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Nutrients, Volume 7, Issue 5 (May 2015), Pages 3067-3948

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Open AccessReview The Subcellular Location of Selenoproteins and the Impact on Their Function
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3938-3948; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053938
Received: 8 April 2015 / Revised: 14 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2399 | PDF Full-text (120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most human selenium containing proteins contain selenium in the form of the amino acid selenocysteine, which is encoded in the corresponding mRNA as a UGA codon. Only a few non-selenocysteine containing selenoproteins are present and the nature of the association with selenium is
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Most human selenium containing proteins contain selenium in the form of the amino acid selenocysteine, which is encoded in the corresponding mRNA as a UGA codon. Only a few non-selenocysteine containing selenoproteins are present and the nature of the association with selenium is not well understood. This review focuses on two selenocysteine-containing proteins that are members of the glutathione peroxidase family, GPx-1 and GPx-4, and the selenium-associated protein referred to as Selenium Binding Protein 1. Each of these proteins have been described to reside in two or more cellular compartments, and in the case of GPx-1 and SBP1, interact with each other. The enzymatic activity of GPx-1 and GPx-4 have been well described, but it is less clear how their cellular location impacts the health related phenotypes associated with activities, while no catalytic function is assigned to SBP1. The distribution of these proteins is presented as is the possible consequences of that compartmentalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Reviewing the Effects of l-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3914-3937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053914
Received: 27 March 2015 / Revised: 30 April 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3975 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review
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Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Gangliosides in Neurodevelopment
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3891-3913; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053891
Received: 10 April 2015 / Revised: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2735 | PDF Full-text (547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gangliosides are important components of neuronal cell membranes and it is widely accepted that they play a critical role in neuronal and brain development. They are functionally involved in neurotransmission and are thought to support the formation and stabilization of functional synapses and
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Gangliosides are important components of neuronal cell membranes and it is widely accepted that they play a critical role in neuronal and brain development. They are functionally involved in neurotransmission and are thought to support the formation and stabilization of functional synapses and neural circuits required as the structural basis of memory and learning. Available evidence, as reviewed herein, suggests that dietary gangliosides may impact positively on cognitive functions, particularly in the early postnatal period when the brain is still growing. Further, new evidence suggests that the mechanism of action may be through an effect on the neuroplasticity of the brain, mediated through enhanced synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
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Open AccessArticle Fructose:Glucose Ratios—A Study of Sugar Self-Administration and Associated Neural and Physiological Responses in the Rat
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3869-3890; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053869
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 21 April 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3679 | PDF Full-text (1029 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study explored whether different ratios of fructose (F) and glucose (G) in sugar can engender significant differences in self-administration and associated neurobiological and physiological responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, animals self-administered pellets containing 55% F + 45% G or
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This study explored whether different ratios of fructose (F) and glucose (G) in sugar can engender significant differences in self-administration and associated neurobiological and physiological responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, animals self-administered pellets containing 55% F + 45% G or 30% F + 70% G, and Fos immunoreactivity was assessed in hypothalamic regions regulating food intake and reward. In Experiment 2, rats self-administered solutions of 55% F + 42% G (high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)), 50% F + 50% G (sucrose) or saccharin, and mRNA of the dopamine 2 (D2R) and mu-opioid (MOR) receptor genes were assessed in striatal regions involved in addictive behaviors. Finally, in Experiment 3, rats self-administered HFCS and sucrose in their home cages, and hepatic fatty acids were quantified. It was found that higher fructose ratios engendered lower self-administration, lower Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus/arcuate nucleus, reduced D2R and increased MOR mRNA in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core, respectively, as well as elevated omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. These data indicate that a higher ratio of fructose may enhance the reinforcing effects of sugar and possibly lead to neurobiological and physiological alterations associated with addictive and metabolic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Addiction)
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Open AccessReview Multiple-Micronutrient Fortified Non-Dairy Beverage Interventions Reduce the Risk of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in School-Aged Children in Low-Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (i–iv)
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3847-3868; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053847
