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Precision Nutrition and the Microbiome, Part I: Current State of the Science
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Precision Nutrition and the Microbiome Part II: Potential Opportunities and Pathways to Commercialisation

1
APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, T12 K8AF Cork, Ireland
2
H&H Group, Technical Centre, Global Research and Technology Centre, P61 C996 Cork, Ireland
3
Eurogenetica Ltd., Burnham-on-Sea TA8 1HX, UK
4
APC Microbiome Ireland, Teagasc Food Research Centre, P61 C996 Fermoy, Cork, Ireland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071468
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
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Abstract

Modulation of the human gut microbiota through probiotics, prebiotics and dietary fibre are recognised strategies to improve health and prevent disease. Yet we are only beginning to understand the impact of these interventions on the gut microbiota and the physiological consequences for the human host, thus forging the way towards evidence-based scientific validation. However, in many studies a percentage of participants can be defined as ‘non-responders’ and scientists are beginning to unravel what differentiates these from ‘responders;’ and it is now clear that an individual’s baseline microbiota can influence an individual’s response. Thus, microbiome composition can potentially serve as a biomarker to predict responsiveness to interventions, diets and dietary components enabling greater opportunities for its use towards disease prevention and health promotion. In Part I of this two-part review, we reviewed the current state of the science in terms of the gut microbiota and the role of diet and dietary components in shaping it and subsequent consequences for human health. In Part II, we examine the efficacy of gut-microbiota modulating therapies at different life stages and their potential to aid in the management of undernutrition and overnutrition. Given the significance of an individual’s gut microbiota, we investigate the feasibility of microbiome testing and we discuss guidelines for evaluating the scientific validity of evidence for providing personalised microbiome-based dietary advice. Overall, this review highlights the potential value of the microbiome to prevent disease and maintain or promote health and in doing so, paves the pathway towards commercialisation. View Full-Text
Keywords: personalised nutrition; precision nutrition; probiotics; prebiotics; gut microbiome; immunity; metabolic disease; gut; genetics personalised nutrition; precision nutrition; probiotics; prebiotics; gut microbiome; immunity; metabolic disease; gut; genetics
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Mills, S.; Lane, J.A.; Smith, G.J.; Grimaldi, K.A.; Ross, R.P.; Stanton, C. Precision Nutrition and the Microbiome Part II: Potential Opportunities and Pathways to Commercialisation. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1468.

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