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Nutrients, Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2016)

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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Nutrients in 2015
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010061
Received: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 21 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
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Abstract
The editors of Nutrients would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Cudrania tricuspidata and Kaempferol in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Inflammation and Hepatic Insulin Resistance in HepG2 Cells
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010060
Received: 28 November 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
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Abstract
In this study, we quantitated kaempferol in water extract from Cudrania tricuspidata leaves (CTL) and investigated its effects on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. The concentration of kaempferol in the CTL was 5.07 ± 0.08 mg/g. The [...] Read more.
In this study, we quantitated kaempferol in water extract from Cudrania tricuspidata leaves (CTL) and investigated its effects on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. The concentration of kaempferol in the CTL was 5.07 ± 0.08 mg/g. The HepG2 cells were treated with 300 µg/mL of CTL, 500 µg/mL of CTL, 1.5 µg/mL of kaempferol or 2.5 µg/mL of kaempferol, followed immediately by stimulation with 100 nM of thapsigargin for ER stress induction for 24 h. There was a marked increase in the activation of the ER stress and inflammation response in the thapsigargin-stimulated control group. The CTL treatment interrupted the ER stress response and ER stress-induced inflammation. Kaempferol partially inhibited the ER stress response and inflammation. There was a significant increase in serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and the expression of C/EBPα and gluconeogenic genes in the thapsigargin-stimulated control group compared to the normal control. Both CTL and kaempferol suppressed serine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and the treatments did not interrupt the C/EBPα/gluconeogenic gene pathway. These results suggest that kaempferol might be the active compound of CTL and that it might protect against ER stress-induced inflammation and hyperglycemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessArticle
Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010059
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 6 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2874 | PDF Full-text (1924 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD) can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy [...] Read more.
Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD) can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO) (PC, SC) or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD), for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively) compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower). PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT) 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR) and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Fish, Long-Chain n-3 PUFA and Incidence of Elevated Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010058
Received: 11 November 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 24 December 2015 / Published: 21 January 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2326 | PDF Full-text (1556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Results from prospective cohort studies on fish or long-chain (LC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and elevated blood pressure (EBP) are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the summary effects. Pertinent studies were identified from PubMed and EMBASE database through October 2015. [...] Read more.
Results from prospective cohort studies on fish or long-chain (LC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and elevated blood pressure (EBP) are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the summary effects. Pertinent studies were identified from PubMed and EMBASE database through October 2015. Multivariate-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for incidence of EBP in the highest verses the bottom category of baseline intake of fish or LC n-3 PUFA were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Over the follow-up ranging from 3 to 20 years, 20,497 EBP events occurred among 56,204 adults from eight prospective cohort studies. The summary RR (SRR) was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.14; I2 = 44.70%) for fish in four studies, and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.89; I2 = 75.00%) for LC n-3 PUFA in six studies (three studies for biomarker vs. three studies for diet). Circulating LC n-3 PUFA as biomarker was inversely associated with incidence of EBP (SRR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.83), especially docosahexaenoic acid (SRR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.88), whereas no significant association was found for dietary intake (SRR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.10). The present finding suggests that increased intake of docosahexaenoic acid to improve its circulating levels may benefit primary prevention of EBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Chicken Essence for Cognitive Function Improvement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010057
Received: 3 November 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 20 January 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4088 | PDF Full-text (3232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chicken essence (CE) is a popular traditional remedy in Asia, which is believed to improve cognitive functions. CE company claimed that the health benefits were proven with research studies. A systematic review was conducted to determine the cognitive-enhancing effects of CE. We systematically [...] Read more.