Received: 26 February 2015 / Revised: 24 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2505 | PDF Full-text (768 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) fortification of beverages may be an effective option to deliver micronutrients to vulnerable populations. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the nutritional impacts of MMN fortified beverages in the context of low-middle income countries. A
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Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) fortification of beverages may be an effective option to deliver micronutrients to vulnerable populations. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the nutritional impacts of MMN fortified beverages in the context of low-middle income countries. A systematic search of published literature yielded 1022 citations, of which 10 randomized controlled trials (nine in school-aged children and one in pregnant women) met inclusion criteria. Results of school-aged children were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to iso-caloric controls, children who received MMN fortified beverages for 8 weeks to 6 months showed significant improvements in hemoglobin (+2.76 g/L, 95% CI [1.19, 4.33], p = 0.004; 8 studies) and serum ferritin (+15.42 pmol/L, [5.73, 25.12], p = 0.007; 8 studies); and reduced risk of anemia (RR 0.58 [0.29, 0.88], p = 0.005; 6 studies), iron deficiency (RR 0.34 [0.21, 0.55], p = 0.002; 7 studies), and iron deficiency anemia (RR 0.17 [0.06, 0.53], p = 0.02; 3 studies). MMN fortified beverage interventions could have major programmatic implications for reducing the burden of anemia and iron deficiency in school-aged children in low-middle income countries. Additional research is needed to investigate effects on other biochemical outcomes and population subgroups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10–17 Year Old Adolescents
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3828-3846; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053828
Received: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2197 | PDF Full-text (436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been
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Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
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Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Graves’ Disease: A Meta-Analysis Update
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3813-3827; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053813
Received: 18 April 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2612 | PDF Full-text (1444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The association between vitamin D levels and Graves’ disease is not well studied. This update review aims to further analyze the relationship in order to provide an actual view of estimating the risk. We searched for the publications on vitamin D and Graves’
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The association between vitamin D levels and Graves’ disease is not well studied. This update review aims to further analyze the relationship in order to provide an actual view of estimating the risk. We searched for the publications on vitamin D and Graves’ disease in English or Chinese on PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biology Medical and Wanfang databases. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for the vitamin D levels. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were calculated for vitamin D deficiency. We also performed sensitivity analysis and meta-regression. Combining effect sizes from 26 studies for Graves’ disease as an outcome found a pooled effect of SMD = −0.77 (95% CI: −1.12, −0.42; p < 0.001) favoring the low vitamin D level by the random effect analysis. The meta-regression found assay method had the definite influence on heterogeneity (p = 0.048). The patients with Graves’ disease were more likely to be deficient in vitamin D compared to the controls (OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.31, 3.81) with a high heterogeneity (I2 = 84.1%, p < 0.001). We further confirmed that low vitamin D status may increase the risk of Graves’ disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improved Blood Biomarkers but No Cognitive Effects from 16 Weeks of Multivitamin Supplementation in Healthy Older Adults
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3796-3812; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053796
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 13 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2494 | PDF Full-text (676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Supplementation with vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients may be beneficial for cognition, especially in older adults. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of multivitamin supplementation in older adults on cognitive function and associated blood biomarkers. In a randomised, double blind,
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Supplementation with vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients may be beneficial for cognition, especially in older adults. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of multivitamin supplementation in older adults on cognitive function and associated blood biomarkers. In a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy women (n = 68) and men (n = 48) aged 55–65 years were supplemented daily for 16 weeks with women’s and men’s formula multivitamin supplements. Assessments at baseline and post-supplementation included computerised cognitive tasks and blood biomarkers relevant to cognitive aging. No cognitive improvements were observed after supplementation with either formula; however, several significant improvements were observed in blood biomarkers including increased levels of vitamins B6 and B12 in women and men; reduced C-reactive protein in women; reduced homocysteine and marginally reduced oxidative stress in men; as well as improvements to the lipid profile in men. In healthy older people, multivitamin supplementation improved a number of blood biomarkers that are relevant to cognition, but these biomarker changes were not accompanied by improved cognitive function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
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Open AccessArticle Oral Zinc Supplementation Reduces the Erythropoietin Responsiveness Index in Patients on Hemodialysis
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3783-3795; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053783
