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Energies, Volume 13, Issue 5 (March-1 2020) – 282 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Batteries are key enablers for increasing the share of renewable energy generation and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Cost Optimization of a Stand-Alone Hybrid Energy System with Fuel Cell and PV
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051295 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Renewable energy has become very popular in recent years. The amount of renewable generation has increased in both grid-connected and stand-alone systems. This is because it can provide clean energy in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly fashion. Among all varieties, photovoltaic (PV) is [...] Read more.
Renewable energy has become very popular in recent years. The amount of renewable generation has increased in both grid-connected and stand-alone systems. This is because it can provide clean energy in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly fashion. Among all varieties, photovoltaic (PV) is the ultimate rising star. Integration of other technologies with solar is enhancing the efficiency and reliability of the system. In this paper a fuel cell–solar photovoltaic (FC-PV)-based hybrid energy system has been proposed to meet the electrical load demand of a small community center in India. The system is developed with PV panels, fuel cell, an electrolyzer and hydrogen storage tank. Detailed mathematical modeling of this system as well as its operation algorithm have been presented. Furthermore, cost optimization has been performed to determine ratings of PV and Hydrogen system components. The objective is to minimize the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of this standalone system. This optimization is performed in HOMER software as well as another tool using an artificial bee colony (ABC). The results obtained by both methods have been compared in terms of cost effectiveness. It is evident from the results that for a 68 MWh/yr of electricity demand is met by the 129 kW Solar PV, 15 kW Fuel cell along with a 34 kW electrolyzer and a 20 kg hydrogen tank with a LPSP of 0.053%. The LCOE is found to be in 0.228 $/kWh. Results also show that use of more sophisticated algorithms such as ABC yields more optimized solutions than package programs, such as HOMER. Finally, operational details for FC-PV hybrid system using IEC 61850 inter-operable communication is presented. IEC 61850 information models for FC, electrolyzer, hydrogen tank were developed and relevent IEC 61850 message exchanges for energy management in FC-PV hybrid system are demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Grids and Microgrids)
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Open AccessArticle
Fault Location Method Using Phasor Measurement Units and Short Circuit Analysis for Power Distribution Networks
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051294 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 361
Abstract
This paper proposes a fault location method for power distribution networks using phasor measurement units (PMU) and short circuit analysis. In order to improve the problems of the existing studies, we focused on several approaches as follows. First, in order to minimize the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a fault location method for power distribution networks using phasor measurement units (PMU) and short circuit analysis. In order to improve the problems of the existing studies, we focused on several approaches as follows. First, in order to minimize the number of PMU installations, a fault location estimation of lateral feeders through short circuit analysis was presented. Second, unbalanced faults and impacts of photovoltaic (PV) were considered. The proposed method consists of two stages. In Stage 1, the fault location was estimated for the main feeder using PMU installed at the start and end points of the main feeder. Symmetrical components of voltage and current variation were calculated by considering the impact of PVs interconnected to the lateral feeders. If the result of Stage 1 indicated a connection section of lateral feeder on the main feeder, Stage 2 would be performed. In Stage 2, the fault location was estimated for the lateral feeder by comparing the results of the short circuit analysis and measurements of PMUs. The short circuit analysis was based on an unbalanced power flow that considered dynamic characteristics of the PV inverter. The proposed method was verified through various fault situations in a test system. For the applicability of the proposed algorithm to the actual system, a noise test was also performed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Detection and Location of Earth Fault in MV Feeders Using Screen Earthing Current Measurements
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051293 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 404
Abstract
The paper analyzes the utilization of cable screen currents for earth fault identification and location. Attention is paid on cable and mixed feeders—cable and overhead lines. The principle of operation is based on utilization of 3 criterion values: Ratio of cable screen earthing [...] Read more.
The paper analyzes the utilization of cable screen currents for earth fault identification and location. Attention is paid on cable and mixed feeders—cable and overhead lines. The principle of operation is based on utilization of 3 criterion values: Ratio of cable screen earthing current and zero sequence cable core current—RF110/15, phase shift between cable screen earthing current and zero sequence cable core current—α and cable screen admittance defined as a ratio of cable screen earthing current and zero sequence voltage—Y0cs. Earth fault location is possible thanks to discovered relation between RF110/15 and α, whereas Y0cs allows for reliable detection of earth faults. Detection and identification are very important because it allows to increase the reliability of supply—reduce downtime and number of consumers affected by the fault. The article presents a phase to ground fault current flow for different power system configurations. At the end solution, which improves location capabilities is proposed. The solution is analyzed in PSCAD software and verified by network experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Grids and Microgrids)
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Open AccessArticle
An Extremely High Power Density Asymmetrical Back-to-Back Converter for Aerospace Motor Drive Applications
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051292 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Higher-voltage-standard and higher-power-rating aerospace power systems are being investigated intensively in the aerospace industry to address challenges in terms of improving emissions, fuel economy, and also cost. Multilevel converter topologies become attractive because of their higher efficiency under high-voltage and high-switching-frequency conditions. In [...] Read more.
