Special Issue "Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Nikos Chatzisarantis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Group for the discovery of fundamental principles of human motivation, School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Australia
Interests: human motivation; promotion of health behaviours
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Physical Activity and Well-Being Research Group, School of Psychology, Curtin University, Bentley WA 6102, Australia
Interests: exercise biomechanics; flexibility; muscle strength; occupational physical activity
Dr. Sarah Hardcastle
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Health Psychology and Behavioural Medicine Research group, School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia, Australia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite empirical and theoretical contributions to a special issue in the Nutrients Journal on “Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective”. The special issue focuses on the investigation and prediction of food choices through approaches that adopt a cognitive, motivational or social psychological analysis of food choice. Manuscripts could focus on healthy eating (or unhealthy eating) or consumption of supplements such as vitamins, minerals, proteins, dietary supplements. Manuscripts that adopt approaches stemming from behavioral economics are also welcomed.

Topics must have a clear focus on food choices or nutrition. Potential topics may include but are not limited to:

  • Social psychological models of food choice and their explanatory or predictive power
  • Interventions that aim to promote healthy eating (or inhibit unhealthy eating such as fatty foods)
  • Automatic or other cognitive processes underpinning food choices
  • Neuro-psychological approaches to food choice
  • The pursuit of healthy eating (or avoidance of unhealthy eating) in the context of conflicting alternatives
  • Decision-making models and heuristics
  • Mis-predictions and mis-choices
  • Motivational approaches to food choice that focus on psychological or psychobiological needs

Prof. Dr. Nikos Chatzisarantis
Dr. Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani
Dr. Sarah Hardcastle
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food choice
  • nutrients
  • cognition
  • motivation
  • decision-making
  • psychological models of food choice

