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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

Table of Contents

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2010) , Pages 1-231

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Open AccessArticle
Research on Genetic-fuzzy Control Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 224-231; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010224 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 305
Abstract
Fuzzy control strategy is developed for the dual-clutch single-axis torque coupling parallel hybrid electric vehicle. In this paper the torque distribution fuzzy controller which has been designed for the hybrid vehicle which is optimized by genetic algorithms. The simulation model of the hybrid [...] Read more.
Fuzzy control strategy is developed for the dual-clutch single-axis torque coupling parallel hybrid electric vehicle. In this paper the torque distribution fuzzy controller which has been designed for the hybrid vehicle which is optimized by genetic algorithms. The simulation model of the hybrid vehicle was built upon matlab / simulink and ADVISOR software. Then a fuzzy rules and correspondent membership functions had been established and the input language variable and output language variable use trapeziform and deltoid membership functions. After design of fuzzy logic torque controller, the genetic algorithm was introduced and used it to optimize the fuzzy logic torque controller. Under typical condition NEDC, the fuzzy control strategy is optimized both by genetic algorithms with the constraint condition of economy performance and by integrated constraint conditions of economy performance and emission performance. Optimization results show that when the controller is only optimize fuzzy control strategy for economy performance the fuel consumption decreased by 5.3% but the emission of CO and NOx both increased, but when the controller both optimize fuzzy control strategy for economy performance and emission performance the fuel consumption decreased by 4.3% with emission quality improved. So the fuzzy control strategy optimize by the genetic algorithm can improve the fuel consumption obvious. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Research on Braking Stability of Electro-mechanical Hybrid Braking System in Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 217-223; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010217 - 26 Mar 2010
Viewed by 224
Abstract
For the electro-mechanical hybrid braking system, which is composed of electric brake and general friction brake, the models of electric braking force, total braking force and the utilization adhesion coefficient for front and rear axles were established based on the analysis of braking [...] Read more.
For the electro-mechanical hybrid braking system, which is composed of electric brake and general friction brake, the models of electric braking force, total braking force and the utilization adhesion coefficient for front and rear axles were established based on the analysis of braking torque distribution. The variation relationship between electric braking force and friction braking force in different braking intensity was calculated and analyzed with the paralleled-hybridized braking control strategy. Taking USA urban driving circle UDDS as an example, the utilization adhesion coefficient of front and rear axles was calculated at different braking intensity for a certain Electric Vehicles (EVs), and the braking stability was also analyzed for front-wheel drive EVs. The calculation results indicate that the utilization adhesion coefficient of front axle is always greater than that of rear axle, which means the front axle always locked ahead of the rear axle, thus the braking stability meets the requirement. The calculation results also have certain instructive significance on the anti-lock braking system (ABS) and electric brake-force distribution (EBD) of EVs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Research and Development of Wheel-motor Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 208-216; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010208 - 26 Mar 2010
Viewed by 399
Abstract
The article gives an illustration about low speed wheel motor hybrid vehicle(LWP), firstly, introduces the structure of fuel cell vehicle and function of components; secondly, presents vehicle control policy, thirstily, takes an emulation about the power performance of LWP; lastly, experiment checking the [...] Read more.
The article gives an illustration about low speed wheel motor hybrid vehicle(LWP), firstly, introduces the structure of fuel cell vehicle and function of components; secondly, presents vehicle control policy, thirstily, takes an emulation about the power performance of LWP; lastly, experiment checking the simulation result, proofs the power performance of fuel cell vehicle. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Research and Design on Digital PFC of 2kW On-board Charger
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 202-207; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010202 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 206
Abstract
This paper researches and designs a digital controlled boost power factor correction (PFC) of 2kW on-board charger with the method of continuous conduction mode (CCM), which is based on the DSP of TMS320F280. Multiple-loop control strategy with the instantaneous outer voltage loop and [...] Read more.
This paper researches and designs a digital controlled boost power factor correction (PFC) of 2kW on-board charger with the method of continuous conduction mode (CCM), which is based on the DSP of TMS320F280. Multiple-loop control strategy with the instantaneous outer voltage loop and inner current loop is used in the PFC converter. The results confirm that digital controllers are able to be used for high performance PFC converters. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Performance evaluation and analysis of EV air-conditioning system
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 197-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010197 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 211
Abstract
The electric air conditioning system is in relation to the comfort of the electric vehicle. In this paper, the influence of several parameters on the electric air conditioning system was studied. The model of the air conditioning system was developed based on the [...] Read more.
