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Nutrients, Volume 7, Issue 7 (July 2015)

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Open AccessArticle Increased Levels of Antinutritional and/or Defense Proteins Reduced the Protein Quality of a Disease-Resistant Soybean Cultivar
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 6038-6054; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075269
Received: 13 May 2015 / Revised: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2284 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The biochemical and nutritional attributes of two soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars, one susceptible (Seridó) and the other resistant (Seridó-RCH) to stem canker, were examined to assess whether the resistance to pathogens was related to levels of antinutritional and/or defense proteins
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The biochemical and nutritional attributes of two soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars, one susceptible (Seridó) and the other resistant (Seridó-RCH) to stem canker, were examined to assess whether the resistance to pathogens was related to levels of antinutritional and/or defense proteins in the plant and subsequently affected the nutritional quality. Lectin, urease, trypsin inhibitor, peroxidase and chitinase activities were higher in the resistant cultivar. Growing rats were fed with isocaloric and isoproteic diets prepared with defatted raw soybean meals. Those on the Seridó-RCH diet showed the worst performance in terms of protein quality indicators. Based on regression analysis, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, peroxidase and chitinase appear to be involved in the resistance trait but also in the poorer nutritional quality of Seridó-RCH. Thus, the development of cultivars for disease resistance may lead to higher concentrations of antinutritional compounds, affecting the quality of soybean seeds. Further research that includes the assessment of more cultivars/genotypes is needed. Full article
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Open AccessReview Increased Intake of Foods with High Nutrient Density Can Help to Break the Intergenerational Cycle of Malnutrition and Obesity
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 6016-6037; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075266
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 21 July 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4947 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A workshop held at the University Medical Center in Groningen, The Netherlands, aimed at discussing the nutritional situation of the population in general and the role diet plays during critical windows in the life course, during which the body is programmed for the
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A workshop held at the University Medical Center in Groningen, The Netherlands, aimed at discussing the nutritional situation of the population in general and the role diet plays during critical windows in the life course, during which the body is programmed for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). NCDs are increasingly prevalent as our society ages, and nutrition is well known to play an important role in determining the risk and the time of onset of many common NCDs. Even in affluent countries, people have difficulties to achieve adequate intakes for a range of nutrients: Economic constraints as well as modern lifestyles lead people to consume diets with a positive energy balance, but low in micronutrients, resulting in increasing prevalence of obesity and suboptimal nutritional status. Information about nutrient density, which refers to the content of micronutrients relative to energy in food or diets, can help identify foods that have a low calorie to nutrient ratio. It thus allows the consumption of diets that cover nutritional needs without increasing the risk of becoming obese. Given the impact a nutrient dense, low energy diet can have on health, researchers, food industry and governments jointly should develop options for affordable, appealing nutrient-rich food products, which, in combination with physical activity, allow for optimal health throughout the life-course. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 6000-6015; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075267
Received: 31 May 2015 / Revised: 31 May 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 21 July 2015
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2727 | PDF Full-text (403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence
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The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI): 11.9% (9.9–13.5) and 7.8 (6.4–9.4) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7–4.8), wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38–1.37); celiac disease 0.08% (0.01–0.45), and NCGS 0.97% (0.55–1.68). Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49–1.5), and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p < 0.05). Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5982-5999; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075265
Received: 2 May 2015 / Revised: 2 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 21 July 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2797 | PDF Full-text (346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012–2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2–12 years
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Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012–2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2–12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD)) for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2) or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1) almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5) or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1). Parents reported giving young children (2–5 years) more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p < 0.001), keep quiet (1.0 vs. 0.5, p < 0.001), and celebrate achievements (1.7 vs. 1.0, p < 0.001) than parents of older children (6–12 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios, which indicated reduced child adherence to dietary recommendations when parents offered snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70–0.99), celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52–0.99), or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68–0.98). Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5969-5981; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075263
Received: 1 July 2015 / Revised: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 9 July 2015 / Published: 21 July 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2252 | PDF Full-text (1505 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean
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Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01). Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05). A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05). Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis. Full article
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Open AccessLetter Response to a Letter to the Editor from Katherine Rich
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5965-5968; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075264
Received: 9 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 20 July 2015
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Abstract