Received: 4 April 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2900 | PDF Full-text (531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: In hemodialysis (HD) patients, zinc depletion caused by inadequate intake, malabsorption, and removal by HD treatment leads to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) hyporesponsiveness. This study investigated the effects of zinc supplementation in HD patients with zinc deficiency on changes in the erythropoietin responsiveness
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Background: In hemodialysis (HD) patients, zinc depletion caused by inadequate intake, malabsorption, and removal by HD treatment leads to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) hyporesponsiveness. This study investigated the effects of zinc supplementation in HD patients with zinc deficiency on changes in the erythropoietin responsiveness index (ERI). Methods: Patients on HD with low serum zinc levels (<65 μg/dL) were randomly assigned to two groups: The polaprezinc group (who received daily polaprezinc, containing 34 mg/day of zinc) (n = 35) and the control group (no supplementation) (n = 35) for 12 months. All the 70 patients had been taking epoetin alpha as treatment for renal anemia. ERI was measured with the following equation: Weekly ESA dose (units)/dry weight (kg)/hemoglobin (g/dL). Results: There were no significant changes in hemoglobin levels within groups or between the control and polaprezinc groups during the study period. Although reticulocyte counts were increased immediately after zinc supplementation, this change was transient. Serum zinc levels were significantly increased and serum copper levels were significantly decreased in the polaprezinc group after three months; this persisted throughout the study period. Although there was no significant change in the serum iron or transferrin saturation levels in the polaprezinc group during the study period, serum ferritin levels significantly decreased following polaprezinc treatment. Further, in the polaprezinc group, ESA dosage and ERI were significantly decreased at 10 months and nine months, respectively, as compared with the baseline value. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that the change in the serum zinc level was an independent predictor of lowered ERI. Conclusions: Zinc supplementation reduces ERI in patients undergoing HD and may be a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with renal anemia and low serum zinc levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hypolipidemic Effects and Safety of Lactobacillus Reuteri 263 in a Hamster Model of Hyperlipidemia
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3767-3782; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053767
Received: 11 March 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2596 | PDF Full-text (651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri 263 (Lr263) on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD)). Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided
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We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri 263 (Lr263) on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD)). Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups: normal (n = 8), standard diet (control), and experimental (n = 32), a HCD. After a two-week induction followed by a six-week supplementation with Lr263, the 32 hyperlipidemic hamsters were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) to receive vehicle or Lr263 by oral gavage at 2.1, 4.2, or 10.5 × 109 cells/kg/day for 6 weeks, designated the HCD, 1X, 2X and 5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of Lr263 supplementation were evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. Lr263 supplementation dose dependently increased serum HDL-C level and decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. In addition, Lr263 supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. Lr263 could be a potential agent with a hypolipidemic pharmacological effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Leucine Supplementation on Exercise Training Induced Anti-Cardiac Remodeling Effect in Heart Failure Mice
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3751-3766; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053751
Received: 5 February 2015 / Revised: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2274 | PDF Full-text (462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leucine supplementation potentiates the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) on skeletal muscle; however, its potential effects associated with AET on cardiac muscle have not been clarified yet. We tested whether leucine supplementation would potentiate the anti-cardiac remodeling effect of AET in a
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Leucine supplementation potentiates the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) on skeletal muscle; however, its potential effects associated with AET on cardiac muscle have not been clarified yet. We tested whether leucine supplementation would potentiate the anti-cardiac remodeling effect of AET in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice (α2A2CARKO). Mice were assigned to five groups: wild type mice treated with placebo and sedentary (WT, n = 11), α2A2CARKO treated with placebo and sedentary (KO, n = 9), α2A2CARKO treated with leucine and sedentary (KOL, n = 11), α2A2CARKO treated with placebo and AET (KOT, n = 12) or α2A2CARKO treated with leucine and AET (KOLT, n = 12). AET consisted of four weeks on a treadmill with 60 min sessions (six days/week, 60% of maximal speed) and administration by gavage of leucine (1.35 g/kg/day) or placebo (distilled water). The AET significantly improved exercise capacity, fractional shortening and re-established cardiomyocytes’ diameter and collagen fraction in KOT. Additionally, AET significantly prevented the proteasome hyperactivity, increased misfolded proteins and HSP27 expression. Isolated leucine supplementation displayed no effect on cardiac function and structure (KOL), however, when associated with AET (KOLT), it increased exercise tolerance to a higher degree than isolated AET (KOT) despite no additional effects on AET induced anti-cardiac remodeling. Our results provide evidence for the modest impact of leucine supplementation on cardiac structure and function in exercised heart failure mice. Leucine supplementation potentiated AET effects on exercise tolerance, which might be related to its recognized impact on skeletal muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle Carbohydrate Electrolyte Solutions Enhance Endurance Capacity in Active Females