The electric air conditioning system is in relation to the comfort of the electric vehicle. In this paper, the influence of several parameters on the electric air conditioning system was studied. The model of the air conditioning system was developed based on the thermodynamic and the performance testing results of the components. The model was coded on the Matlab/Simulink platform and simulated. The simulation results show that the ventilation ratio and the indoor blower speed could be used to remove the heat entered the cabin in a short time. Therefore, these two parameters could be used as the major control parameters for the developing thermostat controller. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Parallel HEV Hybrid Controller Modeling for Power Management
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 190-196; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010190 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 288
Abstract
In this paper, a parallel HEV hybrid controller is developed in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Using the driver commands, the battery state of charge and the engine map, a set of efficient rules has been developed to efficiently split the power between the engine [...] Read more.
In this paper, a parallel HEV hybrid controller is developed in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Using the driver commands, the battery state of charge and the engine map, a set of efficient rules has been developed to efficiently split the power between the engine and the motor. The steps are: 1) Estimate the instantaneous torque demand. 2) Using the estimated torque, the feedback signals and the engine map, find the best operating point and then split the power and let the engine work as near as possible to this efficient point, that can be done by controlling the motor (or generator). In the case of motor, let its torque supply the rest of the torque needed, while the engine works near its efficient point, or in the case of generator, let its torque supply an additional load to put the engine in an efficient point. 3) Control the motor to supply the transient torque demand, and keep the engine torque constant as long time as possible, this help to reduce fuel consumption. Finally simulations of a conventional and hybrid vehicle are performed using Simulink environment to check the controller and series of results will prove the effectiveness of the proposed controller and will show the advantage of hybrid powertrain over conventional one in term of fuel economy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Propulsion Systems for Series-Hybrid City Busses through Experimental Analysis
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 184-189; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010184 - 26 Mar 2010
Viewed by 222
Abstract
This article describes a methodology for the optimization of hybrid propulsion systems combining an onroad measurement campaign with the development of a simulation tool. This methodology has been applied in particular on a series-hybrid city bus. The experimental set-up and the software tool [...] Read more.
This article describes a methodology for the optimization of hybrid propulsion systems combining an onroad measurement campaign with the development of a simulation tool. This methodology has been applied in particular on a series-hybrid city bus. The experimental set-up and the software tool are presented. The measurement setup is based on a National Instruments-cDAQ data acquisition system, containing a real-time programmable embedded processor. The software model is mainly based on the ‘backwards-looking’ or ‘effect-cause’ method which calculates the energy consumed by a vehicle following a predefined driving cycle by going upstream the vehicle components. Experimental as well as simulated results are presented. The developed simulation tool is assessed and refined by means of the experimental data obtained during the thorough on-road measurement campaign. Suggestions for an improved and more efficient power flow control strategy for series-hybrid city busses are given. - Copyright Form of EVS25.sz Full article
Open AccessArticle
Optimization of an Electric Vehicle Suspension System Using CAE
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 179-183; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010179 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 400
Abstract
In this paper the dynamic analysis of an electric vehicle (EV) has been investigated. The vehicle suspension system was built using multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, Altair MotionView/MotionSolve. Using the model, the dynamic properties of a target vehicle with gasoline engine and an electric [...] Read more.
In this paper the dynamic analysis of an electric vehicle (EV) has been investigated. The vehicle suspension system was built using multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, Altair MotionView/MotionSolve. Using the model, the dynamic properties of a target vehicle with gasoline engine and an electric vehicle with motor and batteries were simulated. The kinematic simulation of the suspension system was also carried out to analyze their kinematic performance. This paper mainly focuses on the lateral acceleration, roll angle and yaw rate characteristic of the vehicle in step steer analysis. By using optimization software, Altair Hyperstudy, parameterized models of the front and rear suspension were assembled. Then the optimization of dynamic properties of the electric vehicle suspension system was carried out. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Object-oriented Physical Modeling and Simulation of Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 171-178; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010171 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 202
Abstract
Fuel cell vehicle (FCV) is the focus of new energy vehicles research, in which the study of the powertrain is one of the crucial. This paper introduces the structure and working principle of the FCV powertrain, and analyses the critical powertrain components. According [...] Read more.
