Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Nutrients, Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2015) , Pages 3949-5064

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-64
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
A Novel Approach to Improving Fat Delivery in Neonatal Enteral Feeding
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 5051-5064; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7065051
Received: 5 May 2015 / Revised: 25 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3082 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Continuous infusion systems used for enteral nutrition support in the neonatal intensive care unit deliver as little as 60% of the fat in human milk to the neonate. This study determined the effect of mixing common feedings for preterm infants in the feeding [...] Read more.
Continuous infusion systems used for enteral nutrition support in the neonatal intensive care unit deliver as little as 60% of the fat in human milk to the neonate. This study determined the effect of mixing common feedings for preterm infants in the feeding bag and tubing on fat losses during enteral feeding. Laboratory models were developed to assess the contribution of various mixing techniques to delivered fat content. Fat content was measured periodically during feeding and compared to baseline measurements. A multistage approach incorporating a feeding bag inverter and a tubing circulation loop delivered >90% of milk fat when used in conjunction with a commercial continuous infusion system. With unfortified human milk, this approach delivered 91.9% ± 1.5% of fat content over a one hour feed, significantly greater (p < 0.01) than 77.5% ± 2.2% delivered by continuous infusion controls (Mean ± SEM). With fortified human milk, this approach delivered 92.1% ± 2.4% of fat content, significantly greater (p < 0.01) than 79.4% ± 1.0% delivered by a non-adapted infusion system (Mean ± SEM). Mixing human milk during continuous infusion improves fat delivery, which may improve nutrition and growth outcomes in low birth weight neonates. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Mechanistic Effects of Calcitriol in Cancer Biology
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 5020-5050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7065020
Received: 3 May 2015 / Revised: 9 June 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4261 | PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Besides its classical biological effects on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, calcitriol, the active vitamin D metabolite, has a broad variety of actions including anticancer effects that are mediated either transcriptionally and/or via non-genomic pathways. In the context of cancer, calcitriol regulates the cell [...] Read more.
Besides its classical biological effects on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, calcitriol, the active vitamin D metabolite, has a broad variety of actions including anticancer effects that are mediated either transcriptionally and/or via non-genomic pathways. In the context of cancer, calcitriol regulates the cell cycle, induces apoptosis, promotes cell differentiation and acts as anti-inflammatory factor within the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we address the different mechanisms of action involved in the antineoplastic effects of calcitriol. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Hepatic Steatosis as a Marker of Metabolic Dysfunction
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4995-5019; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064995
Received: 8 April 2015 / Revised: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 4293 | PDF Full-text (1313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the liver manifestation of the complex metabolic derangements associated with obesity. NAFLD is characterized by excessive deposition of fat in the liver (steatosis) and develops when hepatic fatty acid availability from plasma and de novo synthesis exceeds [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the liver manifestation of the complex metabolic derangements associated with obesity. NAFLD is characterized by excessive deposition of fat in the liver (steatosis) and develops when hepatic fatty acid availability from plasma and de novo synthesis exceeds hepatic fatty acid disposal by oxidation and triglyceride export. Hepatic steatosis is therefore the biochemical result of an imbalance between complex pathways of lipid metabolism, and is associated with an array of adverse changes in glucose, fatty acid, and lipoprotein metabolism across all tissues of the body. Intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content is therefore a very good marker (and in some cases may be the cause) of the presence and the degree of multiple-organ metabolic dysfunction. These metabolic abnormalities are likely responsible for many cardiometabolic risk factors associated with NAFLD, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Understanding the factors involved in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of NAFLD will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic complications of obesity, and hopefully to the discovery of novel effective treatments for their reversal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Sodium Selenite in the Treatment of Patients with Carcinoma in a Phase I Clinical Trial: The SECAR Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4978-4994; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064978
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 11 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 4152 | PDF Full-text (1245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Sodium selenite at high dose exerts antitumor effects and increases efficacy of cytostatic drugs in multiple preclinical malignancy models. We assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous administered sodium selenite in cancer patients’ refractory to cytostatic drugs in a phase I trial. [...] Read more.