Higher-voltage-standard and higher-power-rating aerospace power systems are being investigated intensively in the aerospace industry to address challenges in terms of improving emissions, fuel economy, and also cost. Multilevel converter topologies become attractive because of their higher efficiency under high-voltage and high-switching-frequency conditions. In this paper, an asymmetrical-voltage-level back-to-back multilevel converter is proposed, which consists of a five-level (5L) rectifier stage and a three-level (3L) inverter stage. Based on the comparison, such an asymmetrical back-to-back structure can achieve high efficiency and minimize the converter weight on both rectifier and inverter sides. A compact triple-surface-mounted heatsink structure is designed to realize high density and manufacturable thermal management. This topology and structure are evaluated with a full-rating prototype. According to the evaluation, the achieved power density is 2.61 kVA/kg, which is 30% higher than that of traditional solutions. The efficiency at the rated power of the back-to-back system is 95.8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Systems for Transportation)
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Open AccessArticle
Transient Natural Convection in a Thermally Insulated Annular Cylinder Exposed to a High Temperature from the Inner Radius
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051291 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Extensive numerical analysis was performed for the unsteady state, natural convection in the annular cylinders. The cylinder’s boundaries were thermally insulated, except the inner surface. The fluid (water) in the cylinder initially was assumed at a cold temperature while the inner surface was [...] Read more.
Extensive numerical analysis was performed for the unsteady state, natural convection in the annular cylinders. The cylinder’s boundaries were thermally insulated, except the inner surface. The fluid (water) in the cylinder initially was assumed at a cold temperature while the inner surface was subjected to a high temperature. The time history for the heat transfer by diffusion and advection was studied. The time needed for fully charging the storage tank and rate of heat transfer was calculated. The predicted results were compared with the pure heat diffusion process and with a steady-state convection system. Therefore, CFD simulations were performed for natural convection in the storage tank. The main objective of this study was to establish correlations for the rate of heat transfer as a function of time and other controlling parameters. The correlation is needed in designing a thermal energy storage system for domestic and industrial heating processes. One of the drawbacks of the conventional thermal storage systems is the slow charging and discharging, where the heat transfer is mainly diffusion dominated. To overcome such a problem, a system was designed based on the natural convective heat transfer mechanism. Therefore, the heat transfer and fluid flow in a cylindrical storage tank were simulated for a range of Rayleigh numbers (104 to 108) and radius ratio. It was found that a convection-operated storage tank reduces the thermal charging process time drastically compared with the thermally diffusion charging process. The rate of reduction in the charging time mainly depends on the rate of heating and geometric parameter of the tank. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the work is novel. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Properties and Usefulness of Ashes from the Corn Grain Drying Process Biomass
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051290 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 364
Abstract
The paper presents the results of a study on chemical composition of ashes from three types of waste biomass in terms of fertilizer usefulness. Waste from the process of corn grain drying, including corn cobs, corn grains and corn husk and their mixtures [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of a study on chemical composition of ashes from three types of waste biomass in terms of fertilizer usefulness. Waste from the process of corn grain drying, including corn cobs, corn grains and corn husk and their mixtures in the ratio 4:1 (v/v) were examined. The study proved that corn grain was the material with the highest concentration of macroelements among those studied (P—21,452 ppm, K—25,970 ppm, S—5911 ppm) and the mixture of corn cobs with corn grains (Ca—81,521 ppm). When microelements were considered, the highest concentration was recorded for corn cobs (Cu—207 ppm, Mn—844 ppm, Zn—857 ppm) and corn husk (Fe—15,100 ppm). The analysis of toxic elements in the ashes of the biomass studied showed their highest concentration in corn husk ash (Ni—494 ppm, Cr—301 ppm, Pb—42.7 ppm, As—4.62 ppm). The analysis showed that regardless of the type of biomass studied, all ashes were strongly enriched (in relation to the average soil content) with phosphorus and corn husk ash with calcium in particular. A slight enrichment in copper and lead was recorded for all ashes, and moderate or low for the other elements. It was found that the examined ashes from biomass, which is a residue from the drying of maize grain, have a high fertilizer usefulness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
Energetic and Economic Analyses for Agricultural Management Models: The Calabria PGI Clementine Case Study
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051289 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Farming systems need to be planned to provide suitable levels of economic profitability and, at the same time, ensure an effective energy use, in order to perform environmentally friendly production strategies. The herein present work aims to assess the efficiency of energy use [...] Read more.
Farming systems need to be planned to provide suitable levels of economic profitability and, at the same time, ensure an effective energy use, in order to perform environmentally friendly production strategies. The herein present work aims to assess the efficiency of energy use and economic impacts of the main farming methods (conventional, organic and integrated) of Clementine’s crops in Calabria (South Italy), through a combined use of Life Cycle Energy Assessment (LCEA) approach and economic analysis. For this purpose, data were collected from clementine producers by using face-to-face interviews. The results revealed that average energy consumption in the organic farming systems was 72,739 MJ, lower than conventional and integrated systems equal to 95,848 MJ and 94,060 MJ, respectively. This is mainly due to the ban of chemicals. Economic analysis showed that organic farms were more profitable compared with the other farming methods, because of the greater selling price and the EU economic support, reaching an average net profit of 4255 € ha−1 against 3134 € ha−1 of integrated farms and 2788 € ha−1 of conventional ones. The economic efficiency of energy from clementine production was 0.058 € MJ−1 in the organic farming, higher compared to the other two farming systems equal to 0.033 € MJ−1 on average. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Energy Consumption on Dairy Farms: A Review of Monitoring, Prediction Modelling, and Analyses
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051288 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 373
Abstract
The global consumption of dairy produce is forecasted to increase by 19% per person by 2050. However, milk production is an intense energy consuming process. Coupled with concerns related to global greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, increasing the production of milk must be [...] Read more.
