Special Issue "Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Fundamentals and Conversion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Roberto Cárdenas Dobson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electrical Engineering Department, University of Chile, Chile
Interests: electrical machines; variable speed drives; renewable energy systems
Prof. Matías Díaz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electrical Engineering Department, University of Santiago, Chile
Interests: wind energy conversion systems; multilevel converters; drives

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) in the utility and introduction of new generation topologies as microgrids and distributed generation systems have increased the penetration of power converters in modern power systems. At present, power converters (PC) are used in a wide range of applications, such as electric vehicles, microgrids, renewable energy conversion systems, variable speed drives, power conditioners, high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission, energy storage systems, traction systems, etc.

The high penetration of generation units based on power converters reduces the total rotational inertia available in a system, and this negatively impacts its stiffness and power system stability. Therefore, new control systems have to be developed to improve the performance of power converter based generation units, and it is now expected that they provide ancillary services, such as frequency and voltage support, harmonic compensation, as well as synthetic inertia emulation. New droop control methods have to be applied to PC-based generation units to achieve active and reactive power sharing, distributed averaging proportional integral controllers or centralized systems used to provide frequency regulation, in microgrids, etc.

Despite these several requirements, most PCs use control systems that rely on cascaded linear control. However, cascaded linear control could lead to performance limitations, inflexibility, and limited bandwidth.

Therefore, it is essential to develop advanced control strategies for power conversion systems so that the robustness, flexibility, and dynamic performance of modern power systems can be significantly improved.

Editors invite original manuscripts presenting recent advances in these fields with particular reference but not limited to:

  • Novel modeling approaches and control strategies for PC based RES
  • Novel modeling approaches and control strategies for microgrids and distributed generation systems
  • Robust, predictive, nonlinear, passivity-based control of PC and RES
  • Modeling and control of power systems with high penetration of RES
  • Ancillary services for PC-based RES
  • New control systems and topologies for large power RES applications
  • Grid integration of large power RES
  • New control systems for wind energy and PV conversion systems

Prof. Roberto Cárdenas Dobson
Prof. Matías Díaz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • renewable energy sources
  • advanced control strategies
  • power converters
  • robust control
  • frequency control
  • inertia emulation
  • microgrids

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A State-Space Model of an Inverter-Based Microgrid for Multivariable Feedback Control Analysis and Design
Energies 2020, 13(12), 3279; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123279 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
In this work, a synchronous model for grid-connected and islanded microgrids is presented. The grid-connected model is based on the premise that the reference frame is synchronized with the AC bus. The quadrature component of the AC bus voltage can be cancelled, which [...] Read more.
In this work, a synchronous model for grid-connected and islanded microgrids is presented. The grid-connected model is based on the premise that the reference frame is synchronized with the AC bus. The quadrature component of the AC bus voltage can be cancelled, which allows to express output power as a linear equation for nominal values in the AC bus amplitude voltage. The model for the islanded microgrid is developed by integrating all the inverter dynamics using a state-space model for the load currents. This model is presented in a comprehensive way such that it could be scalable to any number of inverter-based generators using inductor–capacitor–inductor (LCL) output filters. The use of these models allows designers to assess microgrid stability and robustness using modern control methods such as eigenvalue analysis and singular value diagrams. Both models were tested and validated in an experimental setup to demonstrate their accuracy in describing microgrid dynamics. In addition, three scenarios are presented: non-controlled model, Linear-Quadratic Integrator (LQI) power control, and Power-Voltage (PQ/Vdq) droop–boost controller. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategies and the accuracy of the models to describe microgrid dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Predictive Control in Multi-Modular Matrix Converter for Six-Phase Generation Systems
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102660 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 710
Abstract
Distributed generation systems are emerging as a good solution as part of the response to the world’s growing energy demand. In this context multi-phase wind generation systems are a feasible option. These systems consist of renewable AC sources which requires efficient and controlled [...] Read more.