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3739-3750; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053739
Received: 6 February 2015 / Revised: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2188 | PDF Full-text (510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) in active females during a prolonged session of submaximal running to exhaustion. Eight healthy active females volunteered to perform a session of open-ended running to
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) in active females during a prolonged session of submaximal running to exhaustion. Eight healthy active females volunteered to perform a session of open-ended running to exhaustion at 70% of their maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle on two occasions. During each run, the subjects consumed either 3mL·kg−1 body mass of a 6% CES or a placebo drink (PL) every 20 min during exercise. The trials were administered in a randomized double-blind, cross-over design. During the run, the subjects ingested similar volumes of fluid in two trials (CES: 644 ± 75 mL vs. PL: 593 ± 66 mL, p > 0.05). The time to exhaustion was 16% longer during the CES trial (106.2 ± 9.4 min) than during the PL trial (91.6 ± 5.9 min) (p < 0.05). At 45 min during exercise, the plasma glucose concentration in the CES trial was higher than that in PL trial. No differences were observed in the plasma lactate level, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, perceived rate of exertion, sensation of thirst, or abdominal discomfort between the two trials (p > 0.05). The results of the present study confirm that CES supplementation improves the moderate intensity endurance capacity of active females during the follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. However, the exogenous oxidation of carbohydrate does not seem to explain the improved capacity after CES supplementation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3724-3738; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053724
Received: 24 February 2015 / Revised: 24 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2378 | PDF Full-text (472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population
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All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001) and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter). Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance)
Open AccessArticle Sex Differences in the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet on LDL Particle Size Distribution and Oxidation
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3705-3723; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053705
Received: 24 March 2015 / Revised: 30 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2391 | PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sex differences have been previously highlighted in the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex differences also exist with regard to LDL particle size distribution and oxidation. Participants were 37 men and 32
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Sex differences have been previously highlighted in the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex differences also exist with regard to LDL particle size distribution and oxidation. Participants were 37 men and 32 premenopausal women (24–53 years) with slightly elevated LDL-C concentrations (3.4–4.9 mmol/L) or total cholesterol/HDL-C ≥5.0. Variables were measured before and after a four-week isoenergetic MedDiet. Sex differences were found in response to the MedDiet for the proportion of medium LDL (255–260 Å) (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.01) and small, dense LDL (sdLDL; <255 Å) (trend; p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.06), men experiencing an increase in the proportion of medium LDL with a concomitant reduction in the proportion of sdLDL, while an opposite trend was observed in women. A sex difference was also noted for estimated cholesterol concentrations among sdLDL (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.03), with only men experiencing a reduction in response to the MedDiet. The MedDiet marginally reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL) concentrations (p = 0.07), with no sex difference. Results suggest that short-term consumption of the MedDiet leads to a favorable redistribution of LDL subclasses from smaller to larger LDL only in men. These results highlight the importance of considering sex issues in cardiovascular benefits of the MedDiet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Predictors of Energy Compensation during Exercise Interventions: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3677-3704; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053677
Received: 10 September 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2553 | PDF Full-text (472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Weight loss from exercise-induced energy deficits is usually less than expected. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate predictors of energy compensation, which is defined as body energy changes (fat mass and fat-free mass) over the total amount of exercise energy
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Weight loss from exercise-induced energy deficits is usually less than expected. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate predictors of energy compensation, which is defined as body energy changes (fat mass and fat-free mass) over the total amount of exercise energy expenditure. A search was conducted in multiple databases without date limits. Of 4745 studies found, 61 were included in this systematic review with a total of 928 subjects. The overall mean energy compensation was 18% ± 93%. The analyses indicated that 48% of the variance of energy compensation is explained by the interaction between initial fat mass, age and duration of exercise interventions. Sex, frequency, intensity and dose of exercise energy expenditure were not significant predictors of energy compensation. The fitted model suggested that for a shorter study duration, lower energy compensation was observed in younger individuals with higher initial fat mass (FM). In contrast, higher energy compensation was noted for younger individuals with lower initial FM. From 25 weeks onward, energy compensation was no longer different for these predictors. For studies of longer duration (about 80 weeks), the energy compensation approached 84%. Lower energy compensation occurs with short-term exercise, and a much higher level of energy compensation accompanies long-term exercise interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance)