The global consumption of dairy produce is forecasted to increase by 19% per person by 2050. However, milk production is an intense energy consuming process. Coupled with concerns related to global greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, increasing the production of milk must be met with the sustainable use of energy resources, to ensure the future monetary and environmental sustainability of the dairy industry. This body of work focused on summarizing and reviewing dairy energy research from the monitoring, prediction modelling and analyses point of view. Total primary energy consumption values in literature ranged from 2.7 MJ kg−1 Energy Corrected Milk on organic dairy farming systems to 4.2 MJ kg−1 Energy Corrected Milk on conventional dairy farming systems. Variances in total primary energy requirements were further assessed according to whether confinement or pasture-based systems were employed. Overall, a 35% energy reduction was seen across literature due to employing a pasture-based dairy system. Compared to standard regression methods, increased prediction accuracy has been demonstrated in energy literature due to employing various machine-learning algorithms. Dairy energy prediction models have been frequently utilized throughout literature to conduct dairy energy analyses, for estimating the impact of changes to infrastructural equipment and managerial practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
A Fuzzy-SOM Method for Fraud Detection in Power Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Roof-Top Grid-Connected PV
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051287 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 325
Abstract
This study proposes a fuzzy self-organized neural networks (SOM) model for detecting fraud by domestic customers, the major cause of non-technical losses in power distribution networks. Using a bottom-up approach, normal behavior patterns of household loads with and without photovoltaic (PV) sources are [...] Read more.
This study proposes a fuzzy self-organized neural networks (SOM) model for detecting fraud by domestic customers, the major cause of non-technical losses in power distribution networks. Using a bottom-up approach, normal behavior patterns of household loads with and without photovoltaic (PV) sources are determined as normal behavior. Customers suspected of energy theft are distinguished by calculating the anomaly index of each subscriber. The bottom-up method used is validated using measurement data of a real network. The performance of the algorithm in detecting fraud in old electromagnetic meters is evaluated and verified. Types of energy theft methods are introduced in smart meters. The proposed algorithm is tested and evaluated to detect fraud in smart meters also. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Qualitative and Quantitative Transient Stability Assessment of Stand-Alone Hybrid Microgrids in a Cluster Environment
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051286 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Neighboring stand-alone hybrid microgrids with diesel generators (DGs) as well as grid-feeding photovoltaics (PV) and grid-forming battery storage systems (BSS) can be coupled to reduce fuel costs and emissions as well as to enhance the security of supply. In contrast to the research [...] Read more.
Neighboring stand-alone hybrid microgrids with diesel generators (DGs) as well as grid-feeding photovoltaics (PV) and grid-forming battery storage systems (BSS) can be coupled to reduce fuel costs and emissions as well as to enhance the security of supply. In contrast to the research in control and small-signal rotor angle stability of microgrids, there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the transient stability of off-grid hybrid microgrids in a cluster environment. Therefore, the large-signal rotor angle stability of pooled microgrids was assessed qualitatively and also quantitatively in this research work. Quantitative transient stability assessment (TSA) was carried out with the help of the—recently developed and validated—micro-hybrid method by combining time-domain simulations and transient energy function analyses. For this purpose, three realistic dynamic microgrids were modelled regarding three operating modes (island, interconnection, and cluster) as well as the conventional scenario “classical” and four hybrid scenarios (“storage”, “sun”, “sun & storage”, and “night”) regarding different instants of time on a tropical partly sunny day. It can be inferred that, coupling hybrid microgrids is feasible from the voltage, frequency, and also transient stability point of view. However, the risk of large-signal rotor angle instability in pooled microgrids is relatively higher than in islanded microgrids. Along with critical clearing times, new stability-related indicators such as system stability degree and corrected critical clearing times should be taken into account in the planning phase and in the operation of microgrids. In principle, a general conclusion concerning the best operating mode and scenario of the investigated microgrids cannot be drawn. TSA of pooled hybrid microgrids should be performed—on a regular basis especially in the grid operation—for different loading conditions, tie-line power flows, topologies, operating modes, and scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Planning, Protection and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Defects and Dopants in CaFeSi2O6: Classical and DFT Simulations
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051285 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Calcium (Ca)-bearing minerals are of interest for the design of electrode materials required for rechargeable Ca-ion batteries. Here we use classical simulations to examine defect, dopant and transport properties of CaFeSi2O6. The formation of Ca-iron (Fe) anti-site defects is [...] Read more.
Calcium (Ca)-bearing minerals are of interest for the design of electrode materials required for rechargeable Ca-ion batteries. Here we use classical simulations to examine defect, dopant and transport properties of CaFeSi2O6. The formation of Ca-iron (Fe) anti-site defects is found to be the lowest energy process (0.42 eV/defect). The Oxygen and Calcium Frenkel energies are 2.87 eV/defect and 4.96 eV/defect respectively suggesting that these defects are not significant especially the Ca Frenkel. Reaction energy for the loss of CaO via CaO Schottky is 2.97 eV/defect suggesting that this process requires moderate temperature. Calculated activation energy of Ca-ion migration in this material is high (>4 eV), inferring very slow ionic conductivity. However, we suggest a strategy to introduce additional Ca2+ ions in the lattice by doping trivalent dopants on the Si site in order to enhance the capacity and ion diffusion and it is calculated that Al3+ is the favourable dopant for this process. Formation of Ca vacancies required for the CaO Schottky can be facilitated by doping of gallium (Ga) on the Fe site. The electronic structures of favourable dopants were calculated using density functional theory (DFT). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Temperature Pyrolysis of Municipal Plastic Waste Using Me/Ni/ZSM-5 Catalysts: The Effect of Metal/Nickel Ratio
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051284 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 324
Abstract
This work is dedicated to the high temperature pyrolysis of municipal plastic waste using Me/Ni/ZSM-5 catalysts. Catalysts were synthetized by wet impregnation. In addition to nickel, synthetic zeolite catalysts contain calcium, ceria, lanthanum, magnesia or manganese. Catalysts were prepared and tested using 0.1, [...] Read more.
