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Open AccessArticle

Fish, Long-Chain n-3 PUFA and Incidence of Elevated Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 58;
Received: 11 November 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 24 December 2015 / Published: 21 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health)
Results from prospective cohort studies on fish or long-chain (LC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and elevated blood pressure (EBP) are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the summary effects. Pertinent studies were identified from PubMed and EMBASE database through October 2015. Multivariate-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for incidence of EBP in the highest verses the bottom category of baseline intake of fish or LC n-3 PUFA were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Over the follow-up ranging from 3 to 20 years, 20,497 EBP events occurred among 56,204 adults from eight prospective cohort studies. The summary RR (SRR) was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.14; I2 = 44.70%) for fish in four studies, and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.89; I2 = 75.00%) for LC n-3 PUFA in six studies (three studies for biomarker vs. three studies for diet). Circulating LC n-3 PUFA as biomarker was inversely associated with incidence of EBP (SRR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.83), especially docosahexaenoic acid (SRR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.88), whereas no significant association was found for dietary intake (SRR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.10). The present finding suggests that increased intake of docosahexaenoic acid to improve its circulating levels may benefit primary prevention of EBP. View Full-Text
Keywords: fish; n-3 PUFA; blood pressure; meta-analysis fish; n-3 PUFA; blood pressure; meta-analysis
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Yang, B.; Shi, M.-Q.; Li, Z.-H.; Yang, J.-J.; Li, D. Fish, Long-Chain n-3 PUFA and Incidence of Elevated Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Nutrients 2016, 8, 58.

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