Distributed generation systems are emerging as a good solution as part of the response to the world’s growing energy demand. In this context multi-phase wind generation systems are a feasible option. These systems consist of renewable AC sources which requires efficient and controlled power conversion stages. This work proposes a novel predictive current control strategy that takes advantage of a multi-modular matrix converter topology in the power stage of a six-phase generation system. The proposed method uses a coupling signal between the modules to decrease the error and the total harmonic distortion compared to independent control of each module. Experimental results validate the new control strategy showing the improvement regarding the target parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Voltage Support of Converters during Grid Faults in Accordance with National Grid Code Requirements
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2484; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102484 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
To ensure system stability, national grid codes often require converter-based generators to provide fault-ride-through (FRT) capabilities and dynamic voltage support, according to which they should stay connected and support the voltage during fault situations. The requirements for dynamic voltage support include the injection [...] Read more.
To ensure system stability, national grid codes often require converter-based generators to provide fault-ride-through (FRT) capabilities and dynamic voltage support, according to which they should stay connected and support the voltage during fault situations. The requirements for dynamic voltage support include the injection of reactive current in the positive- as well as negative-sequence system, directly proportional to the change of the corresponding voltage between fault and pre-fault. Since this requirement may lead to a reference current surpassing the maximum current capability, the converter control has to contain a proper current limitation. This paper presents an algorithm for such a current limitation and a simulation model of a converter and its control, which applies this algorithm. Based on voltage measurements, which were measured during forced short-circuits in the real grid, the simulation model is used to simulate the behavior of a converter in reaction to these voltage measurements. The results show that the converter control using this algorithm for current limitation guarantees a current output below the maximum current capability while respecting the requirements for dynamic voltage support of the relevant grid codes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Solid State Transformers: Concepts, Classification, and Control
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092319 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
Increase in global energy demand and constraints from fossil fuels have encouraged a growing share of renewable energy resources in the utility grid. Accordingly, an increased penetration of direct current (DC) power sources and loads (e.g., solar photovoltaics and electric vehicles) as well [...] Read more.
Increase in global energy demand and constraints from fossil fuels have encouraged a growing share of renewable energy resources in the utility grid. Accordingly, an increased penetration of direct current (DC) power sources and loads (e.g., solar photovoltaics and electric vehicles) as well as the necessity for active power flow control has been witnessed in the power distribution networks. Passive transformers are susceptible to DC offset and possess no controllability when employed in smart grids. Solid state transformers (SSTs) are identified as a potential solution to modernize and harmonize alternating current (AC) and DC electrical networks and as suitable solutions in applications such as traction, electric ships, and aerospace industry. This paper provides a complete overview on SST: concepts, topologies, classification, power converters, material selection, and key aspects for design criteria and control schemes proposed in the literature. It also proposes a simple terminology to identify and homogenize the large number of definitions and structures currently reported in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Fuzzy Control of Waves Generation in a Towing Tank
Energies 2020, 13(8), 2049; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13082049 - 20 Apr 2020
Viewed by 698
Abstract
This paper presents the results of research related to the transformation of electrical energy into potential and kinetic energy of waves generated on the water surface. The waves are generated to model the environmental conditions for the needs of the model tests. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of research related to the transformation of electrical energy into potential and kinetic energy of waves generated on the water surface. The waves are generated to model the environmental conditions for the needs of the model tests. The model tests are performed on model-scale objects to predict the features of full-scale maritime objects. It is done to improve human safety and the survivability of constructions. Electrical energy is transformed into the energy of the water waves using a wave maker. The wave maker considered is a facility with an electrohydraulic drive and an actuator submerged into the water. The actuator movement results in the waves being mechanically-generated in accordance with the wave maker theory. The study aimed to investigate the advantage of the newly implemented fuzzy-logic controller over the hitherto cascading proportional-integral controllers of the wave maker actuator. The research was focused on experimental investigation of the transformation process outcomes harvested under the fuzzy-logic controller, versus the cascading proportional-integral controllers. The waves were generated and measured in the real towing tank, located in the Maritime Advanced Research Centre (CTO S.A.). The investigation confirmed the advantage of the fuzzy-logic controller. It provides more accurate transformation of energy into the desired form of the water waves of specified parameters—frequency and amplitude—and more flat amplitude-frequency characteristic of the transformation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Simple Distribution Energy Tariff under the Penetration of DG
Energies 2020, 13(8), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13081910 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 504
Abstract
In a scenario where distributed generation infrastructure is increasing, the impact of that integration on electricity tariffs has captured particular attention. As the distribution sector is mainly regulated, tariff systems are defined by the authority. Then, tariffs must be simple, so the methodology, [...] Read more.