This work is dedicated to the high temperature pyrolysis of municipal plastic waste using Me/Ni/ZSM-5 catalysts. Catalysts were synthetized by wet impregnation. In addition to nickel, synthetic zeolite catalysts contain calcium, ceria, lanthanum, magnesia or manganese. Catalysts were prepared and tested using 0.1, 0.5 and 2.0 Me/Ni ratios. Catalyst morphology was investigated by SEM and surface analysis. Higher concentrations of second metals can block catalyst pore channels due to the more coke formation, which leads to smaller surface area. Furthermore, the chemicals used for the impregnation were among the catalyst grains, especially in case of 2.0 Me/Ni ratios. For pyrolysis, a horizontal tubular furnace reactor was used at 700 °C. The highest hydrogen and syngas yields were observed using ceria- and lanthanum-covered catalysts. The maximum production of syngas and hydrogen (69.8 and 49.2 mmol/g raw material) was found in the presence of Ce/Ni/ZSM-5 catalyst with a 0.5 Me/Ni ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
Bi-Level Planning of Multi-Functional Vehicle Charging Stations Considering Land Use Types
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051283 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Locating and planning charging stations for Low-Emission Vehicles (LEVs) such as Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicle (HFCV), and Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) are becoming increasingly important for LEV users, government, and the automobile industry. Conventional planning approach of charging station usually [...] Read more.
Locating and planning charging stations for Low-Emission Vehicles (LEVs) such as Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicle (HFCV), and Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) are becoming increasingly important for LEV users, government, and the automobile industry. Conventional planning approach of charging station usually plans single functional charging station that can only serve one kind of LEVs, and other factors such as fuel type, driving range, initial fuel tank level, and refueling time of the LEV are less considered in the planning stage. In this article, we propose a bi-level planning model to locate and size Multi-Functional Charging Station (MFCS) which can recharge BEV, HFCV, and NGV at the same time in a medium-sized city with different functional areas (e.g., residential area, industrial area, CBD area). We also established a method for generating a daily route considering vehicle attributes and user habits, and we loaded these traveling data into the upper model to select a set of optimal combinations of refueling station locations with a relatively high success ratio. In the lower model, we introduced the mathematical relationship between number of chargers and average user waiting time, and set the total social cost factor, including investment cost and waiting time cost, to evaluate each optimal combination, and then identified the optimum locational result and defined the size of each station. In the case study, we verify the proposed model in several scenarios and conclude that multifunctional refueling station performs better in terms of investment cost and users’ satisfaction level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer using a Microparticle Multiphase Flow
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051282 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 260
Abstract
The turbulent heat transfer enhancement of microfluid as a heat transfer medium in a tube was investigated. Within the Reynolds number ranging from 7000 to 23,000, heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance characteristics of graphite, Al2O3 and CuO microfluid [...] Read more.
The turbulent heat transfer enhancement of microfluid as a heat transfer medium in a tube was investigated. Within the Reynolds number ranging from 7000 to 23,000, heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance characteristics of graphite, Al2O3 and CuO microfluid with the particle volume fraction of 0.25%–1.0% and particle size of 5 μm have been respectively tested. The results showed that the thermal performance of microfluids was better than water. In addition, the graphite microfluid had the best turbulent convective heat transfer effect among several microfluids. To further investigate the effect of graphite particle size on thermal performance, the heat transfer characteristics of the graphite microfluid with the size of 1 μm was also tested. The results showed that the thermal performance of the particle size of 1 μm was better than that of 5 μm. Within the investigated range, the maximum value of the thermal performance of graphite microfluid was found at a 1.0% volume fraction, a Reynolds number around 7500 and a size of 1 μm. In addition, the simulation results showed that the increase of equivalent thermal conductivity of the microfluid and the turbulent kinetic energy near the tube wall, by adding the microparticles, caused the enhancement of heat transfer; therefore, the microfluid can be potentially used to enhance turbulent convective heat transfer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of a Novel Absorptive/Reflective Solar Concentrator: A Thermal Analysis
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051281 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 406
Abstract
This paper presents the experimental investigation of a novel cross-compound parabolic concentrator (CCPC). For the first time, a CCPC module was designed to simultaneously work as an electricity generator and collect the thermal energy present in the module which is generated due to [...] Read more.