Fuel cell vehicle (FCV) is the focus of new energy vehicles research, in which the study of the powertrain is one of the crucial. This paper introduces the structure and working principle of the FCV powertrain, and analyses the critical powertrain components. According to complex and multi-domain characteristics of the powertrain, this paper presents an object-oriented modeling language to unify the physical modeling method and establish the physical model of FCV powertrain and the critical components base upon Maplesim platform. Using combined simulation based on Maplesim and Simulink and the results show the effectiveness of the model. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Modular driveline concept for underground mining loader
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 165-170; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010165 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 234
Abstract
This paper is part of an ongoing HybLab project funded by the Multidisciplinary Institute of Digitalization and Energy (MIDE) of Aalto University School of Science and Technology. First results and plans were presented in EVS24 [1]. The focus in this paper is to [...] Read more.
This paper is part of an ongoing HybLab project funded by the Multidisciplinary Institute of Digitalization and Energy (MIDE) of Aalto University School of Science and Technology. First results and plans were presented in EVS24 [1]. The focus in this paper is to describe what kind requirements must be taken in to account when designing and dimensioning an electromechanical driveline for an underground mining loader. For case work machine is chosen 18t loader which was presented in EVS24 [1]. Also concept for a modular driveline concept will be presented. Basic idea in the concept is to avoid over dimensioning of electric drives by using electromechanically actuated mechanical links between the drive units. The concept gives possibility to optimize dimensioning of each electric drive in driveline so that the best efficiency is in use in normal mean power drive conditions. When one drive needs peak power then mechanical power can be driven via mechanical links from other drives. Disengageable mechanical links gives also possibility to avoid internal counter-torques in driveline caused by steering geometries and differences in tire diameters. The concept will be presented in the EVS25. The first results and experiences from the electromechanical driveline will be presented in EVS26. Copyright EVS25. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Load sharing control of dual energy storage power system in heavy duty series hybrid vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 156-164; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010156 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 398
Abstract
Heavy duty off-road vehicle (HDOR) duty cycles are very different than passenger car cycles. HDOR duty cycles are characterized by heavy transient loads and highly varying constant power demands. Straddle carriers and mine loaders can operate 20 hours per day while cars are [...] Read more.
Heavy duty off-road vehicle (HDOR) duty cycles are very different than passenger car cycles. HDOR duty cycles are characterized by heavy transient loads and highly varying constant power demands. Straddle carriers and mine loaders can operate 20 hours per day while cars are most of the time idle. Batteries and supercapacitors have different qualities in terms of power and energy density and cyclic life time. Hybridization of HDOR driveline reduces fuel consumption and contributes to cleaner workspace environment due to reduced emission. This paper presents new load sharing control method for battery & supercapacitor series hybrid heavy-duty off-road vehicle. Both energy storages have separate DC/DCconverters. Control strategy ensures that both energy storages are used optimally based on their characteristic strengths. Implications of this control strategy are reduced consumption and more importantly improved battery lifetime. Control strategy is presented; simulation results for control performance are presented and discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Key Technologies of Hybrid Solar Electric Midibus Development
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 151-155; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010151 - 26 Mar 2010
Viewed by 259
Abstract
The solar and lithium-ion hybrid electric midibus is a new energy vehicles.According to the 21 low-speed integrated Li-ion power midibus’s design and development requirements,this paper introduces some key Technologies need to be resolved,such as vehicle dynamic parameter matching technology, Lightweight design, high efficiency [...] Read more.
The solar and lithium-ion hybrid electric midibus is a new energy vehicles.According to the 21 low-speed integrated Li-ion power midibus’s design and development requirements,this paper introduces some key Technologies need to be resolved,such as vehicle dynamic parameter matching technology, Lightweight design, high efficiency motor and controler technology, solar panels and charger technology, Battery management technology and advanced vehicle control technology. Based on the analysis of the key technologies, this paper put forward the corresponding solutions and implementation plan, and the midibus prototype is also developed. Through the vehicle and some components testing and experiments, which verify the correctness of such Key Techniques. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Influence of powertrain parameters on vehicle performance of a fuel cell / battery city bus
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 143-150; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010143 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 395
Abstract
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is favored in automotive applications because it is clean, efficiency and quiet. Performance of a fuel cell-powered vehicle depends on two aspects, the component sizing and the control strategy. The former determines how good a vehicle can [...] Read more.