In a scenario where distributed generation infrastructure is increasing, the impact of that integration on electricity tariffs has captured particular attention. As the distribution sector is mainly regulated, tariff systems are defined by the authority. Then, tariffs must be simple, so the methodology, criteria, and procedures can be made public to ensure transparency and responsiveness of the customers to price signals. In the aim of simplicity, tariff systems in current practices mostly consist of volumetric charges. Hence, the reduction of the energy purchased from the distribution network jeopardizes the ability of the tariff system to ensure recovery of the total regulated costs. Although various works have captured this concern, most proposals present significant mathematical complexity, contrasting with the simplicity of current practices and limiting its regulatory applicability. This work develops a tariff system that captures the basic elements of distribution systems, trying to maintain the simplicity of current practices, ensuring recovery of the total regulated cost under the penetration of distributed generation, and incentivizing through price signals operational efficiency. A simulation will be presented to discuss numerical results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Sliding Mode Control Strategy with Repetitive Sliding Surface for Shunt Active Power Filter with an LCLCL Filter
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1740; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071740 - 05 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 672
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel sliding mode control (SMC) scheme with a repetitive sliding surface for shunt active power filters (SAPF) to enhance the system robustness and eliminate harmonic current tracking errors. Traditional control schemes, such as PI control, repetitive control (RC), proportional [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel sliding mode control (SMC) scheme with a repetitive sliding surface for shunt active power filters (SAPF) to enhance the system robustness and eliminate harmonic current tracking errors. Traditional control schemes, such as PI control, repetitive control (RC), proportional resonance control (PR), improve the stability of the SAPF in the stable grid to a certain extent. However, the robustness of the SAPF control system has not been improved. In this paper, the SMC is applied to SAPF, and a sliding mode controller is constructed by using a linear sliding mode surface composed of the system state variables and a fast exponential power-reaching law, which can effectively enhance the system robustness. When the grid parameters change or external disturbances exist, sliding surface drift and sliding mode chattering will occur. Although fast-tracking of the harmonic current can still be achieved, it is difficult to accurately compensate AC harmonic current. Moreover, this may cause the harmonic current compensation error to be amplified. RC can achieve infinite gain at multiples of the fundamental frequency and can track inputs without static errors. In order to fully eliminate the harmonic current tracking error and effectively suppress the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the grid, the sliding mode surface was modified. An RC term of harmonic current error is introduced to the sliding mode surface, and a novel plugin-repetitive sliding mode control strategy (RCSMC) for SAPF is proposed. Finally, simulation and experiment results on the LCLCL-filter based SAPF show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Implementation of a Low-Cost Real-Time Control Platform for Power Electronics Applications
Energies 2020, 13(6), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061527 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
In recent years, different off-the-shelf solutions for the rapid control prototyping of power electronics converters have been commercialised. The main benefits of those systems are based on a fast and easy-to-use environment due to high-level programming. However, most of those systems are very [...] Read more.
In recent years, different off-the-shelf solutions for the rapid control prototyping of power electronics converters have been commercialised. The main benefits of those systems are based on a fast and easy-to-use environment due to high-level programming. However, most of those systems are very expensive and are closed software and hardware solutions. In this context, this paper presents the design and implementation of a control platform targeting at the segment in between expensive off-the-shelf control platforms and low-cost controllers. The control platform is based on the Launchpad TMS320F28379D from Texas Instruments, and it is equipped with an expansion board that provide analogue-to-digital measurements, switching signals and hardware protections. The performance of the control platform is experimentally tested on a 20 kVA power converter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
New Adaptive High Starting Torque Scalar Control Scheme for Induction Motors Based on Passivity
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051276 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
A novel adaptive high starting torque (HST) scalar control scheme (SCS) for induction motors (IM) is proposed in this paper. It uses a new adaptive-passivity-based controller (APBC) proposed herein for a class of nonlinear systems, with linear explicit parametric dependence and linear stable [...] Read more.