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Open AccessArticle No Positive Influence of Ingesting Chia Seed Oil on Human Running Performance
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3666-3676; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053666
Received: 3 April 2015 / Revised: 29 April 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2434 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Runners (n = 24) reported to the laboratory in an overnight fasted state at 8:00 am on two occasions separated by at least two weeks. After providing a blood sample at 8:00 am, subjects ingested 0.5 liters flavored water alone or 0.5
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Runners (n = 24) reported to the laboratory in an overnight fasted state at 8:00 am on two occasions separated by at least two weeks. After providing a blood sample at 8:00 am, subjects ingested 0.5 liters flavored water alone or 0.5 liters water with 7 kcal kg−1 chia seed oil (random order), provided another blood sample at 8:30 am, and then started running to exhaustion (~70% VO2max). Additional blood samples were collected immediately post- and 1-h post-exercise. Despite elevations in plasma alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during the chia seed oil (337%) versus water trial (35%) (70.8 ± 8.6, 20.3 ± 1.8 μg mL−1, respectively, p < 0.001), run time to exhaustion did not differ between trials (1.86 ± 0.10, 1.91 ± 0.13 h, p = 0.577, respectively). No trial differences were found for respiratory exchange ratio (RER) (0.92 ± 0.01), oxygen consumption, ventilation, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and plasma glucose and blood lactate. Significant post-run increases were measured for total leukocyte counts, plasma cortisol, and plasma cytokines (Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and Tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α)), with no trial differences. Chia seed oil supplementation compared to water alone in overnight fasted runners before and during prolonged, intensive running caused an elevation in plasma ALA, but did not enhance run time to exhaustion, alter RER, or counter elevations in cortisol and inflammatory outcome measures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3652-3665; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053652
Received: 2 April 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2564 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in
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Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview Selenium and Chronic Diseases: A Nutritional Genomics Perspective
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3621-3651; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053621
Received: 7 April 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3301 | PDF Full-text (573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mechanistic data have revealed a key role for selenium (Se) and selenoproteins in biological pathways known to be altered in multifactorial diseases, such as cellular maintenance, response to oxidative stress and correct protein folding. Although epidemiological studies indicate that low Se intake is
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Mechanistic data have revealed a key role for selenium (Se) and selenoproteins in biological pathways known to be altered in multifactorial diseases, such as cellular maintenance, response to oxidative stress and correct protein folding. Although epidemiological studies indicate that low Se intake is linked to increased risk for various chronic diseases, supplementation trials have given confusing outcomes, suggesting that additional genetic factors could affect the relationship between Se and health. Genetic data support this hypothesis, as risk for several chronic diseases, in particular cancer, was linked to a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) altering Se metabolism, selenoprotein synthesis or activity. Interactions between SNPs in selenoprotein genes, SNPs in related molecular pathways and biomarkers of Se status were found to further modulate the genetic risk carried by the SNPs. Taken together, nutritional genomics approaches uncovered the potential implication of some selenoproteins as well as the influence of complex interactions between genetic variants and Se status in the aetiology of several chronic diseases. This review discusses the results from these genetic associations in the context of selenoprotein functions and epidemiological investigations and emphasises the need to assess in future studies the combined contribution of Se status, environmental stress, and multiple or individual SNPs to disease risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Cross-Continental Comparison of National Food Consumption Survey Methods—A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3587-3620; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053587
Received: 8 January 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2656 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no inventory of methodological aspects
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Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no inventory of methodological aspects across continents is available. The aims of the present review are (1) to develop a framework of key methodological elements related to national food consumption surveys, (2) to create an inventory of these properties of surveys performed in the continents North-America, South-America, Asia and Australasia, and (3) to discuss and compare these methodological properties cross-continentally. A literature search was performed using a fixed set of search terms in different databases. The inventory was completed with all accessible information from all retrieved publications and corresponding authors were requested to provide additional information where missing. Surveys from ten individual countries, originating from four continents are listed in the inventory. The results are presented according to six major aspects of food consumption surveys. The most common dietary intake assessment method used in food consumption surveys worldwide is the 24-HDR (24 h dietary recall), occasionally administered repeatedly, mostly using interview software. Only three countries have incorporated their national food consumption surveys into continuous national health and nutrition examination surveys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Two Sample Comparison