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is favored in automotive applications because it is clean, efficiency and quiet. Performance of a fuel cell-powered vehicle depends on two aspects, the component sizing and the control strategy. The former determines how good a vehicle can be, and the latter decides the degree of exploiting system potential. This paper presents the influence of primary parameters of the hybrid powertrain on vehicle performance. Generally speaking, the performance of a vehicle can be evaluated using following indicators: the maximal speed that can be reached, the accelerating time from zero to a certain speed, the maximal climbing angle, the mileage in a certain condition and the hydrogen consumption in a specific cycle. When the vehicle moves, the fuel cell system fulfills the stationary power requirement, and the battery supplies the accelerating power and recycles brake energy. The vehicle performance is affected by parameters of the hybrid powertrain, e.g. the maximal power of PEM fuel cell system, the PEM fuel cell average efficiency, the battery charging/discharging resistances, the battery open circuit voltage and the vehicle auxiliary power. A theoretical model describing the relationship between these parameters and vehicle performance is firstly proposed. The model is verified by several prototypes of fuel cell city buses developed in past years. Influence of system parameters on vehicle performance is explained in detail. Several suggestions for improving the entire system performance are proposed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Hierarchical control of vehicular fuel cell / battery hybrid powertrain
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 133-142; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010133 - 26 Mar 2010
Viewed by 255
Abstract
In a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, a fuel cell system fulfills the stationary power demand, and a traction battery provides the accelerating power and recycles braking energy. The entire system is coordinated by a distributed control system, incorporating three [...] Read more.
In a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, a fuel cell system fulfills the stationary power demand, and a traction battery provides the accelerating power and recycles braking energy. The entire system is coordinated by a distributed control system, incorporating three key strategies: 1) vehicle control, 2) fuel cell control and 3) battery management. They make up a hierarchical control system. This paper introduces a hierarchical control strategy for a fuel cell / battery hybrid powertrain applied in a city bus. The vehicle control strategy comprises three parts: an energy management strategy, a brake regeneration strategy and an active tolerant control strategy. The entire powertrain power is split between the fuel cell system and the battery in such a way that the fuel cell system works in a quasi-steady state and the battery can keep charge sustaining. The braking energy is recycled on the basis of the pedal position and the rotational speed of the electric motor. An active tolerance control strategy is developed to guarantee the work of the entire system in case of malfunctions. A fuel cell system consists of a water and heat management system, an air system, a humidifier system and a hydrogen in-out let system. Control strategies are designed to regulate air supply and water cooling temperature. Primary tasks of a battery management system are to estimate the state of charge (SOC), and to keep the temperature in safety range. A real-time applicable strategy for SOC is developed. The temperature of the battery is controlled by some air fans with on-off strategy. The hierarchical control system was applied on a fuel cell city bus. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Green Solar Electric Vehicle Changing the Future Lifestyle of Human
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 128-132; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010128 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 423
Abstract
Electric vehicle with more advantages of no noise, no pollution, saving energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions is to power-driven vehicle with a motor drive wheels moving. Solar electric vehicle can make to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions and other pollution. All advantages [...] Read more.
Electric vehicle with more advantages of no noise, no pollution, saving energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions is to power-driven vehicle with a motor drive wheels moving. Solar electric vehicle can make to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions and other pollution. All advantages of solar electric vehicle make research and application of solar electric vehicle as a “hot spot” of automotive industry and the trend of future cars. Solar electric vehicle is made of PV panels, battery, electric motor, vehicle controller and vehicle body. Solar electric vehicle drives using dual-mode of PV and battery hybrid. It can be achieved PV-driven and battery-driven independently. In good sunny conditions, the full charge endurance of solar electric vehicle can be increased about 35% substantially compared with no PV panels. Solar electric vehicle can achieve low-carbon, energy saving, environmental protection and true zero-emissions for the future of human life. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Full-Scale Hardware-in-the-Loop Verification Environment for Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 119-127; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010119 - 26 Mar 2010
Viewed by 204
Abstract
This paper presents an implementation of a versatile full-scale hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) verification environment for testing of heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles and mobile work machines. The test facility includes a full-scale hybrid system that can be loaded with either an electric motor dynamometer or [...] Read more.