This paper presents the experimental investigation of a novel cross-compound parabolic concentrator (CCPC). For the first time, a CCPC module was designed to simultaneously work as an electricity generator and collect the thermal energy present in the module which is generated due to the incident irradiation. This CCPC module consists of two regions: an absorber surface atop the rig and a reflective region below that to reflect the irradiation onto the photovoltaic (PV) cell, coupled together to form an absorptive/reflective CCPC (AR-CCPC) module. A major issue in the use of PV cells is the decrease in electrical conversion efficiency with the increase in cell temperature. This module employs an active cooling system to decrease the PV cell temperature, optimizing the electrical performance and absorbing the heat generated within the module. This system was found to have an overall efficiency of 63%, which comprises the summation of the electrical and thermal efficiency posed by the AR-CCPC module. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
The Efficiency of Industrial and Laboratory Anaerobic Digesters of Organic Substrates: The Use of the Biochemical Methane Potential Correction Coefficient
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051280 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 297
Abstract
This study is an elaboration on the conference article written by the same authors, which presented the results of laboratory tests on the biogas efficiency of the following substrates: maize silage (MS), pig manure (PM), potato waste (PW), and sugar beet pulp (SB). [...] Read more.
This study is an elaboration on the conference article written by the same authors, which presented the results of laboratory tests on the biogas efficiency of the following substrates: maize silage (MS), pig manure (PM), potato waste (PW), and sugar beet pulp (SB). This article presents methane yields from the same substrates, but also on a technical scale. Apart from that, it presents an original methodology of defining the Biochemical Methane Potential Correction Coefficient (BMPCC) based on the calculation of biomass conversion on an industrial scale and on a laboratory scale. The BMPCC was introduced as a tool to enable uncomplicated verification of the operation of a biogas plant to increase its efficiency and prevent undesirable losses. The estimated BMPCC values showed that the volume of methane produced in the laboratory was overestimated in comparison to the amount of methane obtained under technical conditions. There were differences observed for each substrate. They ranged from 4.7% to 17.19% for MS, from 1.14% to 23.58% for PM, from 9.5% to 13.69% for PW, and from 9.06% to 14.31% for SB. The BMPCC enables estimation of biomass under fermentation on an industrial scale, as compared with laboratory conditions. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Comparison of Variable and Constant Loading for Mesophilic Food Waste Digestion in a Long-Term Experiment
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051279 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Operators of commercial anaerobic digestion (AD) plants frequently note the challenge of transferring research results to an industrial setting, especially in matching well-controlled laboratory studies at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) with full-scale digesters subject to day-to-day variation in loadings. This study [...] Read more.
Operators of commercial anaerobic digestion (AD) plants frequently note the challenge of transferring research results to an industrial setting, especially in matching well-controlled laboratory studies at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) with full-scale digesters subject to day-to-day variation in loadings. This study compared the performance of food waste digesters at fluctuating and constant OLR. In a long-term experiment over nearly three years, variable daily OLR with a range as wide as 0 to 10.0 g VS L−1 day−1 (weekly average 5.0 g VS L−1 day−1) were applied to one laboratory-scale digester, while a pair of control digesters was operated at a constant daily loading of 5.0 g VS L−1 day−1. Different schemes of trace elements (TE) supplementation were also tested to examine how they contributed to process stability. Variable loading had no adverse impact on biogas production or operational stability when 11 TE species were dosed. When TE addition was limited to cobalt and selenium, the stability of the variable-load digester was well maintained for nearly 300 days before the experiment was terminated, while the control digesters required re-supplementation with other TE species to reverse an accumulation of volatile fatty acids. This work demonstrated that variation in daily OLR across quite a wide range of applied loadings is possible with no adverse effects on methane production or stability of food waste digestion, giving confidence in the transferability of research findings. The positive effect of variable OLR on TE requirement requires further investigation considering its practical significance for AD industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioenergy from Organic Waste)
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Open AccessArticle
Power Smoothing and Energy Storage Sizing of Vented Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter Arrays
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051278 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Oscillating water column wave energy converter arrays can be arranged to enhance the energy production and quality of power delivered to the grid. This study investigates four different array configurations of vented oscillating water columns and their effect on power quality and capacity [...] Read more.
Oscillating water column wave energy converter arrays can be arranged to enhance the energy production and quality of power delivered to the grid. This study investigates four different array configurations of vented oscillating water columns and their effect on power quality and capacity of the energy storage systems required to absorb power fluctuation. Configuring the array of vented oscillating water columns as a nearshore detached breakwater allows combining the benefits of their complementary features. This increases the economic optimization of wave energy converters, paving the path to the energy market. The operations of the integration schemes are evaluated using the results obtained from simulations carried out using MATLAB/Simulink software. Simulation results show that the array of vented oscillating water columns and array of vented oscillating water columns as nearshore detached breakwater configurations increase the quality of power delivered to the grid and reduce the capacity of the energy storage systems required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Grids and Microgrids)
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Open AccessArticle
Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of the Turbine Engine Fueled with HEFA Blends from Different Feedstocks
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051277 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 312
Abstract
In the next decade, due to the desire for significant reduction in the carbon footprint left by the aviation sector and the development of a sustainable alternatives to petroleum, fuel from renewable sources will play an increasing role as a propellant for turbine [...] Read more.