Background: Sodium selenite at high dose exerts antitumor effects and increases efficacy of cytostatic drugs in multiple preclinical malignancy models. We assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous administered sodium selenite in cancer patients’ refractory to cytostatic drugs in a phase I trial. Patients received first line of chemotherapy following selenite treatment to investigate altered sensitivity to these drugs and preliminary assessment of any clinical benefits. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four patients with different therapy resistant tumors received iv sodium selenite daily for consecutive five days either for two weeks or four weeks. Each cohort consisted of at least three patients who received the same daily dose of selenite throughout the whole treatment. If 0/3 patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), the study proceeded to the next dose-level. If 2/3 had DLT, the dose was considered too high and if 1/3 had DLT, three more patients were included. Dose-escalation continued until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was reached. MTD was defined as the highest dose-level on which 0/3 or 1/6 patients experienced DLT. The primary endpoint was safety, dose-limiting toxic effects and the MTD of sodium selenite. The secondary endpoint was primary response evaluation. Results and Conclusion: MTD was defined as 10.2 mg/m2, with a calculated median plasma half-life of 18.25 h. The maximum plasma concentration of selenium from a single dose of selenite increased in a nonlinear pattern. The most common adverse events were fatigue, nausea, and cramps in fingers and legs. DLTs were acute, of short duration and reversible. Biomarkers for organ functions indicated no major systemic toxicity. In conclusion, sodium selenite is safe and tolerable when administered up to 10.2 mg/m2 under current protocol. Further development of the study is underway to determine if prolonged infusions might be a more effective treatment strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Human Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Diagnosis of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS): The Salerno Experts’ Criteria
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4966-4977; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064966
Received: 23 April 2015 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 172 | Viewed by 16313 | PDF Full-text (472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected by either celiac disease or wheat allergy. Given the lack of a NCGS biomarker, there is the [...] Read more.
Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected by either celiac disease or wheat allergy. Given the lack of a NCGS biomarker, there is the need for standardizing the procedure leading to the diagnosis confirmation. In this paper we report experts’ recommendations on how the diagnostic protocol should be performed for the confirmation of NCGS. A full diagnostic procedure should assess the clinical response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) and measure the effect of a gluten challenge after a period of treatment with the GFD. The clinical evaluation is performed using a self-administered instrument incorporating a modified version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. The patient identifies one to three main symptoms that are quantitatively assessed using a Numerical Rating Scale with a score ranging from 1 to 10. The double-blind placebo-controlled gluten challenge (8 g/day) includes a one-week challenge followed by a one-week washout of strict GFD and by the crossover to the second one-week challenge. The vehicle should contain cooked, homogeneously distributed gluten. At least a variation of 30% of one to three main symptoms between the gluten and the placebo challenge should be detected to discriminate a positive from a negative result. The guidelines provided in this paper will help the clinician to reach a firm and positive diagnosis of NCGS and facilitate the comparisons of different studies, if adopted internationally. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
DQ2, DQ7 and DQ8 Distribution and Clinical Manifestations in Celiac Cases and Their First-Degree Relatives
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4955-4965; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064955
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2995 | PDF Full-text (453 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
HLA-linked genes are relevant to celiac disease (CD); the potential genetic differences present worldwide are not fully understood. Previous results suggest that the distribution of HLA-DQ2/DQ7/DQ8 in Chile may differ from that in Europe and North America. In celiac patients and their first-degree [...] Read more.