This paper presents an implementation of a versatile full-scale hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) verification environment for testing of heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles and mobile work machines. The test facility includes a full-scale hybrid system that can be loaded with either an electric motor dynamometer or a programmable chassis dynamometer. Model-based software development tools and rapid control prototyping hardware are used to implement control algorithms and other vehicle controller software as well as to control other test equipment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a multipurpose hybrid vehicle concept
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 110-118; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010110 - 26 Mar 2010
Viewed by 316
Abstract
The HOST project developed concept and prototype for an innovative low polluting modular transport mean suitable for the urban transport of people and goods. Main HOST commercial innovation is to use one vehicle for four different transport service in the 24 hours thus [...] Read more.
The HOST project developed concept and prototype for an innovative low polluting modular transport mean suitable for the urban transport of people and goods. Main HOST commercial innovation is to use one vehicle for four different transport service in the 24 hours thus lowering the extra-cost of having a low polluting vehicle. HOST has been dimensioned to supply four different urban transport services: nocturne collective taxi, daytime car sharing, daytime freight collection and distribution and nocturne garbage collection. The user acceptance, energy and environmental and financial evaluation are reported in this paper.
The user acceptance evaluation showed that HOST characteristics (transshipment capabilities, enhanced maneuverability and environmental concern) are interesting, but issues as the technological complexity and lack of infrastructures have to be resolved. The powertrain, a hybrid series, has considerably lower emissions levels than conventional vehicles while consumption is comparable for all the services but car-sharing in which HOST consumes more due to its higher weight.
The financial evaluation shows that at the moment, to build the HOST powertrain, about 165 000 € are needed and a complete vehicle with also the cabin could cost about 290 000 €. To be financially competitive, the global cost of HOST should be between 220 000 and 230 000 €; 60 000€ less than the cost of the prototype. Full article
Open AccessArticle
EV/PHEV – CHANGING REVENUE & PROFIT POOLS IN THE AUTOMOTIVE VALUE CHAIN REQUIRE NEW BUSINESS MODELS
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 104-109; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010104 - 26 Mar 2010
Viewed by 213
Abstract
OEMs need to take action to cope with the changes brought about by the shift to the electric powertrain. As EVs gain market share, revenue pools along the value chain will change significantly. Higher battery costs, decreased fuel and energy revenues, less aftermarket [...] Read more.
OEMs need to take action to cope with the changes brought about by the shift to the electric powertrain. As EVs gain market share, revenue pools along the value chain will change significantly. Higher battery costs, decreased fuel and energy revenues, less aftermarket potential, increased variabilization of costs, more value-added services and additional revenues from recycling are all factors affecting revenue and profit pools. To adapt to these changes, OEMs need to proactively secure their future business. They can capture value in new EV components, make leasing/service their main sales channel, leverage lower variable costs or explore recycling. There is tremendous potential for suppliers of components for the new electrified powertrain. OEMs will assume a large portion of the additional value-added especially at first, but this will decline as specialization rises. The expected growth in EV and PHEV depends heavily on driving down battery costs. Even if these costs are successfully lowered, electric vehicles will still cost significantly more than vehicles with internal combustion engines. However, not enough customers are willing to pay the difference, at least in a traditional purchase. Yet viable alternatives exist if they are marketed correctly. New and existing services can be bundled into attractive mobility-oriented packages for the customer. These packages, plus partnerships with public transit providers, mean that OEMs will be acting increasingly as general mobility providers. All these changes mean that OEMs need new business models for the growing but highly competitive EV market. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Energy Management Strategy and Control Laws of An Inverse Differential Gear Hybrid Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 98-103; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010098 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 372
Abstract
This paper presents the Energy Management Strategy (EMS) and control laws of an inverse differential gear hybrid vehicle and also the simulation results for the dynamics response and performance of the system. In the system, an engine and a motor/generator are attached to [...] Read more.