A letter to Nutrients from the Chief Executive of the New Zealand Food and Grocery Council [1] questioned the validity of methods and findings reported in our recent paper, “Changes in the Sodium Content of New Zealand Processed Foods: 2003–2013” [2]. [...] Full article
Open AccessLetter Comment on: Changes in the Sodium Content of New Zealand Processed Foods: 2003–2013 by D. Monro, C. Mhurchu, Y. Jiang, D. Gorton, H. Eyles. Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4054–4067; doi:10.3390/nu7064054
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5961-5964; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075261
Received: 22 June 2015 / Accepted: 30 June 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1768 | PDF Full-text (71 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the authors seek to measure changes in sodium levels in processed foods in New Zealand over the period 2003–2013. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Agreement between Two Methods of Dietary Data Collection in Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5948-5960; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075262
Received: 19 June 2015 / Revised: 23 June 2015 / Accepted: 13 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2744 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Collecting accurate and reliable nutritional data from adolescent populations is challenging, with current methods providing significant under-reporting. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of a combined dietary data collection method (self-reported weighed food diary, supplemented with a 24-h
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Collecting accurate and reliable nutritional data from adolescent populations is challenging, with current methods providing significant under-reporting. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of a combined dietary data collection method (self-reported weighed food diary, supplemented with a 24-h recall) when compared to researcher observed energy intake in male adolescent soccer players. Twelve Academy players from an English Football League club participated in the study. Players attended a 12 h period in the laboratory (08:00 h–20:00 h), during which food and drink items were available and were consumed ad libitum. Food was also provided to consume at home between 20:00 h and 08:00 h the following morning under free-living conditions. To calculate the participant reported energy intake, food and drink items were weighed and recorded in a food diary by each participant, which was supplemented with information provided through a 24-h recall interview the following morning. Linear regression, limits of agreement (LOA) and typical error (coefficient of variation; CV) were used to quantify agreement between observer and participant reported 24-h energy intake. Difference between methods was assessed using a paired samples t-test. Participants systematically under-reported energy intake in comparison to that observed (p < 0.01) but the magnitude of this bias was small and consistent (mean bias = −88 kcal·day−1, 95% CI for bias = −146 to −29 kcal·day−1). For random error, the 95% LOA between methods ranged between −1.11 to 0.37 MJ·day−1 (−256 to 88 kcal·day−1). The standard error of the estimate was low, with a typical error between measurements of 3.1%. These data suggest that the combined dietary data collection method could be used interchangeably with the gold standard observed food intake technique in the population studied providing that appropriate adjustment is made for the systematic under-reporting common to such methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance)
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Open AccessArticle High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5933-5947; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075259
Received: 6 May 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3647 | PDF Full-text (334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation
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It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B) = 4.8; β = 0.42). After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10) still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02). Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance)
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Open AccessArticle High Dietary Fat Intake during Lactation Promotes the Development of Social Stress-Induced Obesity in the Offspring of Mice
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5916-5932; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075257
Received: 9 April 2015 / Revised: 7 July 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2452 | PDF Full-text (535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined how a maternal high-fat diet (HD) during lactation and exposure of offspring to isolation stress influence the susceptibility of offspring to the development of obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a commercial diet (CD) during pregnancy and a CD or HD
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This study examined how a maternal high-fat diet (HD) during lactation and exposure of offspring to isolation stress influence the susceptibility of offspring to the development of obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a commercial diet (CD) during pregnancy and a CD or HD during lactation. Male offspring were weaned at three weeks of age, fed a CD until seven weeks of age, and fed a CD or HD until 11 weeks of age. Offspring were housed alone (isolation stress) or at six per cage (ordinary circumstances). Thus, offspring were assigned to one of eight groups: dams fed a CD or HD during lactation and offspring fed a CD or HD and housed under ordinary circumstances or isolation stress. Serum corticosterone level was significantly elevated by isolation stress. High-fat feeding of offspring reduced their serum corticosterone level, which was significantly elevated by a maternal HD. A maternal HD and isolation stress had combined effects in elevating the serum corticosterone level. These findings suggest that a maternal HD during lactation enhances the stress sensitivity of offspring. White adipose tissue weights were significantly increased by a maternal HD and isolation stress and by their combination. In addition, significant adipocyte hypertrophy was induced by a maternal HD and isolation stress and exacerbated by their combination. Thus, a maternal HD and isolation stress promote visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte hypertrophy, accelerating the progression of obesity through their combined effects. The mechanism may involve enhanced fatty acid synthesis and lipid influx from blood into adipose tissue. These findings demonstrate that a maternal HD during lactation may increase the susceptibility of offspring to the development of stress-induced obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pregnancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Lactofermented Beetroot Juice Alone or with N-nitroso-N-methylurea on Selected Metabolic Parameters, Composition of the Microbiota Adhering to the Gut Epithelium and Antioxidant Status of Rats
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5905-5915; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075260
Received: 5 May 2015 / Revised: 29 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 16 July 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2245 | PDF Full-text (161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An objective of this work was to assess the biological activity of beetroot juice (Chrobry variety, Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris), which was lactofermented by probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920. The oxidative status of blood serum, kidneys, and
