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Nutrients, Volume 2, Issue 7 (July 2010) – 8 articles , Pages 652-780

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101 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Status of Flemish Vegetarians Compared with Non-Vegetarians: A Matched Samples Study
by Peter Deriemaeker, Katrien Alewaeters, Marcel Hebbelinck, Johan Lefevre, Renaat Philippaerts and Peter Clarys
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 770-780; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2070770 - 14 Jul 2010
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 14792
Abstract
The present study compares the nutritional status of vegetarian (V) with non-vegetarian (NV) subjects. A three-day food record and a health questionnaire were completed by 106 V and 106 NV matched for following characteristics: sex, age, BMI, physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol [...] Read more.
The present study compares the nutritional status of vegetarian (V) with non-vegetarian (NV) subjects. A three-day food record and a health questionnaire were completed by 106 V and 106 NV matched for following characteristics: sex, age, BMI, physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Total energy intake was not significantly different (men: V: 2,346 ± 685 kcal/d; NV: 2,628 ± 632 kcal/d; p = 0.078; women: V: 1,991 ± 539 kcal/d; NV: 1,973 ± 592 kcal/d; p = 0.849). Macronutrients intake differed significantly between the V and NV subjects for protein (men: V:12.7 ± 2.3 E%; NV:15.3 ± 4.5 E%; p = 0.003; women: V: 13.2 ± 2.3 E%; NV:16.0 ± 4.0 E%; p < 0.001), fat (men: V: 29.3 ± 8.4 E%; NV: 33.8 ± 5.3 E%; p = 0.010; women: V: 29.7 ± 6.9 E%; NV: 34.7 ± 9.0 E%; p < 0.001), and carbohydrate (men: V: 55.3 ± 10.1 E%; NV: 47.4 ± 6.9 E%; p < 0.001; women: V: 55.1 ± 7.6 E%; NV: 47.2 ± 8.2 E%; p < 0.001). The intake of most minerals was significantly different between the V and the NV subjects. V had a lower sodium intake, higher calcium, zinc, and iron intake compared to the NV subjects. Our results clearly indicate that a vegetarian diet can be adequate to sustain the nutritional demands to at least the same degree as that of omnivores. The intakes of the V subjects were closer to the recommendations for a healthy diet when compared to a group of well matched NV subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Nutrition)
55 KiB  
Article
Human Milk Banking–Facts and Issues to Resolve
by Willemijn E. Corpeleijn, Marijn J. Vermeulen, Ineke Van Vliet, I. Caroline Kruger and Johannes B. Van Goudoever
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 762-769; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2070762 - 13 Jul 2010
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 12796
Abstract
The number of human milk banks is increasing worldwide. Although the beneficial effects of feeding premature infants with their mother’s milk are well documented, less is known about the effects of feeding these infants with pasteurized donor milk. We propose a randomized trial [...] Read more.
The number of human milk banks is increasing worldwide. Although the beneficial effects of feeding premature infants with their mother’s milk are well documented, less is known about the effects of feeding these infants with pasteurized donor milk. We propose a randomized trial comparing the effects of a 100% human milk-based diet (human milk supplemented with a human milk-derived fortifier) and a diet (partially) based on bovine milk. In theory, human milk has a beneficial effect on various aspects of human physiology, most of which become apparent after infancy. We therefore propose an extensive follow-up program that takes this aspect into consideration. Other issues concerning the practice of human milk banks need to be addressed as well as optimization of the feeding strategies for preterm infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition and Metabolism)
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140 KiB  
Article
Fractional Absorption of Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa) and Calcium Carbonate Measured by a Dual Stable-Isotope Method
by Kazuhiro Uenishi, Takuo Fujita, Hiromi Ishida, Yoshio Fujii, Mutsumi Ohue, Hiroshi Kaji, Midori Hirai, Mikio Kakumoto and Steven A. Abrams
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 752-761; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2070752 - 12 Jul 2010
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 13344
Abstract
With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of calcium [...] Read more.