HLA-linked genes are relevant to celiac disease (CD); the potential genetic differences present worldwide are not fully understood. Previous results suggest that the distribution of HLA-DQ2/DQ7/DQ8 in Chile may differ from that in Europe and North America. In celiac patients and their first-degree relatives (FDRS), we assessed their clinical, serological and histological characteristics, determined HLA-DQ2, HLA-DQ7 and HLA-DQ8 alleles and genotypes, and evaluated the relations between them. A total of 222 individuals were assessed (56 cases, 166 FDRs). 16.9% of FDRs were tTG positive; 53.6% of them showed overweight/obesity and 3% undernourishment; they spontaneously declared being asymptomatic, but detailed questioning revealed that 60.7% experienced symptoms, which had not been investigated. DQ2 was present in 53.9% and 43.9.0% of cases and FDRs (p < 0.05). The most frequent genotype distribution was DQ2/DQ7 (fr 0.392 (cases) and 0.248 (FDRs), respectively, p < 0.02). The next most common genotypes were HLA-DQ2/DQ8 (fr 0.236 in FDRs and 0.176 in cases, p < 0.05). 3.92% cases were not HLA-DQ2/DQ8 carriers. Among tTG positive FDRs, 57.4%, 22.3% and 20.2% carried DQ2, DQ7 and DQ8, respectively. In cases, 72.7% of the biopsies classified Marsh ≥3 carried at least one DQ2; 91.7% of DQ2/DQ2 and 88.3% of DQ2/DQ7 were Marsh ≥3. Thus, DQ2 frequency is lower than reported; the higher frequency found for DQ8 and DQ7 concur with recent publications from Argentine and Brazil. These results suggest that although CD may manifest clinically in ways similar to those described in other populations, some genetic peculiarities in this region deserve further study. Full article
Open AccessArticle
In Vivo Protective Effects of Diosgenin against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4938-4954; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064938
Received: 24 April 2015 / Revised: 30 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 2692 | PDF Full-text (417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Doxorubicin (DOX) induces oxidative stress leading to cardiotoxicity. Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin of Dioscorea opposita, has been reported to have antioxidant activity. Our study was aimed to find out the protective effect of diosgenin against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. DOX treatment [...] Read more.
Doxorubicin (DOX) induces oxidative stress leading to cardiotoxicity. Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin of Dioscorea opposita, has been reported to have antioxidant activity. Our study was aimed to find out the protective effect of diosgenin against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. DOX treatment led to a significant decrease in the ratio of heart weight to body weight, and increases in the blood pressure and the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and creatine kinase myocardial bound (CK-MB), markers of cardiotoxicity. In the heart tissue of the DOX-treated mice, DOX reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were recovered by diosgenin. Diosgenin also decreased the serum levels of cardiotoxicity markers, cardiac levels of thiobarbituric acid relative substances (TBARS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), caspase-3 activation, and mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), an inflammatory factor. Moreover, diosgenin had the effects of increasing the cardiac levels of cGMP via modulation of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) activity, and in improving myocardial fibrosis in the DOX-treated mice. Molecular data showed that the protective effects of diosgenin might be mediated via regulation of protein kinase A (PKA) and p38. Our data imply that diosgenin possesses antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities, and cGMP modulation effect, which in turn protect the heart from the DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4911-4937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064911
Received: 2 April 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 7466 | PDF Full-text (511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability due to obesity and endothelial dysfunction might be causally related to the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as insulin resistance, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension. In such situations, instead of impaired NO synthase (NOS)-dependent NO generation, the entero-salivary [...] Read more.
Decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability due to obesity and endothelial dysfunction might be causally related to the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as insulin resistance, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension. In such situations, instead of impaired NO synthase (NOS)-dependent NO generation, the entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway might serve as a backup system for NO generation by transmitting NO activities in the various molecular forms including NO and protein S-nitrosothiols. Recently accumulated evidence has demonstrated that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables rich in nitrate/nitrite is an inexpensive and easily-practicable way to prevent insulin resistance and vascular endothelial dysfunction by increasing the NO availability; a NO-rich diet may also prevent other lifestyle-related diseases, including osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cancer. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of NO generation through the entero-salivary pathway and discusses its safety and preventive effects on lifestyle-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4897-4910; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064897
Received: 15 April 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3604 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus [...] Read more.
Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2) participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day) was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57), carbohydrate (g/day) (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), protein (g/day) (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and alcohol (g/day) (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01), with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day) (r = 0.24). Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.77–0.99) was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82–0.99). These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4875-4896; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064875
Received: 13 April 2015 / Revised: 25 May 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3495 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is [...] Read more.
Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Angelica gigas via Heme Oxygenase (HO)-1 Expression
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4862-4874; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064862
Received: 15 April 2015 / Revised: 7 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2601 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Angelica gigas (AG) is effective against various medical conditions such as bacterial infection, inflammation, and cancer. It contains a number of coumarin compounds and the group of interest is the pyranocoumarin, which comprises decursin and decursinol angelate. This group has an effect on [...] Read more.
Angelica gigas (AG) is effective against various medical conditions such as bacterial infection, inflammation, and cancer. It contains a number of coumarin compounds and the group of interest is the pyranocoumarin, which comprises decursin and decursinol angelate. This group has an effect on controlling inflammation, which is caused by excessive nitric oxide (NO) production. Heme oxygenases (HOs), particularly HO-1, play a role in regulating the production of NO. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AG by measuring HO-1 expression. Treatments with CH2Cl2 layer and Angelica gigas extract (AGE) showed the highest NO inhibition effects. Decursin, decursinol angelate, and nodakenin were isolated from the CH2Cl2 layer of AGE. Decursin also demonstrated the highest anti-oxidative effect among the coumarins. Although decursin had the best NO inhibition and anti-oxidative effects, the effects of AGE treatment far surpassed that of decursin. This is owing to the combination effect of the coumarins present within AGE, which is a solvent extract of AG. The expression of HO-1 is an effective indicator of the anti-inflammatory effects of AG. Based on the results of the coumarin compounds, HO-1 expression was found to be dose dependent and specific to decursin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Human Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
γ-Oryzanol Enhances Adipocyte Differentiation and Glucose Uptake
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4851-4861; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064851
Received: 2 April 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3033 | PDF Full-text (1014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent studies show that brown rice improves glucose intolerance and potentially the risk of diabetes, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. One of the phytochemicals found in high concentration in brown rice is γ-oryzanol (Orz), a group of ferulic acid esters of [...] Read more.
Recent studies show that brown rice improves glucose intolerance and potentially the risk of diabetes, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. One of the phytochemicals found in high concentration in brown rice is γ-oryzanol (Orz), a group of ferulic acid esters of phytosterols and triterpene alcohols. Here, we found that Orz stimulated differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and increased the protein expression of adipogenic marker genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and CCAAT/enhanced binding protein alpha (C/EBPα). Moreover, Orz significantly increased the glucose uptake in insulin-resistant cells and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) from the cytosol to the cell surface. To investigate the mechanism by which Orz stimulated cell differentiation, we examined its effects on cellular signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a central mediator of cellular growth and proliferation. The Orz treatment increased mTORC1 kinase activity based on phosphorylation of 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). The effect of Orz on adipocyte differentiation was dependent on mTORC1 activity because rapamycin blocks cell differentiation in Orz-treated cells. Collectively, our results indicate that Orz stimulates adipocyte differentiation, enhances glucose uptake, and may be associated with cellular signaling mediated by PPAR-γ and mTORC1. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Protective Effect of the Total Saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4829-4850; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064829
Received: 23 April 2015 / Revised: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2940 | PDF Full-text (2090 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, the protective effect of the total saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx (RLTS) against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats was evaluated. The results showed that RLTS significantly rehabilitated the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, [...] Read more.