Chicken essence (CE) is a popular traditional remedy in Asia, which is believed to improve cognitive functions. CE company claimed that the health benefits were proven with research studies. A systematic review was conducted to determine the cognitive-enhancing effects of CE. We systematically searched a number of databases for randomized controlled trials with human subjects consuming CE and cognitive tests involved. Cochrane’s Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the quality of trials and meta-analysis was performed. Seven trials were included, where six healthy subjects and one subject with poorer cognitive functions were recruited. One trial had unclear ROB while the rest had high ROB. For executive function tests, there was a significant difference favoring CE (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) of −0.55 (−1.04, −0.06)) and another with no significant difference (pooled SMD of 0.70 (−0.001, 1.40)). For short-term memory tests, no significant difference was found (pooled SMD of 0.63 (−0.16, 1.42)). Currently, there is a lack of convincing evidence to show a cognitive enhancing effect of CE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
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Open AccessReview
Influence of Tryptophan and Serotonin on Mood and Cognition with a Possible Role of the Gut-Brain Axis
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010056
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 20 January 2016
Cited by 68 | Viewed by 8934 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The serotonergic system forms a diffuse network within the central nervous system and plays a significant role in the regulation of mood and cognition. Manipulation of tryptophan levels, acutely or chronically, by depletion or supplementation, is an experimental procedure for modifying peripheral and [...] Read more.
The serotonergic system forms a diffuse network within the central nervous system and plays a significant role in the regulation of mood and cognition. Manipulation of tryptophan levels, acutely or chronically, by depletion or supplementation, is an experimental procedure for modifying peripheral and central serotonin levels. These studies have allowed us to establish the role of serotonin in higher order brain function in both preclinical and clinical situations and have precipitated the finding that low brain serotonin levels are associated with poor memory and depressed mood. The gut-brain axis is a bi-directional system between the brain and gastrointestinal tract, linking emotional and cognitive centres of the brain with peripheral functioning of the digestive tract. An influence of gut microbiota on behaviour is becoming increasingly evident, as is the extension to tryptophan and serotonin, producing a possibility that alterations in the gut may be important in the pathophysiology of human central nervous system disorders. In this review we will discuss the effect of manipulating tryptophan on mood and cognition, and discuss a possible influence of the gut-brain axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Docosahexaenoic Acid Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hepatic Steatosis Involving ER Stress Response in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010055
Received: 5 December 2015 / Revised: 13 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 January 2016 / Published: 20 January 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2706 | PDF Full-text (2858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increase in fructose consumption is considered to be a risk factor for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on hepatic lipid metabolism in fructose-treated primary mouse hepatocytes, and the changes of Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) [...] Read more.
The increase in fructose consumption is considered to be a risk factor for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on hepatic lipid metabolism in fructose-treated primary mouse hepatocytes, and the changes of Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways in response to DHA treatment. The hepatocytes were treated with fructose, DHA, fructose plus DHA, tunicamycin (TM) or fructose plus 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) for 24 h. Intracellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation was assessed by Oil Red O staining. The mRNA expression levels and protein levels related to lipid metabolism and ER stress response were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. Fructose treatment led to obvious TG accumulation in primary hepatocytes through increasing expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), two key enzymes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. DHA ameliorates fructose-induced TG accumulation by upregulating the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT-1α) and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1). DHA treatment or pretreatment with the ER stress inhibitor PBA significantly decreased TG accumulation and reduced the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), total inositol-requiring kinase 1 (IRE1α) and p-IRE1α. The present results suggest that DHA protects against high fructose-induced hepatocellular lipid accumulation. The current findings also suggest that alleviating the ER stress response seems to play a role in the prevention of fructose-induced hepatic steatosis by DHA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Anti-Stress, Behavioural and Magnetoencephalography Effects of an l-Theanine-Based Nutrient Drink: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010053
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 19 January 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3744 | PDF Full-text (1962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
l-theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide) is an amino acid found primarily in the green tea plant. This study explored the effects of an l-theanine-based nutrient drink on mood responses to a cognitive stressor. Additional measures included an assessment of cognitive performance and resting state [...] Read more.