With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3), the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO3 was measured by a dual stable isotope method. 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0), 42Ca-enriched CaCl2 was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24). The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of 44Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of 42Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of 44Ca and 42Ca were corrected by comparing each with 43Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4), was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO3 (14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test). The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO3. The serum 25(OH) vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml), as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO3 and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO3 supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO3 for osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
138 KiB  
Review
Dietary Polyphenols and Obesity
by Mohsen Meydani and Syeda T. Hasan
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 737-751; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2070737 - 8 Jul 2010
Cited by 299 | Viewed by 28912
Abstract
The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, [...] Read more.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
96 KiB  
Review
Lipophilic Compound-Mediated Gene Expression and Implication for Intervention in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Related Diseases: Mini-review
by Yukiko K. Nakamura and Stanley T. Omaye
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 725-736; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2070725 - 7 Jul 2010
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 10305
Abstract
In addition to exhibiting antioxidant properties, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E may modulate gene expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Depending on cellular microenvironments, such modulation reflects either antioxidant or prooxidant outcomes. Although epidemiological/experimental studies have indicated that CLA and vitamin E [...] Read more.
In addition to exhibiting antioxidant properties, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E may modulate gene expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Depending on cellular microenvironments, such modulation reflects either antioxidant or prooxidant outcomes. Although epidemiological/experimental studies have indicated that CLA and vitamin E have health promoting properties, recent findings from clinical trials have been inconclusive. Discrepancies between the results found from prospective studies and recent clinical trials might be attributed to concentration-dependent cellular microenvironment alterations. We give a perspective of possible molecular mechanisms of actions of these lipophilic compounds and their implications for interventions of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
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256 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D and Bone Health; Potential Mechanisms
by Eamon Laird, Mary Ward, Emeir McSorley, J.J. Strain and Julie Wallace
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 693-724; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2070693 - 5 Jul 2010
Cited by 161 | Viewed by 21799
Abstract
Osteoporosis is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and significant economic and health costs. Vitamin D is a secosteriod hormone essential for calcium absorption and bone mineralization which is positively associated with bone mineral density [BMD]. It is well-established that prolonged and severe vitamin [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and significant economic and health costs. Vitamin D is a secosteriod hormone essential for calcium absorption and bone mineralization which is positively associated with bone mineral density [BMD]. It is well-established that prolonged and severe vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Sub-optimal vitamin D status has been reported in many populations but it is a particular concern in older people; thus there is clearly a need for effective strategies to optimise bone health. A number of recent studies have suggested that the role of vitamin D in preventing fractures may be via its mediating effects on muscle function (a defect in muscle function is one of the classical signs of rickets) and inflammation. Studies have demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation can improve muscle strength which in turn contributes to a decrease in incidence of falls, one of the largest contributors to fracture incidence. Osteoporosis is often considered to be an inflammatory condition and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with increased bone metabolism. The immunoregulatory mechanisms of vitamin D may thus modulate the effect of these cytokines on bone health and subsequent fracture risk. Vitamin D, therefore, may influence fracture risk via a number of different mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
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215 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Effect of Prebiotics Administration on Stool Characteristics and Serum Cytokines Dynamics in Very Young Children with Acute Diarrhea
by Nachum Vaisman, Josef Press, Eugene Leibovitz, Güenther Boehm and Vivian Barak
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 683-692; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2070683 - 30 Jun 2010
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 12407
Abstract
We investigated the effect of a mixture of long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and acidic oligosaccharides on the number and consistency of stools and on immune system biomarkers in 104 supplemented and non-supplemented subjects (aged 9–24 months) with acute diarrhea. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of a mixture of long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and acidic oligosaccharides on the number and consistency of stools and on immune system biomarkers in 104 supplemented and non-supplemented subjects (aged 9–24 months) with acute diarrhea. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and sIL-2R cytokine levels were determined. The significant decrease in number of stools and increase in stool consistency in the supplemented group was of little clinical relevance. The only significant change in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was decreased TNF-α levels in the supplemented group. Prebiotic supplementation during acute diarrhea episodes did not influence the clinical course. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition and Metabolism)
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677 KiB  
Review
Health Benefits of Nut Consumption
by Emilio Ros
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 652-682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2070652 - 24 Jun 2010
Cited by 569 | Viewed by 58166
Abstract
Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health [...] Read more.
Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Nutrition)
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