In this study, the protective effect of the total saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx (RLTS) against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats was evaluated. The results showed that RLTS significantly rehabilitated the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, hydroxyproline, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, collagen III and fibronectin, which were confirmed using H&E, Sirius Red and Masson histopathological assays. Further research indicated that RLTS markedly reduced cytochrome P450 2E1 activity, attenuated oxidative stress, and suppressed inflammation. In addition, RLTS facilitated matrix degradation through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase2, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and metalloproteinases1, and exerted the anti-fibrotic effects through affecting transforming growth factor β/Smad, focal adhesion kinase/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/amino kinase terminal/70-kDa ribosomal S6 Kinase (FAK-PI3K-Akt-p70S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Taken together, our data indicate that RLTS can be applied as one effective candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Human Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessAddendum
Addendum: Fayet-Moore F., Pearson, S. Interpreting the Australian Dietary Guideline to “Limit” into Practical and Personalised Advice. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2026–2043
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4828; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064828
Received: 13 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Viewed by 1734 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The published article’s Acknowledgement Section was incomplete [1].[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Associations between Vitamin D Status, Supplementation, Outdoor Work and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis Assessment
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4817-4827; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064817
Received: 24 April 2015 / Revised: 25 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2700 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study aimed to quantitatively assess the associations between vitamin D and Parkinson’s Disease (PD) risks, which include: (i) risk of PD in subjects with deficient and insufficient vitamin D levels; (ii) association between vitamin D supplementation and risk of PD; and [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to quantitatively assess the associations between vitamin D and Parkinson’s Disease (PD) risks, which include: (i) risk of PD in subjects with deficient and insufficient vitamin D levels; (ii) association between vitamin D supplementation and risk of PD; and (iii) association between outdoor work and PD risk, through meta-analyzing available data. An electronic literature search supplemented by hand searching up to March 2015 identified seven eligible studies comprising 5690 PD patients and 21251 matched controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of PD risk were assessed through pooling the collected data from eligible studies using Stata software. Pooled data showed that subjects with deficient and insufficient vitamin D levels had increased PD risks compared with matched-controls according to the corresponding OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.63 to 2.65, and 1.29, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.51. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with significantly reduced risk of PD (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.90). Outdoor work was also related to reduced risk of PD (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.81). The findings may stimulate larger, well-designed studies to further verify the associations between vitamin D and PD risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessDiscussion
Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4804-4816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064804
Received: 6 May 2015 / Revised: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3253 | PDF Full-text (394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at [...] Read more.
It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4792-4803; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064792
Received: 7 April 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3049 | PDF Full-text (316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. [...] Read more.
Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6) fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g) for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25) created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g) for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7), those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6). In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively), resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05). We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Egg Consumption and Human Health) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns Modulate the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Adults
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4778-4791; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064778
Received: 13 March 2015 / Revised: 1 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2913 | PDF Full-text (434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although previous studies reported the associations between the intakes of individual foods or nutrients and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the relationship between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the Chinese population has been rarely studied to date. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Although previous studies reported the associations between the intakes of individual foods or nutrients and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the relationship between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the Chinese population has been rarely studied to date. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of NAFLD in a middle-aged Chinese population. The Study subjects were 999 Chinese adults aged 45–60 years in the Anhui province who participated in the Hefei Nutrition and Health Study. Dietary intake was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as the presence of moderate-severe hepatic steatosis (by B-ultrasonic examination); the absence of excessive alcohol use (>20 g day1 in men and 10 g day1 in women); no use of steatogenic medications within the past six months; no exposure to hepatotoxins; and no history of bariatric surgery. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Out of 999 participants, 345 (34.5%) were classified as having NAFLD. Four major dietary patterns were identified: “Traditional Chinese”, “Animal food”, “Grains-vegetables” and “High-salt” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quartile of the “Animal food” pattern scores had greater prevalence ratio for NAFLD (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.354; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.063–1.724; p < 0.05) than did those in the lowest quartile. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), compared with the lowest quartile of the “Grains-vegetables” pattern, the highest quartile had a lower prevalence ratio for NAFLD (PR = 0.777; 95% CI: 0.618–0.977, p < 0.05). However, the “traditional Chinese” and “high-salt” dietary patterns showed no association with the risk of NAFLD. Our findings indicated that the “Animal food” dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Association of Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway and Type 2 Diabetes: Genetic Epidemiological Study in Han Chinese