l-theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide) is an amino acid found primarily in the green tea plant. This study explored the effects of an l-theanine-based nutrient drink on mood responses to a cognitive stressor. Additional measures included an assessment of cognitive performance and resting state alpha oscillatory activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Thirty-four healthy adults aged 18–40 participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study. The primary outcome measure, subjective stress response to a multitasking cognitive stressor, was significantly reduced one hour after administration of the l-theanine drink when compared to placebo. The salivary cortisol response to the stressor was reduced three hours post-dose following active treatment. No treatment-related cognitive performance changes were observed. Resting state alpha oscillatory activity was significantly greater in posterior MEG sensors after active treatment compared to placebo two hours post-dose; however, this effect was only apparent for those higher in trait anxiety. This change in resting state alpha oscillatory activity was not correlated with the change in subjective stress response or the cortisol response, suggesting further research is required to assess the functional relevance of these treatment-related changes in resting alpha activity. These findings further support the anti-stress effects of l-theanine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Probiotic Soy Product Supplemented with Isoflavones Improves the Lipid Profile of Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010052
Received: 8 October 2015 / Revised: 3 December 2015 / Accepted: 16 December 2015 / Published: 19 January 2016
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Abstract
Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host’s metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an [...] Read more.
Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host’s metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Participants: 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC) >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-1010 CFU/day), isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP–probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g) or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo) for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Main outcome measures: Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. Results: After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions) and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05). The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an improvement in lipid profile and antioxidant properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010048
Received: 19 November 2015 / Revised: 28 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
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Abstract
Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the [...] Read more.
Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg·mL−1 for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively). B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stability of Vitamin A, Iron and Zinc in Fortified Rice during Storage and Its Impact on Future National Standards and Programs—Case Study in Cambodia
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010051
Received: 19 October 2015 / Revised: 12 January 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 16 January 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2479 | PDF Full-text (215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. The present study quantified the losses of three different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc) in fortified rice that were produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, [...] Read more.
Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. The present study quantified the losses of three different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc) in fortified rice that were produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, cold extrusion, and coating) and stored at two different environments (25 ± 5 °C at a humidity of 60% and 40 ± 5 °C at a humidity of 75%) for up to one year. Fortified rice premix from the different techniques was mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio. Each sample was analyzed in triplicate. The study confirmed the high stability of iron and zinc during storage while the retention of vitamin A was significantly affected by storage and the type of techniques used to make rice premix. Losses for iron and zinc were typically <10% for any type of rice premix. After 12 months at mild conditions (25 °C and humidity of 60%), losses for vitamin A ranged from 20% for cold extrusion, 30% for hot extruded rice 77% for coated rice premix. At higher temperatures and humidity, losses of vitamin A were 40%–50% for extruded premix and 93% for coated premix after 6 months. We conclude that storage does lead to a major loss of vitamin A and question whether rice is a suitable food vehicle to fortify with vitamin A. For Cambodia, fortification of rice with iron and zinc could be an effective strategy to improve the micronutrient status of the population if no other food vehicles are available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and National Strategies to Impact Health)
Open AccessArticle
A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010050
Received: 23 November 2015 / Revised: 25 December 2015 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3431 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) [...] Read more.
Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aging Reduces the Activation of the mTORC1 Pathway after Resistance Exercise and Protein Intake in Human Skeletal Muscle: Potential Role of REDD1 and Impaired Anabolic Sensitivity
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010047
Received: 2 December 2015 / Revised: 6 January 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
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Abstract
This study was designed to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the anabolic resistance observed in elderly people. Nine young (22 ± 0.1 years) and 10 older (69 ± 1.7 years) volunteers performed a one-leg extension exercise consisting of 10 × 10 [...] Read more.
