining the density of heterogeneous raw materials, confirming the accuracy of the used in situ methods. For the determination of the loosening coefficient, the material from both large-scale samples was transferred on a horizontal surface. Their volumes were determined by TLS. The loosening coefficient for the raw material of 1.38 was calculated from the resulting values.
Keywords: In situ; deposit; perlite; heterogeneous raw material; bulk density; loose bulk density; photogrammetry; SfM; TLS In situ; deposit; perlite; heterogeneous raw material; bulk density; loose bulk density; photogrammetry; SfM; TLS
MDPI and ACS Style

Blistan, P.; Jacko, S.; Kovanič, Ľ.; Kondela, J.; Pukanská, K.; Bartoš, K. TLS and SfM Approach for Bulk Density Determination of Excavated Heterogeneous Raw Materials. Minerals 2020, 10, 174.

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