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4763-4777; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064763
Received: 23 March 2015 / Revised: 28 May 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2475 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the associations of polymorphisms in Canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway (WNT) signaling genes (including low-density lipoprotein-related protein 5 [LRP5] and transcription factor 7-like 2 [TCF7L2] gene) and the downstream gene glucagon (GCG) and risk of [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate the associations of polymorphisms in Canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway (WNT) signaling genes (including low-density lipoprotein-related protein 5 [LRP5] and transcription factor 7-like 2 [TCF7L2] gene) and the downstream gene glucagon (GCG) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Han Chinese population. We genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for LRP5, TCF7L2 and GCG gene were genotyped in 1842 patients with T2DM and 7777 normal glucose-tolerant healthy subjects. We used multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) and multiplicative logistic regression adjusting for sex, age, anthropometric measurements and lipid levels to investigate the gene-gene interactions for the risk of T2DM. Among the five SNPs in LRP5, the recessive model of rs7102273 and the haplotype GCTCC were associated with T2DM risk; the haplotype GCTTC was associated with decreased risk. For TCF7L2, the rs11196218 genotype GA and the haplotype CCG, TTG, TTA were associated with T2DM risk; whereas, the haplotype CTG and TCG were associated with decreased risk. Both MDR and multiplicative logistic regression revealed potential gene–gene interactions among LRP5, TCF7L2, and GCG associated with T2DM. The WNT signaling pathway may play a significant role in risk of T2DM in Han Chinese people. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4739-4762; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064739
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 28 May 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 8538 | PDF Full-text (721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study [...] Read more.
Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance)
Open AccessArticle
A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4724-4738; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064724
Received: 27 April 2015 / Revised: 24 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3600 | PDF Full-text (314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better [...] Read more.
Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4705-4723; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064705
Received: 28 April 2015 / Revised: 22 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4329 | PDF Full-text (3587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of [...] Read more.
Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Sesamin Ameliorates Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction and Apoptosis
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4689-4704; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064689
Received: 21 April 2015 / Revised: 28 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3016 | PDF Full-text (1914 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), the direct modulators of β-cells, have been shown to cause insulin-producing β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis through increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Sesamin has been demonstrated to possess antioxidative activity. This study was designed to investigate [...] Read more.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), the direct modulators of β-cells, have been shown to cause insulin-producing β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis through increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Sesamin has been demonstrated to possess antioxidative activity. This study was designed to investigate whether sesamin protects against AGEs-evoked β-cell damage via its antioxidant property. The effects of sesamin were examined in C57BL/6J mice and MIN6 cell line. In in vivo studies, mice were intraperitoneally injected with AGEs (120 mg/kg) and orally treated with sesamin (160 mg/kg) for four weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin releasing tests were performed. Insulin content, ROS generation and β-cell apoptosis in pancreatic islets were also measured. In in vitro studies, MIN6 cells were pretreated with sesamin (50 or 100 μM) and then exposed to AGEs (200 mg/L) for 24 h. Insulin secretion, β-cell death, ROS production as well as expression and activity of NADPH oxidase were determined. Sesamin treatment obviously ameliorated AGE-induced β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. These effects were associated with decreased ROS production, down-regulated expression of p67phox and p22phox, and reduced NADPH oxidase activity. These results suggest that sesamin protects β-cells from damage caused by AGEs through suppressing NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Human Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Difference in Nutrient Intakes between Chinese and Mediterranean, Japanese and American Diets
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4661-4688; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064661
Received: 11 April 2015 / Revised: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3631 | PDF Full-text (605 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Across countries, the predominant diets are clearly different and highly related with human health. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate dietary nutrients between them. This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrients in China and compare those between Chinese and Mediterranean (Italian), Japanese and [...] Read more.