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3569-3586; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053569
Received: 6 February 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2968 | PDF Full-text (369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Comparative analyses of soft drink intakes in samples from the United States and Europe, and assessed intakes in relation to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are currently lacking. We used data collected on cardiovascular health and dietary intakes in
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Comparative analyses of soft drink intakes in samples from the United States and Europe, and assessed intakes in relation to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are currently lacking. We used data collected on cardiovascular health and dietary intakes in participants from two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA in 2001–2006 (n = 803), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX), conducted in 2007–2009 (n = 1323). Odds ratios for MetS were estimated according to type and quantity of soft drink consumption, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors, in both studies. In both studies, individuals who consumed at least one soft drink per day had a higher prevalence of MetS, than non-consumers. This was most evident for consumers of diet soft drinks, consistent across both studies. Diet soft drink intakes were also positively associated with waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose in both studies. Despite quite different consumption patterns of diet versus regular soft drinks in the two studies, findings from both support the notion that diet soft drinks are associated with a higher prevalence of MetS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3557-3568; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053557
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 29 April 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2089 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and
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The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview Redox-Active Selenium Compounds—From Toxicity and Cell Death to Cancer Treatment
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3536-3556; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053536
Received: 28 March 2015 / Revised: 24 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 62 | Viewed by 3355 | PDF Full-text (536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selenium is generally known as an antioxidant due to its presence in selenoproteins as selenocysteine, but it is also toxic. The toxic effects of selenium are, however, strictly concentration and chemical species dependent. One class of selenium compounds is a potent inhibitor of
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Selenium is generally known as an antioxidant due to its presence in selenoproteins as selenocysteine, but it is also toxic. The toxic effects of selenium are, however, strictly concentration and chemical species dependent. One class of selenium compounds is a potent inhibitor of cell growth with remarkable tumor specificity. These redox active compounds are pro-oxidative and highly cytotoxic to tumor cells and are promising candidates to be used in chemotherapy against cancer. Herein we elaborate upon the major forms of dietary selenium compounds, their metabolic pathways, and their antioxidant and pro-oxidant potentials with emphasis on cytotoxic mechanisms. Relative cytotoxicity of inorganic selenite and organic selenocystine compounds to different cancer cells are presented as evidence to our perspective. Furthermore, new novel classes of selenium compounds specifically designed to target tumor cells are presented and the potential of selenium in modern oncology is extensively discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3524-3535; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053524
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2847 | PDF Full-text (488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European
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Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender. Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Impacts of Maternal Nutrition on Vascularity of Nutrient Transferring Tissues during Gestation and Lactation
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3497-3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053497
Received: 26 December 2014 / Revised: 28 March 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2394 | PDF Full-text (182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the demand for food increases with exponential growth in the world population, it is imperative that we understand how to make livestock production as efficient as possible in the face of decreasing available natural resources. Moreover, it is important that livestock are
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As the demand for food increases with exponential growth in the world population, it is imperative that we understand how to make livestock production as efficient as possible in the face of decreasing available natural resources. Moreover, it is important that livestock are able to meet their metabolic demands and supply adequate nutrition to developing offspring both during pregnancy and lactation. Specific nutrient supplementation programs that are designed to offset deficiencies, enhance efficiency, and improve nutrient supply during pregnancy can alter tissue vascular responses, fetal growth, and postnatal offspring outcomes. This review outlines how vascularity in nutrient transferring tissues, namely the maternal gastrointestinal tract, the utero-placental tissue, and the mammary gland, respond to differing nutritional planes and other specific nutrient supplementation regimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pregnancy) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle MiRNA-194 Regulates Palmitic Acid-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 Inflammatory Responses in THP-1 Cells
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3483-3496; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053483