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Theory-Based Education Program to Prevent Overweightness in Primary School Children
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010012 - 04 Jan 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3733
Abstract
The effectiveness of the “Extra Fit!” (EF!) education program in promoting healthy diet and physical activity to prevent and reduce overweightness among primary school children aged 9 to 11 was evaluated. A randomized controlled design was carried out in 45 primary schools ( [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of the “Extra Fit!” (EF!) education program in promoting healthy diet and physical activity to prevent and reduce overweightness among primary school children aged 9 to 11 was evaluated. A randomized controlled design was carried out in 45 primary schools (n = 1112) in the Netherlands, 23 intervention and 22 control schools. The intervention schools received the education program for two successive school years in grades (U.S. system) 4, 5, and 6 (mean 7.6 h during 16 weeks per school per year). The control schools followed their usual curriculum. No positive effects of EF! were found with regard to behavior and anthropometric measures when follow-up measurements were compared to the baseline. However, from baseline to follow-up after one and two school years, the intervention group improved their knowledge score significantly compared to the control group. Moreover, an effect was observed for mean time spent inactively that increased more in the control group than in the intervention group. In conclusion, limited intervention effects were found for the intervention on knowledge and inactivity. To improve the effectiveness of education programs, we advise focusing on parental involvement, attractive lessons to enlarge the acceptability of the program, and multi-component environmental strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Behaviours, Impulsivity and Food Involvement: Identification of Three Consumer Segments
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8036-8057; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095379 - 18 Sep 2015
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4107
Abstract
This study aims to (1) identify consumer segments based on consumers’ impulsivity and level of food involvement, and (2) examine the dietary behaviours of each consumer segment. An Internet-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 530 respondents. The mean age of the participants was [...] Read more.
This study aims to (1) identify consumer segments based on consumers’ impulsivity and level of food involvement, and (2) examine the dietary behaviours of each consumer segment. An Internet-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 530 respondents. The mean age of the participants was 49.2 ± 16.6 years, and 27% were tertiary educated. Two-stage cluster analysis revealed three distinct segments; “impulsive, involved” (33.4%), “rational, health conscious” (39.2%), and “uninvolved” (27.4%). The “impulsive, involved” segment was characterised by higher levels of impulsivity and food involvement (importance of food) compared to the other two segments. This segment also reported significantly more frequent consumption of fast foods, takeaways, convenience meals, salted snacks and use of ready-made sauces and mixes in cooking compared to the “rational, health conscious” consumers. They also reported higher frequency of preparing meals at home, cooking from scratch, using ready-made sauces and mixes in cooking and higher vegetable consumption compared to the “uninvolved” consumers. The findings show the need for customised approaches to the communication and promotion of healthy eating habits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
Open AccessArticle
Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7842-7862; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095370 - 15 Sep 2015
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4735
Abstract
The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived [...] Read more.
The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Explaining Vegetable Consumption among Young Adults: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7633-7650; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095357 - 10 Sep 2015
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 5582
Abstract
Although fruit and vegetable consumption is highly recommended for a healthy and balanced daily diet, several European countries do not meet these recommendations. In Italy, only 45% of young people are consuming at least one portion of vegetables per day. Therefore, this paper [...] Read more.
Although fruit and vegetable consumption is highly recommended for a healthy and balanced daily diet, several European countries do not meet these recommendations. In Italy, only 45% of young people are consuming at least one portion of vegetables per day. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the main determinants of vegetables consumption among young adults to suggest possible intervention strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a samples of Italian students (n = 751), using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as a conceptual framework. A structural equation model (SEM) was developed to test the TPB predictors for vegetable consumption, and the role of background factors (socio-demographic and personal characteristics) in improving the TPB model’s explaining power. Overall, 81% and 68%, respectively, of intentions and behaviour variance is explained by the TPB model. Socio-demographic and personal characteristics were found to influence intentions and behaviour indirectly by their effects on the theory’s more proximal determinants. Interventions should be targeted to improve perceived behavioural control (PBC), attitudes and subjective norms that significantly affect intentions. Tailored interventions for male students, enrolled in courses other than food science, and doing less physical activity may have a larger effect on behavioural change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Menu Planning in Residential Aged Care—The Level of Choice and Quality of Planning of Meals Available to Residents
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7580-7592; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095354 - 09 Sep 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5228
Abstract
Background: Choice of food is an imperative aspect of quality of life for residents in Residential Aged Care Homes (RACHs), where overall choice and control is diminished upon entering a home to receive care. The purpose of this study was to examine the [...] Read more.
Background: Choice of food is an imperative aspect of quality of life for residents in Residential Aged Care Homes (RACHs), where overall choice and control is diminished upon entering a home to receive care. The purpose of this study was to examine the current strategies of menu planning in a range of RACHs in Australia, and whether this facilitated appropriate levels of choice for residents receiving texture modified and general diets. Methods: The study comprised a National Menu Survey using a new survey instrument collecting general information about the RACH and foodservice system, menu information and staffing information (n = 247); a national menu analysis (n = 161) and an observational case study of 36 meal environments. Results: Choice was low for the entire sample, but particularly for those receiving pureed texture modified diets. Evidence of menu planning to facilitate the inclusion of choice and alternatives was limited. Discussion: Regulation and monitoring of the Australian Aged Care Accreditation Standards needs to be strengthened to mandate improvement of the choice and variety offered to residents, particularly those on pureed texture modified diets. Further research on how menu choice and a lack of variety in meals affects the quality of life residents is needed in this context, but current evidence suggests the effect would be detrimental and undermine resident autonomy and nutritional status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
Open AccessArticle
Weak Satiety Responsiveness Is a Reliable Trait Associated with Hedonic Risk Factors for Overeating among Women
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7421-7436; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095345 - 04 Sep 2015
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3720
Abstract
Some individuals exhibit a weak satiety response to food and may be susceptible to overconsumption. The current study identified women showing consistently low or high satiety responses to standardised servings of food across four separate days and compared them on behavioural, psychological and [...] Read more.