Across countries, the predominant diets are clearly different and highly related with human health. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate dietary nutrients between them. This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrients in China and compare those between Chinese and Mediterranean (Italian), Japanese and American diets. Dietary intakes of 2659 subjects in south-east China, Zhejiang province, from 2010 to 2012, were estimated by three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy in Chinese subjects was lower than that in Japanese and American subjects, but higher than that in Italian subjects. However, the energy contribution from fat in Chinese subjects was higher than that in Japanese and American subjects, and similar to that in Italian subjects. Moreover, the Chinese diet had lower daily intakes of fiber, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin C, compared with the Japanese, American and Italian diets. Nevertheless, intakes of sodium, iron, copper and vitamin E were higher among Chinese people relative to the people of other three countries. The present study demonstrated that the structure of the Chinese diet has been shifting away from the traditional diet toward high-fat, low-carbohydrate and low-fiber diets, and nutrients intakes in Chinese people have been changing even worse than those in American people. Full article
Open AccessArticle
I Eat Healthier Than You: Differences in Healthy and Unhealthy Food Choices for Oneself and for Others
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4638-4660; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064638
Received: 21 April 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4044 | PDF Full-text (462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigated self-other biases in actual eating behavior based on the observation of three different eating situations. To capture the complexity of real life food choices within a well-controlled setting, an ecologically valid fake food buffet with 72 different foods was [...] Read more.
The present study investigated self-other biases in actual eating behavior based on the observation of three different eating situations. To capture the complexity of real life food choices within a well-controlled setting, an ecologically valid fake food buffet with 72 different foods was employed. Sixty participants chose a healthy, a typical, and an unhealthy meal for themselves and for an average peer. We found that the typical meal for the self was more similar to the healthy than to the unhealthy meal in terms of energy content: The mean difference between the typical and healthy meals was MΔ = 1368 kJ (327 kcal) as compared to a mean difference between the typical and unhealthy meals of MΔ = 3075 kJ (735 kcal). Moreover, there was evidence that people apply asymmetrical standards for themselves and others: Participants chose more energy for a peer than for themselves (M = 4983 kJ or 1191 kcal on average for the peers’ meals vs. M = 3929 kJ or 939 kcal on average for the own meals) and more high-caloric food items for a typical meal, indicating a self-other bias. This comparatively positive self-view is in stark contrast to epidemiological data indicating overall unhealthy eating habits and demands further examination of its consequences for behavior change. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Adolescents’ Food Choice and the Place of Plant-Based Foods
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4619-4637; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064619
Received: 28 March 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4133 | PDF Full-text (130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A diet dominated by plant foods, with limited amounts of refined processed foods and animal products conveys substantial health benefits. This study sought to explore adolescents’ attitudes and perceptions towards plant-based foods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents (age 14–15 years) [...] Read more.
A diet dominated by plant foods, with limited amounts of refined processed foods and animal products conveys substantial health benefits. This study sought to explore adolescents’ attitudes and perceptions towards plant-based foods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents (age 14–15 years) (n = 29) attending an inner city school in Yorkshire, UK. Using a grounded theory methodology, data analysis provided four main categories and related concepts revolving around adolescents’ perspectives on plant-based foods: food choice parameters; perceived drivers and benefits of plant-based foods; environmental food cues; barriers to plant-based food choice. In the emergent grounded theory, a clear disconnect between plant-based foods and the parameters that adolescents use to make food choices, is highlighted. Further, key barriers to adolescents adopting a plant-based diet are differentiated and considered with respect to practice and policy. The analysis offers a framework to remodel and re-present plant-based foods. In this way, it is proposed that a closer connection is possible, with consequent shifts in adolescents’ dietary behaviour towards a more plant-based diet and associated health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4593-4618; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064593
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 21 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3553 | PDF Full-text (747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes [...] Read more.
Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Quercetin Decreases Claudin-2 Expression Mediated by Up-Regulation of microRNA miR-16 in Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4578-4592; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064578
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2490 | PDF Full-text (489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Claudin-2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cells. Knockdown of claudin-2 decreases cell proliferation and migration. Claudin-2 may be a novel target for lung adenocarcinoma. However, there are no physiologically active substances of foods which decrease claudin-2 expression. We here [...] Read more.