Received: 15 March 2015 / Revised: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2382 | PDF Full-text (1615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is strong evidence to suggest that inflammatory responses link obesity and diseases, and the understanding of obesity-induced inflammatory mechanisms is central to the pathogenesis of diseases such asnonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and atherosclerosis that are modified by obesity. Based on this, anti-inflammatory
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There is strong evidence to suggest that inflammatory responses link obesity and diseases, and the understanding of obesity-induced inflammatory mechanisms is central to the pathogenesis of diseases such asnonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and atherosclerosis that are modified by obesity. Based on this, anti-inflammatory treatments become a potential therapies for obesity-related diseases like NAFLD.A critical role of toll-like receptor (TLR) and its downstream molecules such as tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6(TRAF6) has been documented in inflammatory response induced by fatty acid. TLR pathway regulation provides a new insight to controlling the inflammatory response induced by fatty acid. Taken together, our study was aimed to understand the mechanism of fatty acid-mediated inflammation and look for an effective target which can prevent the inflammatory response induced by obesity. In this study, we used the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid (PA) to activate TLR4 signal pathway in human monocyte cells THP-1 that established an intracellular inflammatory model. Followed with activated TLR4, downstream molecular TRAF6 was upregulated and ultimately induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Based on this model, we also found that PA downregulated miR-194 expression with TLR4 activation. Moreover, our results showed that key signal molecular TRAF6 is a target of miR-194, overexpression of miR-194 directly decreased TRAF6 expression and attenuated the release of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in PA-activated monocyte THP-1. We conclude that miR-194 negatively regulates the TLR4 signal pathway which is activated by PA through directly negative TRAF6 expression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutrient Patterns and Their Association with Socio-Demographic, Lifestyle Factors and Obesity Risk in Rural South African Adolescents
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3464-3482; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053464
Received: 20 March 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 12 May 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2538 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires
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The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ) in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11–15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC) scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI) for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26%) was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21%) by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19%) by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients); and PC4 (13%) by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24); p = 0.02) and PC4 (0.10 (−0.01; 0.21); p = 0.05) scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3449-3463; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053449
Received: 3 April 2015 / Revised: 26 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 11 May 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 9915 | PDF Full-text (257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we
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There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that egg intake would not alter plasma glucose in T2DM patients when compared to oatmeal intake. Our primary endpoints for this clinical intervention were plasma glucose and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6). As secondary endpoints, we evaluated additional parameters of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, oxidative stress and inflammation. Twenty-nine subjects, 35–65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values <9% were recruited and randomly allocated to consume isocaloric breakfasts containing either one egg/day or 40 g of oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks. Following a three-week washout period, subjects were assigned to the alternate breakfast. At the end of each period, we measured all primary and secondary endpoints. Subjects completed four-day dietary recalls and one exercise questionnaire for each breakfast period. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose, our primary endpoint, plasma lipids, lipoprotein size or subfraction concentrations, insulin, HbA1c, apolipoprotein B, oxidized LDL or C-reactive protein. However, after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) (p < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.01), one of our primary endpoints were significantly reduced during the egg period. These results suggest that compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Egg Consumption and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Korean Women: The First Trimester and the Winter Season as Risk Factors for Vitamin D Deficiency
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3427-3448; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053427
Received: 16 February 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 11 May 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2938 | PDF Full-text (306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the vitamin D status of Korean women during pregnancy and assessed the effects of vitamin D deficiency on two pregnancy outcomes; preterm births and the births of small for gestational age. We measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 220 pregnant