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An objective of this work was to assess the biological activity of beetroot juice (Chrobry variety, Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris), which was lactofermented by probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920. The oxidative status of blood serum, kidneys, and liver of rats consuming the fermented beetroot juice were determined. The experimental rats were divided into four groups on diet type: Basal diet, basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice, basal diet and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, and basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment. Mutagen N-nitroso-N-methylurea, which was added to diet in order to induce aberrant oxidative and biochemical processes and disadvantageous changes in the count and metabolic activity of the gut epithelium microbiota. The nutritional in vivo study showed that supplementing the diet of the rats with the lactofermented beetroot juice reduced the level of ammonia by 17% in the group treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea. Furthermore, the positive modulation of the gut microflora and its metabolic activity was observed in groups of rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fermented beetroot juice. A concomitant decrease in the b-glucuronidase activity was a consequence of the gut epithelium microbiota modulation. The antioxidant capacity of blood serum aqueous fraction was increased by about 69% in the group of rats treated N-nitroso-N-methylurea mixed with the fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea versus to the N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, whereas the antioxidant parameters of the blood serum lipid fraction, kidneys, and liver remained unchanged. Full article
Open AccessArticle Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5889-5904; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075258
Received: 13 May 2015 / Revised: 23 June 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 16 July 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2288 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sedentariness (Sed) in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years). Sedentariness
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The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sedentariness (Sed) in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years). Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002) and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002). Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04), while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13), biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07), media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08) and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03) and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04) diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25), playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20) and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08) were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented. Full article
Open AccessArticle Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5868-5888; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075256
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 5 July 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 16 July 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2645 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure,
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Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): −0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance)
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Open AccessArticle Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5850-5867; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075254
Received: 28 March 2015 / Revised: 2 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 16 July 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3852 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We
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Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either <10% or >10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5834-5849; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075253
Received: 25 May 2015 / Revised: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3773 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an
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Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC); the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.08) and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.08). The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02–1.09) and 1.17 (1.25–1.18), respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Urinary Sugars—A Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5816-5833; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075255
Received: 24 April 2015 / Revised: 23 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2598 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends
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Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Fruit, Vegetable and Dietary Carotenoid Intakes Explain Variation in Skin-Color in Young Caucasian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5800-5815; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075251
Received: 24 April 2015 / Revised: 22 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3803 | PDF Full-text (593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fruit and vegetables contain carotenoid pigments, which accumulate in human skin, contributing to its yellowness. This effect has a beneficial impact on appearance. The aim was to evaluate associations between diet (fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes) and skin color in young
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Fruit and vegetables contain carotenoid pigments, which accumulate in human skin, contributing to its yellowness. This effect has a beneficial impact on appearance. The aim was to evaluate associations between diet (fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes) and skin color in young women. Ninety-one Caucasian women (Median and Interquartile Range (IQR) age 22.1 (18.1–29.1) years, BMI 22.9 (18.5–31.9) kg/m2) were recruited from the Hunter region (Australia). Fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Skin color was measured at nine body locations (sun exposed and unexposed sites) using spectrophotometry. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between fruit and vegetable intakes and skin yellowness adjusting for known confounders. Higher combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 0.8, p = 0.017) were associated with higher overall skin yellowness values. Higher fruit combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 1.0, p = 0.004) were associated with increased unexposed skin yellowness. Combined fruit and vegetables plus dietary carotenoid intakes contribute to skin yellowness in young Caucasian women. Evaluation of interventions using improvements in appearance as an incentive for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in young women is warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Peptides-Derived from Thai Rice Bran Improves Endothelial Function in 2K-1C Renovascular Hypertensive Rats