In the next decade, due to the desire for significant reduction in the carbon footprint left by the aviation sector and the development of a sustainable alternatives to petroleum, fuel from renewable sources will play an increasing role as a propellant for turbine aircraft engines. Currently, apart from five types of jet fuel containing synthesized hydrocarbons that are certified by the ASTM D7566 standard, there is yet another synthetic blending component that is at the stage of testing and certification. Hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids enable the production of a synthetic component for jet fuel from any form of native fat or oil. Used feedstock affects the final synthetic blending component composition and consequently the properties of the blend for jet fuel and, as a result, the operation of turbine engines. A specialized laboratory test rig with a miniature turbojet engine was used for research, which is an interesting alternative to complex and expensive tests with full scale turbine engines. The results of this study revealed the differences in the parameters of engine performance and emission characteristics between tested fuels with synthetic blending components and neat jet fuel. The synthetic blending component was obtained from two different feedstock. Noticeable changes were obtained for fuel consumption, CO and NOx emissions. With the addition of the hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) component, the fuel consumption and CO emissions decrease. The opposite trend was observed for NOx emission. The tests presented in this article are a continuation of the authors’ research area related to alternative fuels for aviation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Energy Assessment of Alternative Fuels)
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Open AccessArticle
New Adaptive High Starting Torque Scalar Control Scheme for Induction Motors Based on Passivity
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051276 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 290
Abstract
A novel adaptive high starting torque (HST) scalar control scheme (SCS) for induction motors (IM) is proposed in this paper. It uses a new adaptive-passivity-based controller (APBC) proposed herein for a class of nonlinear systems, with linear explicit parametric dependence and linear stable [...] Read more.
A novel adaptive high starting torque (HST) scalar control scheme (SCS) for induction motors (IM) is proposed in this paper. It uses a new adaptive-passivity-based controller (APBC) proposed herein for a class of nonlinear systems, with linear explicit parametric dependence and linear stable internal dynamics, which encompasses the IM dynamical model. The main advantage of the HST-SCS includes the ability to move loads with starting-torque over the nominal torque with a simple and cost-effective implementation without needing a rotor speed sensor, variable observers, or parameter estimators. The proposed APBC is based on a direct control scheme using a normalized fixed gain (FG) to fine-tune the adaptive controller parameters. The basic SCS for induction motors (IM) and the HST-SCS were applied to an IM of 200 HP and tested using a real-time simulator controller OPAL-RT showing the achievement of the proposal goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimized Scheduling of EV Charging in Solar Parking Lots for Local Peak Reduction under EV Demand Uncertainty
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051275 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Scheduled charging offers the potential for electric vehicles (EVs) to use renewable energy more efficiently, lowering costs and improving the stability of the electricity grid. Many studies related to EV charge scheduling found in the literature assume perfect or highly accurate knowledge of [...] Read more.
Scheduled charging offers the potential for electric vehicles (EVs) to use renewable energy more efficiently, lowering costs and improving the stability of the electricity grid. Many studies related to EV charge scheduling found in the literature assume perfect or highly accurate knowledge of energy demand for EVs expected to arrive after the scheduling is performed. However, in practice, there is always a degree of uncertainty related to future EV charging demands. In this work, a Model Predictive Control (MPC) based smart charging strategy is developed, which takes this uncertainty into account, both in terms of the timing of the EV arrival as well as the magnitude of energy demand. The objective of the strategy is to reduce the peak electricity demand at an EV parking lot with PVarrays. The developed strategy is compared with both conventional EV charging as well as smart charging with an assumption of perfect knowledge of uncertain future events. The comparison reveals that the inclusion of a 24 h forecast of EV demand has a considerable effect on the improvement of the performance of the system. Further, strategies that are able to robustly consider uncertainty across many possible forecasts can reduce the peak electricity demand by as much as 39% at an office parking space. The reduction of peak electricity demand can lead to increased flexibility for system design, planning for EV charging facilities, deferral or avoidance of the upgrade of grid capacity as well as its better utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PV Charging and Storage for Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Economy Mode Setting Device for Wind-Diesel Power Plants
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051274 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 256
Abstract
The article is devoted to the problem of reducing fuel consumption in a diesel generator set (DGS) as a part of a wind-diesel power plant (WDPP). The object of the research is a variable speed DGS. The goal is to develop the WDPP [...] Read more.
The article is devoted to the problem of reducing fuel consumption in a diesel generator set (DGS) as a part of a wind-diesel power plant (WDPP). The object of the research is a variable speed DGS. The goal is to develop the WDPP intelligent control system, providing an optimal shaft speed of an internal combustion engine (ICE). The basis of the intelligent control system is an economy mode setting device (EMSD), which controls the fuel supply to the ICE. The functional chart of EMSD has been presented. The main EMSD blocks contain a controller and an associative memory block. The associative memory block is a software model of an artificial neural network that determines the optimal shaft speed of the ICE. An algorithm for the WDPP intelligent control system has been developed and tested using the WDPP Simulink model. The EMSD prototype has been created, and its research has been conducted. Dependences of the change in specific and absolute fuel consumption on the load power have been obtained for two 4 kW DGS: with constant rotation speed and variable rotation speed DGS with EMSD. It has been established that the use of EMSD in the mode of low loads allow one to reduce fuel consumption by almost 30%. The error in determining the optimal engine speed using EMSD prototype is not more than 15%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Control of Hybrid Systems and Renewable Energies)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Tensile Strength of Dry and Saturated Hard Coal under Impact Loading
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051273 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 231
Abstract
To evaluate the influence of water content on the hard coal dynamic behavior, the dynamic tensile properties of saturated coal Brazilian disk (BD) samples were studied using a split Hopkinson pressure bar system, and dry samples were also tested as a control group. [...] Read more.