A novel adaptive high starting torque (HST) scalar control scheme (SCS) for induction motors (IM) is proposed in this paper. It uses a new adaptive-passivity-based controller (APBC) proposed herein for a class of nonlinear systems, with linear explicit parametric dependence and linear stable internal dynamics, which encompasses the IM dynamical model. The main advantage of the HST-SCS includes the ability to move loads with starting-torque over the nominal torque with a simple and cost-effective implementation without needing a rotor speed sensor, variable observers, or parameter estimators. The proposed APBC is based on a direct control scheme using a normalized fixed gain (FG) to fine-tune the adaptive controller parameters. The basic SCS for induction motors (IM) and the HST-SCS were applied to an IM of 200 HP and tested using a real-time simulator controller OPAL-RT showing the achievement of the proposal goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Control of a Modular Multilevel Matrix Converter for Unified Power Flow Controller Applications
Energies 2020, 13(4), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13040953 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 814
Abstract
The modular multilevel matrix converter has been proposed as a suitable option for high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems. Among flexible AC transmission systems, the unified power flow controller stands out as the most versatile device. However, the application of [...] Read more.
The modular multilevel matrix converter has been proposed as a suitable option for high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems. Among flexible AC transmission systems, the unified power flow controller stands out as the most versatile device. However, the application of the modular multilevel matrix converter has not been thoroughly analyzed for unified power flow controller applications due to the sophisticated control systems that are needed when its ports operate at equal frequencies. In this context, this paper presents a cascaded control structure for a modular multilevel matrix converter based unified power flow controller. The control is implemented in a decoupled reference frame, and it features proportional-integral external controllers and internal proportional multi-resonant controllers. Additionally, the input port of the modular multilevel matrix converter is regulated in grid-feeding mode, and the output port is regulated in grid-forming mode to provide power flow compensation. The effectiveness of the proposed vector control system is demonstrated through simulation studies and experimental validation tests conducted with a 27-cell 5 kW prototype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Control for Three-Phase LCL-Filter PWM Rectifier with BESS-Oriented Application
Energies 2019, 12(21), 4093; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214093 - 26 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
This paper deals with a battery energy storage system (BESS) in only one of its multiple operating modes, that is when the BESS is charging the battery bank and with the focus on the control scheme design for the BESS input stage, which [...] Read more.
This paper deals with a battery energy storage system (BESS) in only one of its multiple operating modes, that is when the BESS is charging the battery bank and with the focus on the control scheme design for the BESS input stage, which is a three-phase LCL-filter PWM rectifier. The rectifier’s main requirements comprise output voltage regulation, power factor control, and low input current harmonic distortion, even in the presence of input voltage variations. Typically, these objectives are modeled by using a dq model with its corresponding two-loop controller architecture, including an outer voltage loop and a current internal loop. This paper outlines an alternative approach to tackle the problem by using not only an input–output map linearization controller, with the aim of a single-loop current control, but also by avoiding the dq modeling. In this case, the voltage is indirectly controlled by computing the current references based on the converter power balance. The mathematical model of the three-phase LCL-filter PWM rectifier is defined based on the delta connection of the filter, which accomplishes the requirements of a 100 kW BESS module. Extensive simulation results are included to confirm the performance of the proposed closed-loop control in practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Control Strategy for Smooth Power Tracking of a Grid-Connected Virtual Synchronous Generator Based on Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control
Energies 2019, 12(15), 3024; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12153024 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1061
Abstract
The power quality of new energy resources has received tremendous attention recently. The control approach for the inverter, an interface between the new energy resources, and the infinite bus system is of vital importance. For the virtual synchronous generator (VSG), one of the [...] Read more.
The power quality of new energy resources has received tremendous attention recently. The control approach for the inverter, an interface between the new energy resources, and the infinite bus system is of vital importance. For the virtual synchronous generator (VSG), one of the research hotspots in the inverter control field, there are some challenges remaining to be dealt with. First is the contradiction between the rapid response and overshoot of active power output if VSG is connected to the grid. Secondly, the active power is deeply influenced by the fluctuation of gird frequency and this may bring power oscillation to VSG in weak grids. In this article, an active power controller for power tracking of grid-connected VSG is designed based on linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC) by compensating for the lumped disturbance in a feedforward fashion. The parameters of the controller are analyzed and tuned in the frequency domain to acquire a desirable control performance. Moreover, the robustness of the control system is also considered. Simulation results show that the designed control system can transmit active power to the grid in a timely manner with no overshoot, as demanded. Additionally, it can output active power steadily according to the power reference without using a phase-locked loop (PLL) when the grid frequency has different features of fluctuation. In addition, the simulation results demonstrate that the improved VSG has strong robustness to the model parameter perturbation and mismatch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Control of a Doubly Fed Generator Supplied by a Current Source Inverter
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122235 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
Nowadays, wind turbines based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) are a commonly used solution in the wind industry. The standard converter topology used in these systems is the voltage source inverter (VSI). The use of reverse-blocking insulated gate bipolar transistor (RB-IGBT) [...] Read more.
