Next Article in Journal
Infant Feeding, Vitamin D and IgE Sensitization to Food Allergens at 6 Years in a Longitudinal Icelandic Cohort
Next Article in Special Issue
Effect of Steviol Glycosides on Human Health with Emphasis on Type 2 Diabetic Biomarkers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Previous Article in Journal
Nutrient Content of Squeeze Pouch Foods for Infants and Toddlers Sold in the United States in 2015
Previous Article in Special Issue
Pre-Exercise Blood Glucose Levels Determine the Amount of Orally Administered Carbohydrates during Physical Exercise in Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes—A Randomized Cross-Over Trial
Open AccessArticle

Life Style Intervention Improves Retinopathy Status—The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

Department of Ophthalmology, Karelia Central Hospital, 80210 Joensuu, Finland
School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
Department of Ophthalmology, Kuopio University Hospital, 70029 Kuopio, Finland
Research Service Unit, Kuopio University Hospital, 70029 Kuopio, Finland
Dasman Diabetes Institute, 15462 Dasman, Kuwai
Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, 70029 Kuopio, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1691;
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus)
The aim of the study was to find out whether participation in earlier intervention had an effect on the occurrence of retinopathy in study participants. We also examined risk factors (age, sex, weight, fasting and 2 h glucose, fasting insulin, blood pressure, serum lipids) for early retinal changes. The study included 522 individuals (mean 55 years old, range 40–64 years) with impaired glucose tolerance who were randomized into intervention (weight loss, healthy diet, and physical activity, N = 265) and control groups (N = 257). Intervention lasted for median of four years in 1993–2000, after which annual follow-up visits at study clinics were conducted. In the years 2002–2006 (at least five years after stopping intervention), fundus photography was offered for all study participants in four of five study clinics. Photographs were assessed by two experienced ophthalmologists (A.A. and K.K.), masked for the group assignment. After exclusion of poor quality photographs, the data of 211 individuals (N = 113 for intervention and N = 98 for control group) were included in the present study. The occurrence of microaneurysms was significantly higher in the control (37/98, 38%) than in the intervention group (27/113, 24%; p = 0.029). In the model, including age, sex, diabetes diagnosis before the retinal assessment, body mass index (BMI), and treatment group, the odds ratio for microaneurysms was markedly lower in intervention group (OR 0.52; 0.28–0.97, p = 0.039). The only risk factor that predicted the occurrence of microaneurysms was serum triglycerides at baseline (mean ± SD 1.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.6 ± 0.7, mmol/L, with and without microaneurysms, respectively, p = 0.003). Triglycerides associated with decreased microaneurysms in regression analysis for age, sex, fasting glucose, and intervention group (OR 1.92, p = 0.018). Lifestyle intervention in overweight and obese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance showed decreased occurrence of retinal microaneurysms. Elevated serum triglycerides were associated to the development of early diabetic microangiopathy. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; intervention; retinopathy; triglycerides diabetes; intervention; retinopathy; triglycerides
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Aro, A.; Kauppinen, A.; Kivinen, N.; Selander, T.; Kinnunen, K.; Tuomilehto, J.; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S.; Lindström, J.; Uusitupa, M.; Kaarniranta, K. Life Style Intervention Improves Retinopathy Status—The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1691.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop