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Open AccessArticle

Infant Feeding, Vitamin D and IgE Sensitization to Food Allergens at 6 Years in a Longitudinal Icelandic Cohort

1
Unit for Nutrition Research, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland and Landspitali University Hospital, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
2
Faculty of Sociology, Anthropology and Folkloristics, School of Social Sciences, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
3
Department of Immunology, Landspitali University Hospital, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
4
Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
5
The Allergy Outpatient Department, Landspitali University Hospital, 108 Reykjavik, Iceland
6
School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071690
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of the Nordic Diet)
Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) recommend exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months, partial breastfeeding until 1 year or longer and irrespective of breastfeeding, avoiding solid foods before 4 months. Strong evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding regarding growth and infections but limited/inconclusive evidence regarding atopic disease and asthma. Vitamin D is of special interest in the Nordic diet. The aim of this prospective study was to compare infant feeding and vitamin D between immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitized (n = 14) and non-sensitized (n = 130) children at 6 years. Information on diet and vitamin D supplement use were collected with dietary recall (<5 months), 1-d food records (5 and 6 months) and 3-d weighed food records (12 months and 6 years). Serum-specific IgE-antibodies against milk, egg, cod, wheat, soy and peanut (cut-off specific IgE ≥ 0.35 kUA/L) were measured at 6 years and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at 12 months and 6 years. At 4 months, 57% of IgE sensitized vs. 23% of non-sensitized children (p < 0.01) had received solid food. At 12 months, IgE sensitized children had a lower intake of vitamin D (median (25th, 75th percentiles): 3.9 μg/d (3.2, 7.2) vs. 8.1 μg/d (4.4, 12.3), p = 0.03) and at 6 years, fewer used vitamin D supplements regularly (23% vs. 56%, p = 0.03). Introduction of solid foods prior to 4 months increased the odds of IgE-sensitization, OR = 4.9 (95%, CI = 1.4–16.6) and vitamin D supplement at 6 years decreased the odds of IgE-sensitization, OR = 0.2 (95%, CI = 0.1–0.98), adjusting for maternal smoking. These observations support the NNR in their recommendation against introducing complementary solid foods before the age of 4 months. Furthermore, they support encouraging vitamin D intake for young children at northern latitudes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nordic diet; infants; children; recommendations; IgE sensitization; breastfeeding; complementary feeding; solid food; vitamin D Nordic diet; infants; children; recommendations; IgE sensitization; breastfeeding; complementary feeding; solid food; vitamin D
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Thorisdottir, B.; Gunnarsdottir, I.; Vidarsdottir, A.G.; Sigurdardottir, S.; Birgisdottir, B.E.; Thorsdottir, I. Infant Feeding, Vitamin D and IgE Sensitization to Food Allergens at 6 Years in a Longitudinal Icelandic Cohort. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1690.

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