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We investigated the vitamin D status of Korean women during pregnancy and assessed the effects of vitamin D deficiency on two pregnancy outcomes; preterm births and the births of small for gestational age. We measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 220 pregnant Korean women who were recruited prospectively and compared these levels with those of 500 healthy non-pregnant women. We analyzed vitamin D status according to patient demographics, season, and obstetrical characteristics; moreover, we also assessed pregnancy outcomes. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency(<20 ng/mL) in pregnant women and healthy non-pregnant women was 77.3% and 79.2%; respectively; and the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) was 28.6% and 7.2%; respectively (p < 0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in the winter (100%) than in the summer (45.5%) in pregnant Korean women. A higher risk of vitamin D deficiency was observed in the first trimester than in the third trimester (adjusted OR 4.3; p < 0.05). No significant association was observed between vitamin D deficiency and any of the pregnancy outcomes examined. Further research focusing on the long-term consequences of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy in Korean women is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pregnancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Correlates of Bone Mineral Density in Individuals Adhering to Lacto-Ovo, Vegan, or Omnivore Diets: A Cross-Sectional Investigation
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3416-3426; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053416
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 13 April 2015 / Published: 11 May 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4054 | PDF Full-text (119 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vegetarian diets are associated with factors that may not support bone health, such as low body mass and low intakes of protein; yet, these diets are alkaline, a factor that favors bone mineral density (BMD). This study compared the correlates of BMD in
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Vegetarian diets are associated with factors that may not support bone health, such as low body mass and low intakes of protein; yet, these diets are alkaline, a factor that favors bone mineral density (BMD). This study compared the correlates of BMD in young, non-obese adults consuming meat-based (n = 27), lacto-ovo vegetarian (n = 27), or vegan (n = 28) diets for ≥1 year. A 24 h diet recall, whole body DXA scan, 24 h urine specimen, and fasting blood sample were collected from participants. BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Protein intake was reduced ~30% in individuals consuming lacto-ovo and vegan diets as compared to those consuming meat-based diets (68 ± 24, 69 ± 29, and 97 ± 47 g/day respectively, p = 0.006); yet dietary protein was only associated with BMD for those following vegan diets. Urinary pH was more alkaline in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups versus omnivores (6.5 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.4, and 6.2 ± 0.4 respectively, p = 0.003); yet urinary pH was associated with BMD in omnivores only. These data suggest that plant-based diets are not detrimental to bone in young adults. Moreover, diet prescriptions for bone health may vary among diet groups: increased fruit and vegetable intake for individuals with high meat intakes and increased plant protein intake for individuals who follow a vegetarian diet plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bone Health)
Open AccessArticle An Organic Khorasan Wheat-Based Replacement Diet Improves Risk Profile of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3401-3415; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053401
Received: 20 November 2014 / Revised: 20 April 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 11 May 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4851 | PDF Full-text (167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Khorasan wheat is an ancient grain with previously reported health benefits in clinically healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to examine whether a replacement diet, thereby substituting all other cereal grains, with products made with organic khorasan wheat could provide additive
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Khorasan wheat is an ancient grain with previously reported health benefits in clinically healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to examine whether a replacement diet, thereby substituting all other cereal grains, with products made with organic khorasan wheat could provide additive protective effects in reducing lipid, oxidative and inflammatory risk factors, in patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) in comparison to a similar replacement diet using products made from organic modern wheat. A randomized double-blinded crossover trial with two intervention phases was conducted on 22 ACS patients (9 F; 13 M). The patients were assigned to consume products (bread, pasta, biscuits and crackers) made either from organic semi-whole khorasan wheat or organic semi-whole control wheat for eight weeks in a random order. On average, patients ingested 62.0 g dry weight (DW) day−1 khorasan or control semolina; and 140.5 g DW day−1 khorasan or control flour, respectively. An eight-week washout period was implemented between the respective interventions. Blood analyses were performed both at the beginning and end of each intervention phase; thereby permitting a comparison of both the khorasan and control intervention phases, respectively, on circulatory risk factors for the same patient. Consumption of products made with khorasan wheat resulted in a significant amelioration in total cholesterol (−6.8%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (−8.1%) glucose (−8%) and insulin (−24.6%) from baseline levels, independently of age, sex, traditional risk factors, medication and diet quality. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipoperoxidation of circulating monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as in the levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha. No significant differences from baseline in the same patients were observed after the conventional control wheat intervention phase. The present results suggest that a replacement diet with cereal products made from organic khorasan wheat provides additional protection in patients with ACS. Circulating cardiovascular risk factors, including lipid parameters, and markers of both oxidative stress and inflammatory status, were reduced, irrespective of the number and combination of medicinal therapies with proven efficacy in secondary prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and CVD)
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