This paper presents the Energy Management Strategy (EMS) and control laws of an inverse differential gear hybrid vehicle and also the simulation results for the dynamics response and performance of the system. In the system, an engine and a motor/generator are attached to the side gears individually and the power is transmitted through plenary gear to ECVT. By regulating the gear ratio of ECVT and the power outputs between engine and motor/generator, desired system dynamics can be achieved. The goal is to control the system dynamics such that the engine dynamics can be fixed at an optimal operation point while meeting the driver desire of vehicle speed in hybrid operation. While in pure engine or pure motor or brake regeneration modes, optimal gear ratio and engine operation or motor/generator operation to achieve fuel efficiency are the goal of the control laws. Simulation results show that the fuel consumption can be reduced to half of the original engine driven vehicle. Similar improvements can also be found in the performance of CO, HC, and NOx emission. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Energy issue of pure electric vehicle in China
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 91-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010091 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 191
Abstract
PEV(pure electric vehicle)promotion can not only mitigate the recent traditional vehicle contradiction between supply and demand of energy, solve the vehicle energy problem after the exhaustion of fossil fuel, but also improve environment quality and energy utilization efficiency.But PEV promotion is restricted by [...] Read more.
PEV(pure electric vehicle)promotion can not only mitigate the recent traditional vehicle contradiction between supply and demand of energy, solve the vehicle energy problem after the exhaustion of fossil fuel, but also improve environment quality and energy utilization efficiency.But PEV promotion is restricted by infrastructures such as energy, power supply, charging station and so on. According to the composition characteristics of Chinese primary energy, situation of Chinese power industry and requirement of power infrastructures of pure electric vehicle, I analyzed the shortcomings in the power industry while PEV are promoted in China. There are four major problems in PEV promotion. First, in China more than 70% power supply is from coal, and the average coal consumption of power generation is high. Second, electricity generation per person-year of China is far less than that of developed countries, and power shortage exists in some areas. Third, the stability of power supply is poor because it can be easily affected by some uncertain factors, such as the supply of water, coal and natural gas. Furthermore, current power capacity can not meet the requirements of the PEV promotion. In order to promote PEV, power industry must acquire high power efficiency, sufficient power supply, and extensive use of clean fuel or renewable energy etc. EVS25 Copyright. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electrification potential of the car – an estimate from a mid-size Swedish town
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 82-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010082 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 259
Abstract
An electrification of vehicles can contribute to increased energy efficiency and decreased air pollution in urban environments. The high vehicle costs involved, especially for the batteries, means that careful considerations of the options are needed. We have investigated the optimal design and potential [...] Read more.
An electrification of vehicles can contribute to increased energy efficiency and decreased air pollution in urban environments. The high vehicle costs involved, especially for the batteries, means that careful considerations of the options are needed. We have investigated the optimal design and potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) under various viability conditions with the help of a data set for individual vehicle movements from a mid-size Swedish town.
In the estimates each car is equipped with a battery cost-optimized in size with respect to the individual car movement pattern and charging options expressed as the minimum break time interval required for considering recharging. The resulting optimal battery sizes are relatively small for lower economic viability, but increase with raised charging options. For high economic competitiveness the optimal sizes are larger, but decrease with better recharging possibilities.
The results point to a PHEV design strategy with a small battery in an introductory phase and then an increased size when the economic competitiveness is further enhanced. Still the resulting optimal battery size is highly dependent on the specific movement pattern of the individual car. It is now urgent for the continued development, planning, and estimates of proliferation and impact of electrified vehicles that further statistical data, today mostly lacking, for the movement patterns of individual vehicles in various regions are assembled and utilized. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Drive Train Design and Modeling of a Parallel Diesel Hybrid Electric Bus Based on AVL/Cruise
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 75-81; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010075 - 26 Mar 2010
Viewed by 335
Abstract
This paper aims at the parametric drive train design, modeling and performance simulation of a parallel diesel hybrid electric bus(PHEB). AVL/CRUISE and MATLAB/SIMULINK are used for modeling and simulation. The simulation tasks include fuel consumption calculation over the typical city bus drive cycle [...] Read more.