To evaluate the influence of water content on the hard coal dynamic behavior, the dynamic tensile properties of saturated coal Brazilian disk (BD) samples were studied using a split Hopkinson pressure bar system, and dry samples were also tested as a control group. In the range of impact speeds studied, the tensile strength of the saturated coal is lower than that of the dry specimen. A synchronized triggering high-speed camera was used to monitor the deformation and failure process of dry and saturated coal samples, allowing analysis of the failure stages and mechanism of dynamic BD test, the broken mode was classified into three types, which can be classified into unilateral tensile failure, bilateral or multilateral tensile failure, and shear failure. Finally, fragments smaller than 5 mm in diameter were statistically analyzed. There is less debris in range of 0–5.0 mm for the saturated coal sample than for the dry coal. This study provides some information about the dynamic response of the hard coal for the relevant practical engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk and Integrity Management of Energy Assets)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling Artificial Ground Freezing for Construction of Two Tunnels of a Metro Station in Napoli (Italy)
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051272 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 439
Abstract
An artificial ground freezing (AGF) technique in the horizontal direction has been employed in Naples (Italy), in order to ensure the stability and waterproofing of soil during the excavation of two tunnels in a real underground station. The artificial freezing technique consists of [...] Read more.
An artificial ground freezing (AGF) technique in the horizontal direction has been employed in Naples (Italy), in order to ensure the stability and waterproofing of soil during the excavation of two tunnels in a real underground station. The artificial freezing technique consists of letting a coolant fluid, with a temperature lower than the surrounding ground, circulate inside probes positioned along the perimeter of the gallery. In this paper, the authors propose an efficient numerical model to analyze heat transfer during the whole excavation process for which this AGF technique was used. The model takes into account the water phase change process, and has been employed to analyze phenomena occurring in three cross sections of the galleries. The aim of the work is to analyze the thermal behavior of the ground during the freezing phases, to optimize the freezing process, and to evaluate the thickness of frozen wall obtained. The steps to realize the entire excavation of the tunnels, and the evolution of the frozen wall during the working phases, have been considered. In particular, the present model has allowed us to calculate the thickness of the frozen wall equal to 2.1 m after fourteen days of nitrogen feeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Transfer in Energy Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Improvements in CO2 Booster Architectures with Different Economizer Arrangements
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051271 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 353
Abstract
CO2 transcritical booster architectures are widely analyzed to be applied in centralized commercial refrigeration plants in consonance with the irrevocable phase-out of HFCs. Most of these analyses show the limitations of CO2 cycles in terms of energy efficiency, especially in warm [...] Read more.
CO2 transcritical booster architectures are widely analyzed to be applied in centralized commercial refrigeration plants in consonance with the irrevocable phase-out of HFCs. Most of these analyses show the limitations of CO2 cycles in terms of energy efficiency, especially in warm countries. From the literature, several improvements have been proposed to raise the booster efficiency in high ambient temperatures. The use of economizers is an interesting technique to reduce the temperature after the gas cooler and to improve the energy efficiency of transcritical CO2 cycles. The economizer cools down the high pressure’s line of CO2 by evaporating the same refrigerant extracted from another point of the facility. Depending on the extraction point, some configurations are possible. In this work, different booster architectures with economizers have been analyzed and compared. From the results, the combination of the economizer with the additional compressor allows obtaining energy savings of up to 8.5% in warm countries and up to 4% in cold countries with regard to the flash-by-pass arrangement and reduce the volumetric displacement required of the MT compressors by up to 37%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvements on CO2 Vapour Compression Cycles)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Novel Experimental Device to Monitor the Ground Thermal Exchange in a Borehole Heat Exchanger
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051270 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are becoming popular in space heating and cooling applications. Despite this fact, in most countries, the role of this energy is not as important as it should be nowadays according to its capabilities for energy generation without [...] Read more.
Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are becoming popular in space heating and cooling applications. Despite this fact, in most countries, the role of this energy is not as important as it should be nowadays according to its capabilities for energy generation without CO2 emissions, mainly due to the lack of technical knowledge about GSHP performance. The analysis of the physical processes that take part in the geothermal exchanges is necessary to allow the optimal exploitation of the geothermal resources. For all the above, an experimental geothermal device was built in the laboratory to control the phenomena that take place in a borehole heat exchanger (BHE). A 1-m high single-U heat exchanger was inserted in the center of a polyethylene container which also included granular material (surrounding ground) and the grouting material. Temperature sensors were situated in different positions of the experimental setup. Physical processes are evaluated to finally validate the model. Numerous applications can be developed from the experimental BHE. In this research, the determination of the thermal conductivity of the material used as medium was carried out. Results of this parameter were also compared with the ones obtained from the use of the KD2 Pro device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Response Tests for Shallow Geothermal Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Matching Characteristic Research of Building Renewable Energy System Based on Virtual Energy Storage of Air Conditioning Load
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051269 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Considering the huge power consumption, rapid response and the short-term heat reserving capacity of the air conditioning load in the building’s energy system, the air conditioning load and its system can be equivalent to the virtual energy storage device for the power grid. [...] Read more.