This study was designed to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the anabolic resistance observed in elderly people. Nine young (22 ± 0.1 years) and 10 older (69 ± 1.7 years) volunteers performed a one-leg extension exercise consisting of 10 × 10 repetitions at 70% of their 3-RM, immediately after which they ingested 30 g of whey protein. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis at rest in the fasted state and 30 min after protein ingestion in the non-exercised (Pro) and exercised (Pro+ex) legs. Plasma insulin levels were determined at the same time points. No age difference was measured in fasting insulin levels but the older subjects had a 50% higher concentration than the young subjects in the fed state (p < 0.05). While no difference was observed in the fasted state, in response to exercise and protein ingestion, the phosphorylation state of PKB (p < 0.05 in Pro and Pro+ex) and S6K1 (p = 0.059 in Pro; p = 0.066 in Pro+ex) was lower in the older subjects compared with the young subjects. After Pro+ex, REDD1 expression tended to be higher (p = 0.087) in the older group while AMPK phosphorylation was not modified by any condition. In conclusion, we show that the activation of the mTORC1 pathway is reduced in skeletal muscle of older subjects after resistance exercise and protein ingestion compared with young subjects, which could be partially due to an increased expression of REDD1 and an impaired anabolic sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein, Exercise and Muscle Health in an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Diet Composition in Adult Offspring is Dependent on Maternal Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation in Rats
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010046
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 5 January 2016 / Published: 14 January 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2321 | PDF Full-text (1544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis proposes that the fetus takes cues from the maternal environment to predict its postnatal environment. A mismatch between the predicted and actual environments precipitates an increased risk of chronic disease. Our objective was to determine if, following a high [...] Read more.
The Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis proposes that the fetus takes cues from the maternal environment to predict its postnatal environment. A mismatch between the predicted and actual environments precipitates an increased risk of chronic disease. Our objective was to determine if, following a high fat, high sucrose (HFS) diet challenge in adulthood, re-matching offspring to their maternal gestational diet would improve metabolic health more so than if there was no previous exposure to that diet. Animals re-matched to a high prebiotic fiber diet (HF) had lower body weight and adiposity than animals re-matched to a high protein (HP) or control (C) diet and also had increased levels of the satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY (p < 0.05). Control animals, whether maintained throughout the study on AIN-93M, or continued on HFS rather than reverting back to AIN-93M, did not differ from each other in body weight or adiposity. Overall, the HF diet was associated with the most beneficial metabolic phenotype (body fat, glucose control, satiety hormones). The HP diet, as per our previous work, had detrimental effects on body weight and adiposity. Findings in control rats suggest that the obesogenic potential of the powdered AIN-93 diet warrants investigation. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effect of Polydextrose on Subjective Feelings of Appetite during the Satiation and Satiety Periods: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010045
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 18 December 2015 / Published: 14 January 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2932 | PDF Full-text (720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Introduction: Subjective feelings of appetite are measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) in controlled trials. However, the methods used to analyze VAS during the Satiation (pre- to post-meal) and Satiety (post-meal to subsequent meal) periods vary broadly, making it difficult to compare results [...] Read more.
Introduction: Subjective feelings of appetite are measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) in controlled trials. However, the methods used to analyze VAS during the Satiation (pre- to post-meal) and Satiety (post-meal to subsequent meal) periods vary broadly, making it difficult to compare results amongst independent studies testing the same product. This review proposes a methodology to analyze VAS during both the Satiation and Satiety periods, allowing us to compare results in a meta-analysis. Methods: A methodology to express VAS results as incremental areas under the curve (iAUC) for both the Satiation and Satiety periods is proposed using polydextrose as a case study. Further, a systematic review and meta-analysis on subjective feelings of appetite was conducted following the PRISMA methodology. Meta-analyses were expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD). Results: Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were important differences in the methods used to analyze appetite ratings amongst these studies. The separate subjective feelings of appetite reported were Hunger, Satisfaction, Fullness, Prospective Food Consumption, and the Desire to Eat. The method proposed here allowed the results of the different studies to be homogenized. The meta-analysis showed that Desire to Eat during the Satiation period favors polydextrose for the reduction of this subjective feeling of appetite (SMD = 0.24, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.018); this effect was also significant in the sub-analysis by sex for the male population (SMD = 0.35, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.015). There were no other significant results. Conclusion: It is possible to compare VAS results from separate studies. The assessment of iAUC for both the Satiation and Satiety periods generates results of homogeneous magnitudes. This case study demonstrates, for the first time, that polydextrose reduces the Desire to Eat during the Satiation period. This may explain, at least in part, the observed effects of polydextrose on the reduction of levels of energy intake at subsequent meals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Open AccessReview
Therapeutic Potential to Modify the Mucus Barrier in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010044
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 5 January 2016 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 14 January 2016
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Abstract
Recently, numerous studies have shown that disruption of the mucus barrier plays an important role in the exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in ulcerative colitis. Alterations in the mucus barrier are well supported by published data and are widely accepted. The use [...] Read more.
