Special Issue "Monitoring and Control of Active Electrical Distribution Grids and Urban Energy Grids "

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Ferdinanda Ponci
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen, Germany
Interests: distribution grids; monitoring; measurements; automation…
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many of the changes in the electrical power system are occurring on the distribution level and in the urban setting. The network infrastructure is changing due to microgrid integration, including DC grids and scenarios in which parts of the distribution system are managed like microgrids; sector coupling of e.g. electricity and gas; new load behavior, e.g. e-vehicle recharging stations and buildings; and renewable energy sources and storage. Business level changes accompany the power infrastructure changes, among them the new roles of distribution system operators, aggregators, third party service providers, and local energy exchange systems.

These active distribution grids require management and control solutions to handle the complexity and to adapt to dynamically changing operating conditions, including extreme conditions such as reconfiguration and black start.

Technical and business activities rely on the access to measurements and other data, and the visibility of the network and device status. This implies that measurements, in different forms and from a variety of sources, sensors and instruments, must be pervasive, able to track fast dynamics, able to provide new relevant parameters, and accompanied by elaboration, interpretation and merging functionalities. New concepts of the monitoring of the electrical distribution grid and of the systems it interfaces must be developed.

Monitoring and control functions must be supported in a suitable automation system.

The technologies for data collection, communication, storage, access and handling are expected to create an open and secure environment. The applications should be easy to develop, and should support interoperability across sectors, companies, institutions and users, with particular attention to standards. In particular, technologies and applications in the energy sector should constitute one face of the smart city environment, thus yielding benefits on a broader scale to the urban setting.

This Special Issue will present the concepts, technologies, methods, and applications that promise to propel the active electrical distribution systems in the urban environment to the next level. Contributions that present the results of full-scale field demonstrations or scalable testing methods are particularly relevant.

Thank you very much!

Prof. Ferdinanda Ponci
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • distribution grids
  • monitoring
  • measurements
  • control
  • energy management
  • microgrids
  • data platforms
  • sector coupling
  • smart city
  • local energy systems
  • storage
  • integration of renewables
  • urban systems

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Allocation of Renewable Energy Hybrid Distributed Generations for Small-Signal Stability Enhancement
Energies 2019, 12(24), 4777; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12244777 - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
This paper solves the allocation planning problem of integrating large scale renewable energy hybrid distributed generations and capacitor banks into the distribution systems. Extraordinarily, the integration of renewable energy hybrid distributed generations such as solar photovoltaic, wind, and biomass takes into consideration the [...] Read more.
This paper solves the allocation planning problem of integrating large scale renewable energy hybrid distributed generations and capacitor banks into the distribution systems. Extraordinarily, the integration of renewable energy hybrid distributed generations such as solar photovoltaic, wind, and biomass takes into consideration the impact assessment of variable generations from PV and wind on the distribution networks’ long term dynamic voltage and small-signal stabilities. Unlike other renewable distributed generations, the variability of power from solar PV and wind generations causes small-signal instabilities if they are sub-optimally allocated in the distribution network. Hence, the variables related to small-signal stability are included and constrained in the model, unlike what is obtainable in the current works on the planning of optimal allocation of renewable distributed generations. Thus, the model is motivated to maximize the penetration of renewable powers by minimizing the net present value of total cost, which includes investment, maintenance, energy, and emission costs. Consequently, the optimization problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer linear program, which ensures limited convergence to optimality. Numerical results of the proposed model demonstrate a significant reduction in electricity and emission costs, enhancement of system dynamic voltage and small-signal stabilities, as well as improvement in welfare costs and environmental goodness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Economic Dispatch of BESS and Renewable Generators in DC Microgrids Using Voltage-Dependent Load Models
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4494; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234494 - 26 Nov 2019
Abstract
This paper addresses the optimal dispatch problem for battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in direct current (DC) mode for an operational period of 24 h. The problem is represented by a nonlinear programming (NLP) model that was formulated using an exponential voltage-dependent load [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the optimal dispatch problem for battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in direct current (DC) mode for an operational period of 24 h. The problem is represented by a nonlinear programming (NLP) model that was formulated using an exponential voltage-dependent load model, which is the main contribution of this paper. An artificial neural network was employed for the short-term prediction of available renewable energy from wind and photovoltaic sources. The NLP model was solved by using the general algebraic modeling system (GAMS) to implement a 30-node test feeder composed of four renewable generators and three batteries. Simulation results demonstrate that the cost reduction for a daily operation is drastically affected by the operating conditions of the BESS, as well as the type of load model used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Voltage Control Method for Active Distribution Networks Based on Regional Power Coordination
Energies 2019, 12(22), 4364; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224364 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
As loads connected to active distribution network (ADN) grow, ADN’s voltage safety issues are becoming more serious. At present, the solution is mainly to build more distributed generation (DG) or to adjust the reactive power in the whole network, but the former needs [...] Read more.
As loads connected to active distribution network (ADN) grow, ADN’s voltage safety issues are becoming more serious. At present, the solution is mainly to build more distributed generation (DG) or to adjust the reactive power in the whole network, but the former needs a lot of investment while the latter requires a large amount of communication equipment and it takes a long time to calculate the adjustment amount of reactive power and to coordinate reactive power compensation equipment. When the loads are heavy, there will still be drawbacks of insufficient reactive power. Therefore, this paper analyzes the relationship between the active power, reactive power, and the voltage in the ADN. Through the autonomous region (AR) division, a voltage control method based on the active power variation and adjustable power in the AR is proposed. According to the relationship between the amount of active power and the adjustable amount active power, the active power control, the reactive power control, and the coordinated control of active power reactive power control are adopted to adjust the DGs’ output to stabilize the bus voltage. The simulation results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the voltage control capability of ADN and can enable it to operate normally under greater power changes. Through the control method in this paper, the communication requirements are greatly reduced and the calculation time is effectively shortened and is more adaptable. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Transmission-Scale Battery Energy Storage Systems: A Systematic Literature Review
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4603; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234603 - 03 Dec 2019
Abstract
When the transmission capacity of an electrical system is insufficient to adequately serve customer demand, the transmission system is said to be experiencing congestion. More transmission lines can be built to increase capacity. However, transmission congestion typically only occurs during periods of peak [...] Read more.
When the transmission capacity of an electrical system is insufficient to adequately serve customer demand, the transmission system is said to be experiencing congestion. More transmission lines can be built to increase capacity. However, transmission congestion typically only occurs during periods of peak demand, which occur just a few times per year; capitol-intensive investments in new transmission capacity address problems that occur infrequently. Alternative solutions to alleviated transmission congestion have been devised, including generation curtailment, demand response programs, and various remedial action schema. Though not currently a common solution, battery energy storage systems can also provide transmission congestion relief. Technological and market trends indicate the growing production capacity of battery energy storage systems and decreasing prices, which indicate the technology may soon become a viable option for providing congestion relief. Batteries can provide multiple ancillary services, and so can concurrently provide value through multiple revenue streams. In this manuscript, the authors present a systematic review of literature, technology, regulations, and projects related to the use of battery energy storage systems to provide transmission congestion relief. Full article
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