Claudin-2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cells. Knockdown of claudin-2 decreases cell proliferation and migration. Claudin-2 may be a novel target for lung adenocarcinoma. However, there are no physiologically active substances of foods which decrease claudin-2 expression. We here found that quercetin, a flavonoid present in fruits and vegetables, time- and concentration-dependently decreases claudin-2 expression in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. In the present study, we examined what regulatory mechanism is involved in the decrease in claudin-2 expression by quercetin. Claudin-2 expression was decreased by LY-294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor. These drugs inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2, which are downstream targets of PI3-K and MEK, respectively. In contrast, quercetin did not inhibit the phosphorylation. Both LY-294002 and U0126 inhibited promoter activity of claudin-2, but quercetin did not. The stability of claudin-2 mRNA was decreased by quercetin. Quercetin increased the expression of microRNA miR-16. An inhibitor of miR-16 rescued quercetin-induced decrease in the claudin-2 expression. These results suggest that quercetin decreases claudin-2 expression mediated by up-regulation of miR-16 expression and instability of claudin-2 mRNA in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Serum Vitamin D Levels and Polycystic Ovary syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4555-4577; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064555
Received: 23 March 2015 / Revised: 27 May 2015 / Accepted: 28 May 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 4906 | PDF Full-text (788 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is common in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and may be associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders in PCOS. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the associations of serum vitamin D levels with metabolic [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is common in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and may be associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders in PCOS. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the associations of serum vitamin D levels with metabolic and endocrine dysregulations in women with PCOS, and to determine effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic and hormonal functions in PCOS patients. The literature search was undertaken through five databases until 16 January 2015 for both observational and experimental studies concerning relationships between vitamin D and PCOS. A total of 366 citations were identified, of which 30 were selected (n = 3182). We found that lower serum vitamin D levels were related to metabolic and hormonal disorders in women with PCOS. Specifically, PCOS patients with VDD were more likely to have dysglycemia (e.g., increased levels of fasting glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR)) compared to those without VDD. This meta-analysis found no evidence that vitamin D supplementation reduced or mitigated metabolic and hormonal dysregulations in PCOS. VDD may be a comorbid manifestation of PCOS or a minor pathway in PCOS associated metabolic and hormonal dysregulation. Future prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials with repeated VDD assessment and better characterization of PCOS disease severity at enrollment are needed to clarify whether VDD is a co-determinant of hormonal and metabolic dysregulations in PCOS, represents a consequence of hormonal and metabolic dysregulations in PCOS or both. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Has Narrowed the Spectrum of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4542-4554; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064542
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 21 May 2015 / Accepted: 26 May 2015 / Published: 5 June 2015
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 4573 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several studies have shown that a large number of patients who are fulfilling the criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are sensitive to gluten. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a gluten-free diet on gastrointestinal symptoms in patients [...] Read more.
Several studies have shown that a large number of patients who are fulfilling the criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are sensitive to gluten. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a gluten-free diet on gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. In this double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 148 IBS patients fulfilling the Rome III criteria were enrolled between 2011 and 2013. However, only 72 out of the 148 commenced on a gluten-free diet for up to six weeks and completed the study; clinical symptoms were recorded biweekly using a standard visual analogue scale (VAS). In the second stage after six weeks, patients whose symptoms improved to an acceptable level were randomly divided into two groups; patients either received packages containing powdered gluten (35 cases) or patients received placebo (gluten free powder) (37 cases). Overall, the symptomatic improvement was statistically different in the gluten-containing group compared with placebo group in 9 (25.7%), and 31 (83.8%) patients respectively (p < 0.001). A large number of patients labelled as irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Using the term of IBS can therefore be misleading and may deviate and postpone the application of an effective and well-targeted treatment strategy in gluten sensitive patients. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top