Considering the huge power consumption, rapid response and the short-term heat reserving capacity of the air conditioning load in the building’s energy system, the air conditioning load and its system can be equivalent to the virtual energy storage device for the power grid. Therefore, to obtain a high matching building renewable energy system, a virtual energy storage system of the air conditioning load, accompanied by a storage battery, was built in the paper. Then, operating strategies for the virtual energy storage of the air conditioning load and storage battery were designed. Further, to quantize the contribution of the virtual energy storage to the improvement of matching characteristics, two indicators of the demand side and supply side in the energy system were adopted, including on-site energy fraction (OEFr) and on-site energy matching (OEMr). Lastly, matching characteristic research of the building’s renewable energy system based on virtual energy storage of the air conditioning load was established and analyzed by TRNSYS and MATLAB in Tianjin, China. The results revealed that a better matching characteristic performance of the building’s renewable energy systems driven by virtual energy storage was obtained. In the condition set out in the paper, compared with that without virtual energy storage, the average values of OEFr and OEMr after virtual energy storage were 0.66 and 0.77, which increased by 8.19% and 8.45% respectively. Simultaneously, the battery operation performance in the building renewable system was improved when the virtual energy storage was working. The times of charge and discharge cycles decreased after virtual energy storage, and the depth of discharge of the battery reduced by 23.37% on a specific day. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Techno-Economic and Environmental Evaluations of Decarbonized Fossil-Intensive Industrial Processes by Reactive Absorption & Adsorption CO2 Capture Systems
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051268 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Decarbonization of energy-intensive systems (e.g., heat and power generation, iron, and steel production, petrochemical processes, cement production, etc.) is an important task for the development of a low carbon economy. In this respect, carbon capture technologies will play an important role in the [...] Read more.
Decarbonization of energy-intensive systems (e.g., heat and power generation, iron, and steel production, petrochemical processes, cement production, etc.) is an important task for the development of a low carbon economy. In this respect, carbon capture technologies will play an important role in the decarbonization of fossil-based industrial processes. The most significant techno-economic and environmental performance indicators of various fossil-based industrial applications decarbonized by two reactive gas-liquid (chemical scrubbing) and gas-solid CO2 capture systems are calculated, compared, and discussed in the present work. As decarbonization technologies, the gas-liquid chemical absorption and more innovative calcium looping systems were employed. The integrated assessment uses various elements, e.g., conceptual design of decarbonized plants, computer-aided tools for process design and integration, evaluation of main plant performance indexes based on industrial and simulation results, etc. The overall decarbonization rate for various assessed applications (e.g., power generation, steel, and cement production, chemicals) was set to 90% in line with the current state of the art in the field. Similar non-carbon capture plants are also assessed to quantify the various penalties imposed by decarbonization (e.g., increasing energy consumption, reducing efficiency, economic impact, etc.). The integrated evaluations exhibit that the integration of decarbonization technologies (especially chemical looping systems) into key energy-intensive industrial processes have significant advantages for cutting the carbon footprint (60–90% specific CO2 emission reduction), improving the energy conversion yields and reducing CO2 capture penalties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fleet Transition from Combustion to Electric Vehicles: A Case Study in a Portuguese Business Campus
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051267 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 336
Abstract
This paper aims to contribute to the urgent reflection as a society about environmental protection, in the ultimate challenge that is the sustainable use of energy resources. Since Portugal is at an early stage of market development internally, governmental and local stimulation policies [...] Read more.
This paper aims to contribute to the urgent reflection as a society about environmental protection, in the ultimate challenge that is the sustainable use of energy resources. Since Portugal is at an early stage of market development internally, governmental and local stimulation policies play a central role and are a key element in the successful diffusion of Electric Mobility. The study will focus on the transition of a company car fleet, which currently consists of combustion vehicles, to electric vehicles. With this change it becomes necessary to understand how the electrical installation will be affected due to the installation of charging stations, allowing the company to have some autonomy from the public grid. The various changes resulting from the installation consumption profile will be studied and compared. The state of the art, the level of maturity and where the development of electric mobility in Portugal is heading will also be appreciated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Aeolian Sand-Fly Ash-Based Filling Slurry
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051266 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Backfill mining is the most environmentally friendly mining method at present, which can effectively control the surface subsidence, improve the recovery rate, and has good social and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to solve the environmental problems caused by solid [...] Read more.
Backfill mining is the most environmentally friendly mining method at present, which can effectively control the surface subsidence, improve the recovery rate, and has good social and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to solve the environmental problems caused by solid waste, combined with the rich geographical advantages of aeolian sand in the Yushenfu mining area of China. The rheological properties of the aeolian sand-fly ash-based filling slurry with different fly ash content are studied by experiments, and the strength development law of the filling body under different age and fly ash content are studied from the macroscopic and microscopic points of view. The rheological experiments showed that the increase of the amount of fly ash has a significant effect on the thixotropy, plastic viscosity, and yield stress of the filling slurry. Additionally, rheological properties of aeolian sand-fly ash-based filling slurry conform to the Bingham model. With the increase of the amount of fly ash, the performance of the filling slurry has been significantly improved. Uniaxial test and scanning electron microscope observation showed that the influence of fly ash on the strength of the filling body was mainly reflected in the late stage of maintenance, but was not obvious in the middle stage. Fly ash particles mainly bear the role of “water reduction” and a physical filling effect, which makes the filling slurry thicker and the internal structure more closely spaced. The volcanic ash reaction of fly ash is lagging behind the hydration reaction of cement; the secondary product of the delayed reaction is filled in the pores of cement hydrates, which can greatly reduce the porosity of the backfill body and increase the later strength of the backfill body. It provides a guarantee for the safe replacement of coal pillars in the working face. Full article
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