Recently, numerous studies have shown that disruption of the mucus barrier plays an important role in the exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in ulcerative colitis. Alterations in the mucus barrier are well supported by published data and are widely accepted. The use of fluorescence in situ hybridization and Carnoy’s fixation has revealed the importance of the mucus barrier in maintaining a mutualistic relationship between host and bacteria. Studies have raised the possibility that modulation of the mucus barrier may provide therapies for the disease, using agents such as short-chain fatty acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This review describes changes in the mucus barrier of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in animal models of the disease. We also review the involvement of the mucus barrier in the exacerbation of the disease and explore the therapeutic potential of modifying the mucus barrier with short-chain fatty acids, prebiotics, probiotics, fatty acid synthase, H2S, neutrophil elastase inhibitor and phophatidyl choline. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Regulation of Intestinal Glucose Absorption by Ion Channels and Transporters
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010043
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 14 January 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3645 | PDF Full-text (648 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The absorption of glucose is electrogenic in the small intestinal epithelium. The major route for the transport of dietary glucose from intestinal lumen into enterocytes is the Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), although glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) may also play a role. [...] Read more.
The absorption of glucose is electrogenic in the small intestinal epithelium. The major route for the transport of dietary glucose from intestinal lumen into enterocytes is the Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), although glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) may also play a role. The membrane potential of small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) is important to regulate the activity of SGLT1. The maintenance of membrane potential mainly depends on the activities of cation channels and transporters. While the importance of SGLT1 in glucose absorption has been systemically studied in detail, little is currently known about the regulation of SGLT1 activity by cation channels and transporters. A growing line of evidence suggests that cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) can regulate the absorption of glucose by adjusting GLUT2 and SGLT1. Moreover, the absorption of glucose and homeostasis of Ca2+ in IEC are regulated by cation channels and transporters, such as Ca2+ channels, K+ channels, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, and Na+/H+ exchangers. In this review, we consider the involvement of these cation channels and transporters in the regulation of glucose uptake in the small intestine. Modulation of them may be a potential strategy for the management of obesity and diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010042
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2168 | PDF Full-text (413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic [...] Read more.
Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Protection against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion Injury in Cortical Neurons by Combining Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Acid with Lyciumbarbarum Polysaccharide
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010041
Received: 30 August 2015 / Revised: 3 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 13 January 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2196 | PDF Full-text (2330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ischemic stroke, characterized by the disturbance of the blood supply to the brain, is a severe worldwide health threat with high mortality and morbidity. However, there is no effective pharmacotherapy for ischemic injury. Currently, combined treatment is highly recommended for this devastating injury. [...] Read more.