This paper aims at the parametric drive train design, modeling and performance simulation of a parallel diesel hybrid electric bus(PHEB). AVL/CRUISE and MATLAB/SIMULINK are used for modeling and simulation. The simulation tasks include fuel consumption calculation over the typical city bus drive cycle of China, maximum velocity calculation and acceleration time calculation. Based on the simulation results, a comparative analysis is performed on the portion of fuel consumption in the internal combustion engine consumption map. The simulation shows that the engine operates in a more efficient condition in the hybrid electric bus than that in the conventional bus. Thanks to the hybrid electric drive train system, both fuel economy and traction performance of the bus are enhanced in a considerable step. The simulation analysis fits test results on road and chassis dynamometer well. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development Of The Energy Management Strategy For A Hybrid Tricycle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 71-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010071 - 26 Mar 2010
Viewed by 268
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to develop an energy management strategy for a hybrid tricycle. The hybrid tricycle has two wheels at the front and one wheel at the rear. The front wheels are driven by in-wheel motors and the rear wheel [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research is to develop an energy management strategy for a hybrid tricycle. The hybrid tricycle has two wheels at the front and one wheel at the rear. The front wheels are driven by in-wheel motors and the rear wheel is driven by an engine power train. The transmission of the engine power train is a Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) and a final gear. The engine power train is that on the KYMCO Downtown scooter. By doing this, motorcycle manufactures can upgrade their motorcycles to hybrid tricycles easily. From the engine fuel consumption map, one can learn that engine usually has worse performance in low power zone than that in high power zone. Thus, the idea for the energy management strategy design is to activate the motor when the driver required power is low and to activate the engine when the driver required power is high. Simulations show that the fuel consumption rate of the hybrid tricycle is 26.28 km/L and the fuel consumption rate of an engine tricycle is 20.2 km/L. This shows that about 30% of the fuel can be saved with the developed hybrid tricycle. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of Low-Floor Electric Community Bus For Public Transportation and its Demonstration in Toyama City
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 66-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010066 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 217
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) have been developed with the aims of saving energy and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, as a single bus can transport many people, buses produce low carbon dioxide emissions per person in comparison with cars. In recent years, community buses [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) have been developed with the aims of saving energy and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, as a single bus can transport many people, buses produce low carbon dioxide emissions per person in comparison with cars. In recent years, community buses have been introduced nationwide to ensure the mobility of senior citizens. Therefore, a low-floor vehicle was adopted as the base vehicle in our latest project. The bus was demonstrated around the center of Toyama City. It was followed a circular route of distance 7.2km, the number of bus stops on the route was 27 and the driving time was 40 minutes per circuit. This demonstration was repeated three to four times a day for 14 days. During the 86 circuits of the demonstration, a total of 1,110 passengers used the bus and the total running distance was 776km. From these results, we concluded that the quantity of carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced by 37% using our proposed bus in comparison with that of a conventional diesel-engine bus. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of GENSET Module Technology of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 60-65; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010060 - 26 Mar 2010
Viewed by 204
Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to develop the on-board generator (named “GENSET”), equipped on the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Taiwan. Based on the developed electric power components such as battery integration, DC/DC converters, traction [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this paper is to develop the on-board generator (named “GENSET”), equipped on the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Taiwan. Based on the developed electric power components such as battery integration, DC/DC converters, traction motor and control units, ITRI hybrid powertrains were thereby established by combining above items and existing engine technologies. Therefore, a power-assist 100kW powertrain for a SUV and an 18 kW fullhybrid powertrain in a light-duty vehicle were built. Several techniques of key subsystems such as a 50 kW PMSM traction motor, a GENSET, enhanced vehicle controllers, an 8 kWh/150A battery module, and battery management systems (BMSs) from the powertrains mentioned were utilized to integrate the prototype PHEV. From the experimental results, the 20 kW generator with a 1.2L 4-cylinder engine integrated into a GENSET can reach 20 kW output power and has a good performance in the narrow domain. Finally, we raised briefly several directions for future study. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development for Hybrid MPV Control Strategy
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 55-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010055 - 26 Mar 2010
Viewed by 219
Abstract
Hybrid MPV control strategy is researched by building simulation model under Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow environment, and auto-generated code is downloaded to vehicle control unit. With this approach, proved by experiment, the development of hybrid MPV control strategy is of high efficiency and reliability, with the [...] Read more.