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5783-5799; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075252
Received: 11 June 2015 / Revised: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2799 | PDF Full-text (1807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, a number of studies have investigated complementary medical approaches to the treatment of hypertension using dietary supplements. Rice bran protein hydrolysates extracted from rice is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The present study aimed to investigate the vasorelaxation and
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In recent years, a number of studies have investigated complementary medical approaches to the treatment of hypertension using dietary supplements. Rice bran protein hydrolysates extracted from rice is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The present study aimed to investigate the vasorelaxation and antihypertensive effects of peptides-derived from rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in a rat model of two kidney-one clip (2K-1C) renovascular hypertension. 2K-1C hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by placing a silver clip around the left renal artery, whereas sham-operated rats were served as controls. 2K-1C and sham-operated rats were intragastrically administered with RBP (50 mg kg−1 or 100 mg kg−1) or distilled water continuously for six weeks. We observed that RBP augmented endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in all animals. Administration of RBP to 2K-1C rats significantly reduced blood pressure and decreased peripheral vascular resistance compared to the sham operated controls (p < 0.05). Restoration of normal endothelial function and blood pressure was associated with reduced plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), decreased superoxide formation, reduced plasma malondialdehyde and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite (p < 0.05). Up-regulation of eNOS protein and down-regulation of p47phox protein were found in 2K-1C hypertensive rats-treated with RBP. Our results suggest that RBP possesses antihypertensive properties which are mainly due to the inhibition of ACE, and its vasodilatory and antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Ferulic Acid: A Hope for Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy from Plants
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5764-5782; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075246
Received: 22 June 2015 / Revised: 26 June 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 3667 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of extracellular amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillar tangles, associated with loss of neurons in the brain and consequent learning and memory deficits. Aβ is the major component of the senile plaques
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of extracellular amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillar tangles, associated with loss of neurons in the brain and consequent learning and memory deficits. Aβ is the major component of the senile plaques and is believed to play a central role in the development and progress of AD both in oligomer and fibril forms. Inhibition of the formation of Aβ fibrils as well as the destabilization of preformed Aβ in the Central Nervous System (CNS) would be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. Moreover, a large number of studies indicate that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in AD and their suppression or reduction via antioxidant use could be a promising preventive or therapeutic intervention for AD patients. Many antioxidant compounds have been demonstrated to protect the brain from Aβ neurotoxicity. Ferulic acid (FA) is an antioxidant naturally present in plant cell walls with anti-inflammatory activities and it is able to act as a free radical scavenger. Here we present the role of FA as inhibitor or disaggregating agent of amyloid structures as well as its effects on biological models. Full article
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Open AccessReview Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5733-5763; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075249
Received: 12 May 2015 / Revised: 26 June 2015 / Accepted: 30 June 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 6030 | PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is
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Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game seems to have the greatest impact on intermittent sports performance towards the end of the game. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5712-5732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075250
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 3 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4006 | PDF Full-text (478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise
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Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p < 0.05). In a follow-up, randomised, controlled trial, 24 active women completed three trials in a balanced, cross-over design. At 0815 h participants completed baseline cognitive tasks, mood and appetite visual analogue scales (VAS) and were administered a cereal breakfast (providing 118 or 236 kcal) or no breakfast. After 45 min, they completed a 30 min run at 65% heart rate reserve (HRR). Parameters were re-assessed immediately after exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h), immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p < 0.05, d > 0.40), though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37) and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p < 0.05, d > 0.038). Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p < 0.05, d > 0.43). These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance)
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Open AccessReview Association between Breastfeeding and Endometrial Cancer Risk: Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5697-5711; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075248
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2532 | PDF Full-text (722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Quantification of the association between breastfeeding and risk of endometrial cancer is still conflicting. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer risk. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge through
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Quantification of the association between breastfeeding and risk of endometrial cancer is still conflicting. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer risk. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge through April 2015. A random effect model was used to combine the data for analysis. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Dose-response relationships were assessed by restricted cubic spline and variance-weighted least squares regression analysis. Fourteen articles involving 5158 endometrial cancer cases and 706,946 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that breastfeeding significantly reduced the risk of endometrial cancer (summary relative risk (RR): 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62–0.96, I2: 63.0%), especially in North America (summary RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79–0.95). A linear dose-response relationship was found, with the risk of endometrial cancer decreased by 2% for every one-month increase in the duration of breastfeeding (summary RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97–0.99). Our analysis suggested that breastfeeding, particularly a longer duration of breastfeeding, was inversely associated with the risk of endometrial cancer, especially in North America, but not in Europe and Asia, probably due to the small number of cases included. Due to this limitation, further studies originating in other countries are required to assess the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Associations between Blood Zinc Concentrations and Sleep Quality in Childhood: A Cohort Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5684-5696; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075247