Ischemic stroke, characterized by the disturbance of the blood supply to the brain, is a severe worldwide health threat with high mortality and morbidity. However, there is no effective pharmacotherapy for ischemic injury. Currently, combined treatment is highly recommended for this devastating injury. In the present study, we investigated neuroprotective effects of the combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) and Lyciumbarbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on cortical neurons using an in vitro ischemic model. Our study demonstrated that treatment with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major component of the ω-3 PUFAs family, significantly inhibited the increase of intracellular Ca2+ in cultured wild type (WT) cortical neurons subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury and promoted their survival compared with the vehicle-treated control. The protective effects were further confirmed in cultured neurons with high endogenous ω-3 PUFAs that were isolated from fat-1 mice, in that a higher survival rate was found in fat-1 neurons compared with wild-type neurons after OGD/R injury. Our study also found that treatment with LBP (50 mg/L) activated Trk-B signaling in cortical neurons and significantly attenuated OGD/R-induced cell apoptosis compared with the control. Notably, both combining LBP treatment with ω-3 PUFAs administration to WT neurons and adding LBP to fat-1 neurons showed enhanced effects on protecting cortical neurons against OGD/R injury via concurrently regulating the intracellular calcium overload and neurotrophic pathway. The results of the study suggest that ω-3 PUFAs and LBP are promising candidates for combined pharmacotherapy for ischemic stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study)
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010040
Received: 28 October 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2471 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the [...] Read more.
There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study). Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years), and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal). Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites) were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–1.09) for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72–1.02) for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
Open AccessReview
Effect of Oat β-Glucan Intake on Glycaemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity of Diabetic Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010039
Received: 17 October 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2594 | PDF Full-text (895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Many individual studies on oat β-glucan (OBG) confirmed its functionality in improving type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but disagreements were identified among those results. To derive a pooled estimate of these results, relevant articles, published before 5 September 2015, were collected from four [...] Read more.
Many individual studies on oat β-glucan (OBG) confirmed its functionality in improving type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but disagreements were identified among those results. To derive a pooled estimate of these results, relevant articles, published before 5 September 2015, were collected from four electronic databases (Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science) and subjected to meta-analysis in the present work. In total, four articles, dealing with 350 T2DM patients combined, met the inclusion criteria. Compared to control, T2DM patients administrated OBG from 2.5 to 3.5 g/day for 3 to 8 weeks presented significantly lowered concentrations in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) by −0.52 (95% CI: −0.94, −0.10) mmol/L (p = 0.01) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by −0.21% (95% CI: −0.40, −0.02) (p = 0.03). However, OBG intake did not significantly lower the fasting plasma insulin (FPI) concentration. In conclusion, mediate-term OBG intake (3–8 weeks) favored the glycaemic control of T2DM patients but did not improve their insulin sensitivity. Regrettably, data upon the effects of long-term OBG intake on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity were scarce, which is of much importance and should be addressed in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
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Open AccessCommunication
Research Priorities for Fertility and Conception Research as Identified by Multidisciplinary Health Care Practitioners and Researchers
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010035
Received: 9 December 2015 / Revised: 7 January 2016 / Accepted: 8 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1872 | PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Robinson Research Institute of the University of Adelaide convened a multidisciplinary group of n = 33 clinicians, researchers and representatives of government organisations on the 2 October 2014 for a workshop entitled “Promoting fertility and healthy conception. How do we generate [...] Read more.
The Robinson Research Institute of the University of Adelaide convened a multidisciplinary group of n = 33 clinicians, researchers and representatives of government organisations on the 2 October 2014 for a workshop entitled “Promoting fertility and healthy conception. How do we generate greater reproductive health awareness?” The key aim of the workshop was to assess the body of knowledge that informs clinical practice and government policy, and to identify questions and additional information needed by health practitioners and government representatives working in the field of reproductive health and to frame future research and policy. The workshop identified topics that fell mostly into three categories: lifestyle-related, societal and biological factors. The lifestyle topics included nutrition and diet, exercise, obesity, shift work and other factors deemed to be modifiable at the level of the individual. The societal topics included discussions of matters that are structural, and resistant to change by individuals, including specific ethical issues, social disadvantage, government and educational policies. The biological factors are intrinsic physical states of the individual, and included many factors where there is a dense body of scientific knowledge which may not be readily accessible in less academic language. This workshop thus provided an opportunity to identify further actions that could be undertaken to meet the needs of diverse organisations and groups of professionals with an interest in human fertility. Since so many factors in our social and biological environment can impact fertility and preconception health, it is imperative to involve many disciplines or levels of government or societal organisations that have not traditionally been involved in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Premenopausal Nutrition and Fertility)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010034
Received: 19 November 2015 / Revised: 4 January 2016 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 12 January 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2849 | PDF Full-text (742 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in [...] Read more.
Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
GLP-2 Prevents Intestinal Mucosal Atrophy and Improves Tissue Antioxidant Capacity in a Mouse Model of Total Parenteral Nutrition
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010033
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 3 January 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2016 / Published: 9 January 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1890 | PDF Full-text (2457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on mucosal atrophy and intestinal antioxidant capacity in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Male mice (6–8 weeks old) were divided into three groups (n = 8 for each group): a [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on mucosal atrophy and intestinal antioxidant capacity in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Male mice (6–8 weeks old) were divided into three groups (n = 8 for each group): a control group fed a standard laboratory chow diet, and experimental TPN (received standard TPN solution) and TPN + GLP-2 groups (received TPN supplemented with 60 µg/day of GLP-2 for 5 days). Mice in the TPN group had lower body weight and reduced intestinal length, villus height, and crypt depth compared to the control group (all p < 0.05). GLP-2 supplementation increased all parameters compared to TPN only (all p < 0.05). Intestinal total superoxide dismutase activity and reduced-glutathione level in the TPN + GLP-2 group were also higher relative to the TPN group (all p < 0.05). GLP-2 administration significantly upregulated proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression and increased glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) abundance. Compared with the control and TPN + GLP-2 groups, intestinal cleaved caspase-3 was increased in the TPN group (all p < 0.05). This study shows GLP-2 reduces TPN-associated intestinal atrophy and improves tissue antioxidant capacity. This effect may be dependent on enhanced epithelial cell proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and upregulated GRP78 expression. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Systematic Review of Anthocyanins and Markers of Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010032
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 29 December 2015 / Accepted: 29 December 2015 / Published: 9 January 2016
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 4401 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Anthocyanins are dietary flavonoids commonly consumed in the diet, which have been suggested to have a preventative effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) development among epidemiological studies. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the effects of purified anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts on [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are dietary flavonoids commonly consumed in the diet, which have been suggested to have a preventative effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) development among epidemiological studies. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the effects of purified anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts on markers of CVD (triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure) in both healthy and diseased populations. Eligible studies included RCTs of adults published in English. We searched PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, and BIOSIS Previews for relevant articles from inception until 1 July 2014. Twelve RCTs representing 10 studies were included in this review. Supplementation with anthocyanins significantly improved LDL cholesterol among diseased individuals or those with elevated biomarkers. Supplementation did not significantly affect other markers of CVD in either healthy individuals or those with elevated markers. No adverse effects of anthocyanins were reported across studies at levels up to 640 mg/day. Limitations of trials in the qualitative analyses include short trial duration and large variability in the dose administered within the trials. Longer-duration trials assessing dose response are needed to adequately determine whether an effect of supplementation exists. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010031
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 28 December 2015 / Accepted: 5 January 2016 / Published: 8 January 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2885 | PDF Full-text (215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained [...] Read more.
Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001). Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32–0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23–0.79; p for trend = 0.0113). Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26–1.05; p for trend = 0.0310). These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Changes in Expression of Genes Regulating Airway Inflammation Following a High-Fat Mixed Meal in Asthmatics
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010030
Received: 13 November 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 22 December 2015 / Published: 7 January 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2453 | PDF Full-text (1073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Consumption of a high fat meal can increase neutrophilic airway inflammation in asthma subjects. This study investigates the molecular mechanisms driving airway neutrophilia following a high fat meal in asthmatics. Subjects with asthma (n = 11) and healthy controls (n = [...] Read more.