Hybrid MPV control strategy is researched by building simulation model under Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow environment, and auto-generated code is downloaded to vehicle control unit. With this approach, proved by experiment, the development of hybrid MPV control strategy is of high efficiency and reliability, with the performance met the design requirements, and the portability and maintainability of system improved. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Design of Power System Control in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 49-54; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010049 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 229
Abstract
This paper proposes a design of power system control in the hybrid electric vehicle. It adopts the isolated DC/DC power converter as the front-end fuel cell and Lithium-ion battery to supply constant voltage. By micro-controller to detect the hybrid power output, and the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a design of power system control in the hybrid electric vehicle. It adopts the isolated DC/DC power converter as the front-end fuel cell and Lithium-ion battery to supply constant voltage. By micro-controller to detect the hybrid power output, and the low-pressure hydrogen storage temperature, and the adjustment of the power output ratio to provide the energy for loading balance. The results can obtain the overall performance of electric vehicle. It is important to avoid the excessive usage of hydrogen fuel which causes the phenomenon of storage tank freezing and fuel cell or Lithium-ion batteries abnormal situation. Display the working data of hybrid power system can achieve the capability of instant surveillance. For the loading under consideration, the fuel cell and Lithium-ion battery can supply stable voltage output. Copyright Form of EVS25. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Crashworthiness of Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 41-48; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010041 - 26 Mar 2010
Viewed by 237
Abstract
This paper describes the crashworthiness of electric vehicles when the vehicle has alterations from a gasoline engine to an electric motor. The crashworthiness is dependent on the crushable length of the frame and the center of gravity. It is presumed that the transfer [...] Read more.
This paper describes the crashworthiness of electric vehicles when the vehicle has alterations from a gasoline engine to an electric motor. The crashworthiness is dependent on the crushable length of the frame and the center of gravity. It is presumed that the transfer of the center of gravity has the disadvantage in a crash. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Automatic Driving Control for Passing through Intersection by use of Feature of Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 31-40; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010031 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 243
Abstract
This study expects that the automatic driving control for passing through intersection has potential for energy saving and solving traffic jams. Therefore, first, this study calculates the predicted effect of the automatic driving control at intersection in simulations. Second, this study proposes the [...] Read more.
This study expects that the automatic driving control for passing through intersection has potential for energy saving and solving traffic jams. Therefore, first, this study calculates the predicted effect of the automatic driving control at intersection in simulations. Second, this study proposes the control method for vehicles to pass through an intersection by cooperating with each other on contact with the intersectiontraffic control which manages the schedule of vehicles to enter the intersection. Third, a vehicle control algorithm for reaching the intersection on the scheduled time is also proposed. Last, the proposed vehicle control and intersection-traffic control are validated by experiments using electric light vehicles. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Approach of a Predictive, Cybernetic Power Distribution Management
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(1), 22-30; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4010022 - 26 Mar 2010
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 226
Abstract
In recent years the trend of an increasing electrification was observable in automotive engineering. That yields an increase in both the total power and the short-term power peaks. Because of the high currents, it is becoming difficult to guarantee voltage stability in the [...] Read more.
In recent years the trend of an increasing electrification was observable in automotive engineering. That yields an increase in both the total power and the short-term power peaks. Because of the high currents, it is becoming difficult to guarantee voltage stability in the 12 V power net and the danger of voltage instability increases. This paper deals with the development of a holistic system approach in order to actively balance the power distribution in the vehicles power net. In contrast to other solutions, the system is doing without additional components and topological modifications. However, the mobile environment makes some demands to the power distribution management system like the short resources, lack of fast real-time communication, or the complex power distribution topology of the wiring harness. Within this work it is pointed out that a cybernetic approach is well-suited to the application in vehicles. Transferring the ideas of other cybernetic management systems, for instance in business administration, to a vehicle’s energy and power management results in principles as the detachment of object and steering layer, the introduction of a hierarchy, the principle of subsidiarity, and the development of an interaction interface between the system and its environment. By using these principles, the complex power distribution management task can be managed by lean and efficient systemswell-suited for the application in vehicles. Full article
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