Received: 1 May 2015 / Revised: 17 June 2015 / Accepted: 23 June 2015 / Published: 13 July 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2543 | PDF Full-text (140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Little evidence is available regarding the relationship between zinc and sleep in school children. The present study aimed to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between blood zinc concentrations and sleep quality throughout childhood. A total of 1295 children from the Jintan Child
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Little evidence is available regarding the relationship between zinc and sleep in school children. The present study aimed to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between blood zinc concentrations and sleep quality throughout childhood. A total of 1295 children from the Jintan Child Cohort in China were included in this study. Venous blood sample of zinc and subjective sleep data were collected when the children were at preschool age (3–5 years old) and early adolescence (11–15 years old). Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the odds of the sleep quality/subdomain being at a greater impairment level associated with 1 unit increase in log zinc concentration. Cross-sectional analyses showed negative correlation of blood zinc concentrations with insufficient sleep duration (OR = 0.432, p = 0.002), sleep disturbances (OR = 0.454, p = 0.009) and poor sleep quality (OR = 0.559, p = 0.049) in adolescence, but no association at preschool age (p > 0.05). Longitudinal analyses indicated that blood zinc concentrations at preschool age predict poor sleep efficiency (OR = 0.186, p = 0.000) and poor sleep quality (OR = 0.358, p = 0.020) in adolescence. Our findings suggest that sufficient zinc concentration is associated with good sleep quality, dependent on the developmental stage in childhood. Future interventional research is warranted to examine the short and long-term effect of zinc status on sleep heath. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zinc and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Dietary and Plasma Magnesium Statuses Depend on Dietary Quality for a Reduction in the Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Older Adults
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5664-5683; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075244
Received: 26 February 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 1 July 2015 / Published: 13 July 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2176 | PDF Full-text (343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The association between dietary or plasma magnesium (Mg) with diabetes incidence and with mortality in free-living elderly was investigated. A total of 1400 participants from the Taiwanese Nutrition Survey, aged ≥ 65 years, and diabetes-free from the 1999–2000 were assessed. The dietary intake
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The association between dietary or plasma magnesium (Mg) with diabetes incidence and with mortality in free-living elderly was investigated. A total of 1400 participants from the Taiwanese Nutrition Survey, aged ≥ 65 years, and diabetes-free from the 1999–2000 were assessed. The dietary intake and plasma Mg concentration were obtained through 24h dietary recall and health examination at baseline. Participants were classified by quartiles (Q) of dietary Mg or by the plasma Mg normal range (0.75–0.95 mmol/L). Dietary diversity score (DDS, range 1–6) represented the dietary quality. During 8 and 10 years, 231 incident diabetes cases and 475 deaths were identified. Cox’s proportional-hazards regression was used to evaluate the association between Mg and health outcomes. The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for death in Q2 and Q3 of Mg intakes with DDS > 4 were 0.57 (0.44–0.74) and 0.59 (0.39–0.88), respectively, compared with the lowest intake and DDS ≤ 4 participants. Participants with normal and high plasma Mg in conjunction with high DDS had relative risks of 0.58 (0.37–0.89) and 0.46 (0.25–0.85) in mortality compared with low plasma Mg and lower DDS. Optimal dietary Mg intake and plasma Mg depend on dietary quality to reduce the mortality risk in older adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Green Tea, Intermittent Sprinting Exercise, and Fat Oxidation
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5646-5663; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075245
Received: 21 April 2015 / Revised: 11 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 13 July 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4412 | PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fat oxidation has been shown to increase after short term green tea extract (GTE) ingestion and after one bout of intermittent sprinting exercise (ISE). Whether combining the two will result in greater fat oxidation after ISE is undetermined. The aim of the current
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Fat oxidation has been shown to increase after short term green tea extract (GTE) ingestion and after one bout of intermittent sprinting exercise (ISE). Whether combining the two will result in greater fat oxidation after ISE is undetermined. The aim of the current study was to investigate the combined effect of short term GTE and a single session of ISE upon post-exercise fat oxidation. Fourteen women consumed three GTE or placebo capsules the day before and one capsule 90 min before a 20-min ISE cycling protocol followed by 1 h of resting recovery. Fat oxidation was calculated using indirect calorimetry. There was a significant increase in fat oxidation post-exercise compared to at rest in the placebo condition (p < 0.01). After GTE ingestion, however, at rest and post-exercise, fat oxidation was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than that after placebo. Plasma glycerol levels at rest and 15 min during post-exercise were significantly higher (p < 0.05) after GTE consumption compared to placebo. Compared to placebo, plasma catecholamines increased significantly after GTE consumption and 20 min after ISE (p < 0.05). Acute GTE ingestion significantly increased fat oxidation under resting and post-exercise conditions when compared to placebo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids—Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5628-5645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075241
Received: 18 May 2015 / Revised: 24 June 2015 / Accepted: 1 July 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3852 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) vary from eating oily fish (“once to twice per week”) to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (“250–500 mg per day”).