Consumption of a high fat meal can increase neutrophilic airway inflammation in asthma subjects. This study investigates the molecular mechanisms driving airway neutrophilia following a high fat meal in asthmatics. Subjects with asthma (n = 11) and healthy controls (n = 8) consumed a high-fat/energy meal, containing total energy (TE) of 3846 kJ and 48 g of total fat (20.5 g saturated). Sputum was induced at 0 and 4 h, and gene expression was examined by microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Following the high fat dietary challenge, 168 entities were significantly differentially expressed greater than >1.5 fold in subjects with asthma, whereas, in healthy controls, only 14 entities were differentially expressed. Of the 168 genes that were changed in asthma, several biological processes were overrepresented, with 25 genes involved in “immune system processes”. qPCR confirmed that S100P, S100A16, MAL and MUC1 were significantly increased in the asthma group post-meal. We also observed a strong correlation and a moderate correlation between the change in NLRP12 and S100A16 gene expression at 4 h compared to baseline, and the change in total and saturated non-esterified plasma fatty acid levels at 2 h compared to baseline. In summary, our data identifies differences in inflammatory gene expression that may contribute to increased airway neutrophilia following a high fat meal in subjects with asthma and may provide useful therapeutic targets for immunomodulation. This may be particularly relevant to obese asthmatics, who are habitually consuming diets with a high fat content. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Fortified Rice on Hemoglobin, Iron and Vitamin A Status of Cambodian Schoolchildren: a Double-Blind Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010029
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 December 2015 / Published: 7 January 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2907 | PDF Full-text (556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies remain a critical public health problem. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice (MMFR) formulations, distributed through a World Food Program school-meals program (WFP-SMP), on the hemoglobin concentrations and iron and vitamin A (VA) status [...] Read more.
In Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies remain a critical public health problem. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice (MMFR) formulations, distributed through a World Food Program school-meals program (WFP-SMP), on the hemoglobin concentrations and iron and vitamin A (VA) status of Cambodian schoolchildren. The FORISCA-UltraRice+NutriRice study was a double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen schools participating in WFP-SMP were randomly assigned to receive extrusion-fortified rice (UltraRice Original, UltraRice New (URN), or NutriRice) or unfortified rice (placebo) six days a week for six months. Four additional schools not participating in WFP-SMP were randomly selected as controls. A total of 2440 schoolchildren (6–16 years old) participated in the biochemical study. Hemoglobin, iron status, estimated using inflammation-adjusted ferritin and transferrin receptors concentrations, and VA status, assessed using inflammation-adjusted retinol-binding protein concentration, were measured at the baseline, as well as at three and six months. Baseline prevalence of anemia, depleted iron stores, tissue iron deficiency, marginal VA status and VA deficiency were 15.6%, 1.4%, 51.0%, 7.9%, and 0.7%, respectively. The strongest risk factors for anemia were hemoglobinopathy, VA deficiency, and depleted iron stores (all p < 0.01). After six months, children receiving NutriRice and URN had 4 and 5 times less risk of low VA status, respectively, in comparison to the placebo group. Hemoglobin significantly increased (+0.8 g/L) after three months for the URN group in comparison to the placebo group; however, this difference was no longer significant after six months, except for children without inflammation. MMFR containing VA effectively improved the VA status of schoolchildren. The impact on hemoglobin and iron status was limited, partly by sub-clinical inflammation. MMFR combined with non-nutritional approaches addressing anemia and inflammation should be further investigated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake—A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010028
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 22 December 2015 / Published: 7 January 2016
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2411 | PDF Full-text (641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness) and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, [...] Read more.
It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness) and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years). We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%–20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m2) than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m2) adults (standardized mean difference: −0.77 (95% confidence interval −0.90 to −0.64)). Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD): −17 (−22 to −13) mm) to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: −14 (−19 to −9) mm) lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm)) greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older People)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010036
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 13 December 2015 / Published: 5 January 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3488 | PDF Full-text (1441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed [...] Read more.
Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment—VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20–30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women. Full article
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