Some individuals exhibit a weak satiety response to food and may be susceptible to overconsumption. The current study identified women showing consistently low or high satiety responses to standardised servings of food across four separate days and compared them on behavioural, psychological and physiological risk factors for overeating and future weight gain. In a crossover design, 30 female participants (age: 28.0 ± 10.6; body mass index (BMI): 23.1 ± 3.0) recorded sensations of hunger in the post-prandial period following four graded energy level breakfasts. Satiety quotients were calculated to compare individuals on satiety responsiveness across conditions. Body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), energy intake, food reward and craving, and eating behaviour traits were assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. A distinct low satiety phenotype (LSP) was identified with good consistency across separate study days. These individuals had a higher RMR, greater levels of disinhibition and reported feeling lower control over food cravings. Further, they consumed more energy and exhibited greater wanting for high-fat food. The inverse pattern of characteristics was observed in those exhibiting a consistently high satiety phenotype (HSP). Weak satiety responsiveness is a reliable trait identifiable using the satiety quotient. The LSP was characterised by distinct behavioural and psychological characteristics indicating a risk for overeating, compared to HSP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6550-6566; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085298 - 06 Aug 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4418
Abstract
This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and [...] Read more.
This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
Open AccessArticle
Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5088-5097; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075088 - 24 Jun 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4041
Abstract
Expectations about a food’s satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation [...] Read more.
Expectations about a food’s satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g), a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g), or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload’s satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = −0.61; p = 0.001). The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03). Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Adolescents’ Food Choice and the Place of Plant-Based Foods
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4619-4637; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064619 - 09 Jun 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6105
Abstract
A diet dominated by plant foods, with limited amounts of refined processed foods and animal products conveys substantial health benefits. This study sought to explore adolescents’ attitudes and perceptions towards plant-based foods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents (age 14–15 years) [...] Read more.
A diet dominated by plant foods, with limited amounts of refined processed foods and animal products conveys substantial health benefits. This study sought to explore adolescents’ attitudes and perceptions towards plant-based foods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents (age 14–15 years) (n = 29) attending an inner city school in Yorkshire, UK. Using a grounded theory methodology, data analysis provided four main categories and related concepts revolving around adolescents’ perspectives on plant-based foods: food choice parameters; perceived drivers and benefits of plant-based foods; environmental food cues; barriers to plant-based food choice. In the emergent grounded theory, a clear disconnect between plant-based foods and the parameters that adolescents use to make food choices, is highlighted. Further, key barriers to adolescents adopting a plant-based diet are differentiated and considered with respect to practice and policy. The analysis offers a framework to remodel and re-present plant-based foods. In this way, it is proposed that a closer connection is possible, with consequent shifts in adolescents’ dietary behaviour towards a more plant-based diet and associated health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students’ Plant-based Food Choices
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4426-4437; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064426 - 02 Jun 2015
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 6693
Abstract
With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study’s purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents’ food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes [...] Read more.
With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study’s purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents’ food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad) the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students’ food choice (218,796 transactions) enabled students’ (980 students) selections to be examined. Students’ food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks); intervention (six weeks); and post-intervention (three weeks). Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2%) χ2(2) = 68.1, p < 0.001. Logistic regression modelling also revealed the independent effect of the intervention, with students 2.5 times as likely (p < 0.001) to select the designated food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study’s results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents’ daily food choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10–17 Year Old Adolescents
Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3828-3846; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053828 - 21 May 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3389
Abstract
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been [...] Read more.
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Relationships among Food Label Use, Motivation, and Dietary Quality
Nutrients 2015, 7(2), 1068-1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7021068 - 05 Feb 2015
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 7009
Abstract
Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars. It is important to understand how food label use is [...] Read more.
Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars. It is important to understand how food label use is related to dietary intake. However, prior work is based only on self-reported use of food labels, making it unclear if subjective assessments are biased toward motivational influences. We assessed food label use using both self-reported and objective measures, the stage of change, and dietary quality in a sample of 392 stratified by income. Self-reported food label use was assessed using a questionnaire. Objective use was assessed using a mock shopping task in which participants viewed food labels and decided which foods to purchase. Eye movements were monitored to assess attention to nutrition information on the food labels. Individuals paid attention to nutrition information when selecting foods to buy. Self-reported and objective measures of label use showed some overlap with each other (r = 0.29, p < 0.001), and both predicted dietary quality (p < 0.001 for both). The stage of change diminished the predictive power of subjective (p < 0.09), but not objective (p < 0.01), food label use. These data show both self-reported and objective measures of food label use are positively associated with dietary quality. However, self-reported measures appear to capture a greater motivational component of food label use than do more objective measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Psychometric Properties of Spanish Version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (Tfeq-Sp) and Its Relationship with Some Eating- and Body Image-Related Variables
Nutrients 2014, 6(12), 5619-5635; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6125619 - 04 Dec 2014
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 4370
Abstract
The aims of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-SP), as well as determine its validity by evaluating the relationship of the TFEQ-SP with different parameters related to body mass index, weight [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-SP), as well as determine its validity by evaluating the relationship of the TFEQ-SP with different parameters related to body mass index, weight perception, perception of physical fitness, self-esteem, and food intake, as well as with weight control-related variables. A total of 281 participants (aged 18.38 ± 6.31) were studied. The factor analysis yielded three factors: cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE). The internal consistency of the TFEQ-SP was determined by means of Cronbach’s α coefficient, with values ranging between 0.75 and 0.87. Higher scores on CR were found in women (p < 0.5), overweight/obese participants (p < 0.001), participants with lower self-esteem (p < 0.05), participants who overestimated their weight (p < 0.001), participants who weighed themselves frequently (p < 0.001) and those who were about to go on a diet (p < 0.001). Higher EE scores were found in participants with lower self-esteem scores (p < 0.05), among participants with a poorer perception of their physical fitness (p < 0.01) and when participants were about to diet (p < 0.05). Higher scores on UE were observed in case of poorer perception of physical fitness (p < 0.05). The validation study of the TFEQ-SP meets the requirements for measuring the three different facets of eating behavior: CR, UE, and EE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)

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Open AccessDiscussion
Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4804-4816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064804 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4017
Abstract
It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at [...] Read more.
It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
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