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The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) vary from eating oily fish (“once to twice per week”) to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (“250–500 mg per day”). It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment), representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment), representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA), for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) + DHA) was towards catabolism (β-oxidation) accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose), compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose). Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose), than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose). These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Pregnancy versus Maternal and Infant Body Composition
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5615-5627; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075243
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 24 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2019 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are to a large extent unknown. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e., glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance),
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Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are to a large extent unknown. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e., glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), hemoglobin A1c and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1), and related these variables to the body composition of their infants. Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32. HOMA-IR was positively related to fat mass index and fat mass (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.001) of the women. Maternal glucose and HOMA-IR values were positively (p ≤ 0.006) associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (p = 0.001) associated, with infant fat mass. HOMA-IR was positively associated with fat mass of daughters (p < 0.001), but not of sons (p = 0.65) (Sex-interaction: p = 0.042). In conclusion, glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggest that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by maternal insulin resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase and Triacylglycerol Intestinal Absorption by a Pinhão Coat (Araucaria angustifolia) Extract Rich in Condensed Tannin
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5601-5614; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075242
Received: 28 April 2015 / Revised: 27 May 2015 / Accepted: 30 June 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2309 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of the present work was to characterize the possible inhibition of pancreatic lipase by a tannin-rich extract obtained from the pinhão (Araucaria angustifolia seed) coat, based on the previous observation that this preparation inhibits α-amylases. Kinetic measurements of pancreatic lipase
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The purpose of the present work was to characterize the possible inhibition of pancreatic lipase by a tannin-rich extract obtained from the pinhão (Araucaria angustifolia seed) coat, based on the previous observation that this preparation inhibits α-amylases. Kinetic measurements of pancreatic lipase revealed that the pinhão coat tannin is an effective inhibitor. Inhibition was of the parabolic non-competitive type. The inhibition constants, \({\overline{K}}_{i1} \) and \({\overline{K}}_{i2} \), were equal to 332.7 ± 146.1 µg/mL and 321.2 \(\pm\) 93.0 µg/mL, respectively, corresponding roughly to the inhibitor concentration producing 50. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5586-5600; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075240
Received: 18 April 2015 / Revised: 23 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3167 | PDF Full-text (528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food
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In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enteral Immunomodulatory Diet (Omega-3 Fatty Acid, γ-Linolenic Acid and Antioxidant Supplementation) for Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5572-5585; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075239
Received: 15 May 2015 / Revised: 17 June 2015 / Accepted: 23 June 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3292 | PDF Full-text (375 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Enteral immunomodulatory nutrition is considered as a promising therapy for the treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). However, there are still some divergences, and it is unclear whether this treatment should be recommended for patients with ALI/ARDS. Therefore,
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Enteral immunomodulatory nutrition is considered as a promising therapy for the treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). However, there are still some divergences, and it is unclear whether this treatment should be recommended for patients with ALI/ARDS. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of an enteral immunomodulatory diet on the clinical outcomes of ALI/ARDS patients. Methods: We retrieved potentially relevant clinical trials though electronic databases. All trials of enteral immunomodulatory diet for ALI/ARDS were included. Analyses of the overall all-cause mortality, 28-day ventilator-free days and 28-day intensive care unit (ICU) free days were conducted. Results: In total six controlled trials were evaluated. The pooled results did not show a significant reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality (M-H RR (the overall Mantel-Haenszel relative risk), 0.81 (95% CI, 0.50–1.31); p = 0.38; 6 trials, n = 717) in ALI/ARDS patients treated with the immunomodulatory diet. This treatment also did not extend the ventilator-free days and ICU-free days. However, patients with high mortality might benefit from this treatment. Conclusions: The enteral immunomodulatory diet could not reduce the severity of the patients with ALI/ARDS. Whereas, for ALI/ARDS patients with high mortality, this treatment might reduce the all-cause mortality, but its use should be treated with discretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Enteral Nutrition) Printed Edition available
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