Nowadays, wind turbines based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) are a commonly used solution in the wind industry. The standard converter topology used in these systems is the voltage source inverter (VSI). The use of reverse-blocking insulated gate bipolar transistor (RB-IGBT) in the current source inverter topology (CSI), which is an alternative topology, opens new possibilities of control methods. This paper presents a novel power control system for a DFIG supplied by a CSI. The authors propose to use multi-scalar DFIG state variables. A nonlinear control method realized by feedback linearization was used to control the active and reactive powers of the generator. In the feedback linearization controls, the nonlinear DFIG model was taken into account. In the control system structure, classical proportional–integral controllers were used. The control variables were the output current vector components of the CSI. Such approach was named the “current control”. The proposed control method is characterized by good dynamic properties which, combined with the inverter properties in the rotor circuit, allow to increase the quality of the energy transferred to the grid by the generator. In the simulation tests, the correctness of the decoupling of the active and reactive power control loops, the dynamics of controlled power changes, and the change of the machine operating range resulting from the increase of the rotational speed of the generator shaft were controlled. The simulation studies also evaluated the impact of changes in the value of the passive elements of the system on the operation of the generator system. Characteristic operating states of the generator system were analyzed using computer simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
An Overview of Applications of the Modular Multilevel Matrix Converter
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5546; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215546 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
The modular multilevel matrix converter is a relatively new power converter topology suitable for high-power alternating current (AC)-to-AC applications. Several publications in the literature have highlighted the converter capabilities, such as full modularity, fault-redundancy, control flexibility and input/output power quality. However, the topology [...] Read more.
The modular multilevel matrix converter is a relatively new power converter topology suitable for high-power alternating current (AC)-to-AC applications. Several publications in the literature have highlighted the converter capabilities, such as full modularity, fault-redundancy, control flexibility and input/output power quality. However, the topology and control of this converter are relatively complex to realise, considering that the converter has a large number of power-cells and floating capacitors. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no review papers where the applications of the modular multilevel matrix converter are discussed. Hence, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art of the modular multilevel matrix converter, focusing on implementation issues and applications. Guidelines to dimensioning the key components of this converter are described and compared to other modular multilevel topologies, highlighting the versatility and controllability of the converter in high-power applications. Additionally, the most popular applications for the modular multilevel matrix converter, such as wind turbines, grid connection and motor drives, are discussed based on analyses of simulation and experimental results. Finally, future trends and new opportunities for the use of the modular multilevel matrix converter in high-power AC-to-AC applications are identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
An Overview of Modelling Techniques and Control Strategies for Modular Multilevel Matrix Converters
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4678; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184678 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
The Modular Multilevel Matrix Converter is a relatively new power converter topology appropriate for high-power Alternating Current (AC) to AC purposes. Several publications in the literature have highlighted the converter capabilities such as modularity, control flexibility, the possibility to include redundancy, and power [...] Read more.
The Modular Multilevel Matrix Converter is a relatively new power converter topology appropriate for high-power Alternating Current (AC) to AC purposes. Several publications in the literature have highlighted the converter capabilities such as modularity, control flexibility, the possibility to include redundancy, and power quality. Nevertheless, the topology and control of this converter are relatively complex to design and implement, considering that the converter has a large number of cells and floating capacitors. Therefore multilayer nested control systems are required to maintain the capacitor voltage of each cell regulated within an acceptable range. There are no other review papers where the modelling, control systems and applications of the Modular Multilevel Matrix Converter are discussed. Hence, this paper aims to facilitate further research by presenting the technology related to the Modular Multilevel Matrix Converter, focusing on a comprehensive revision of the modelling and control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies for Power Conversion Systems)
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