Special Issue "Environmental and Energy Assessment of Alternative Fuels"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy and Environment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Suhan Park
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea
Interests: new combustion technology; combustion efficiency; zero emission vehicle; fuel spray and droplet breakup; alternative fuels

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The depletion of fossil fuels and the instability of energy suppliers are increasing the desire for new fuels to replace conventional fuels. In particular, regulations for environments and greenhouse gas are being strengthened in transportation sectors, and research on the application of eco-friendly alternative fuels is also actively underway along with the development of new combustion techniques and after-treatment devices.

In this Special Issue, we would like to provide our readers with various research results on the applicability of alternative fuels, environmental assessment, and energy balance applied throughout industries such as automotive, plant, and power generation fields.

As Guest Editor of the Energies Special Issue on “Environmental and Energy Assessment of Alternative Fuels”, I warmly invite you to submit your relevant research results in the field for consideration for publication. This Special Issue represents a unique opportunity to gather the most recent advances on the application of alternative fuels in the fields of automobiles, plants, power generation, and so on.

The topics that may be addressed in this Special Issue include (but are not limited to):

  • The application of alternative fuels (biofuels, DME, liquid petroleum gas, gas-to-liquid, etc.) to automobile vehicles, plants, and power generation systems
  • The production and assessment of alternative fuels
  • The impact of alternative fuels on environments (emissions, greenhouse gas, etc.)
  • The life cycle analysis of alternative fuels

Prof. Suhan Park
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • alternative fuels
  • biofuels
  • combustion
  • life cycle analysis
  • emission reduction
  • energy assessment
  • power generation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Spray Characteristics of Water in Port Fuel Injection Injector
Energies 2020, 13(2), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020396 - 13 Jan 2020
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the injection and spray characteristics of water with n-heptane using a port fuel injection (PFI) system. In this study, the injection pressure was changed to 0.3–0.9 Mpa and the energizing duration was changed to 0.5–4 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare the injection and spray characteristics of water with n-heptane using a port fuel injection (PFI) system. In this study, the injection pressure was changed to 0.3–0.9 Mpa and the energizing duration was changed to 0.5–4 ms. To investigate spray characteristics, the injection quantities of n-heptane and water were measured. Macroscopic spray characteristics were determined through spray visualization. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) and velocity of spray droplets were measured with a phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) experiment. Spray tip penetration, spray angle, SMD of droplets, and spray droplet velocity were compared. As the injection pressure increased, the injection quantity and the droplets velocity increased. However, the spray tip penetration, SMD of the droplet, and the spray angle decreased. The increase in energizing duration led to an increase in the injection quantity without affecting other spray characteristics. The higher density of water also increased injection quantity, resulting in a decrease in spray tip penetration and increases of SMD and velocity of spray droplets due to high viscosity and surface tension of water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Energy Assessment of Alternative Fuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Biomass and Lipid Production Potential of an Indian Marine Algal Isolate Tetraselmis striata BBRR1
Energies 2020, 13(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020341 - 10 Jan 2020
Abstract
Four different strains of marine algae viz. Tetraselmis tetrathele, Tetraselmis striata, Tetraselmis chuii, and Tetraselmis gracilis were isolated from the saltpans in Kovelong, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The systematic position of Tetraselmis striata BBRR1 was confirmed through molecular identification. Under [...] Read more.
Four different strains of marine algae viz. Tetraselmis tetrathele, Tetraselmis striata, Tetraselmis chuii, and Tetraselmis gracilis were isolated from the saltpans in Kovelong, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The systematic position of Tetraselmis striata BBRR1 was confirmed through molecular identification. Under laboratory conditions, T. striata Butcher BBRR1 grown in f/2-medium recorded highest biomass concentration of 0.58 ± 0.021 g L−1, volumetric productivity of 0.025 ± 0.004 g L−1 d−1, 19 ± 2.3% proteins, 17 ± 1.5% carbohydrates, and 15 ± 2.4% lipids. Volumetric biomass productivity of 0.063 ± 0.08 g L−1 d−1, specific growth rate of 0.45 day−1 and lipid content of 19.42 ± 0.98% were recorded for the alga T. striata Butcher BBRR1 cultivated in 10-m2 open raceway ponds using Modified CFTRI ABRR1 medium. The fatty acid profile of T. striata Butcher BBRR1 showed the presence of 33.14% palmitic acid, 22.64% 11-octadecenoic acid, and 21.94% heptadecanoic acid. This study confirms the feasibility of cultivating the marine alga T. striata in open raceway ponds to produce biomass, which can be used for the production of biofuels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Energy Assessment of Alternative Fuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Bore to Stroke Ratio on Combustion, Gaseous and Particulate Emissions in a Small Port Fuel Injection Engine Fueled with Ethanol Blended Gasoline
Energies 2020, 13(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020321 - 09 Jan 2020
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to analyze the combustion characteristics of the port fuel injection (PFI) engine considering the fuel mixing ratio, bore to stroke (B/S) ratio and gaseous and particle emissions. Experiments were conducted in a small single-cylinder PFI engine with [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the combustion characteristics of the port fuel injection (PFI) engine considering the fuel mixing ratio, bore to stroke (B/S) ratio and gaseous and particle emissions. Experiments were conducted in a small single-cylinder PFI engine with a displacement of 125 cc. The fuel used in the experiment was a mixture of pure gasoline and ethanol. The engine was operated at 5000 rpm at full load and wide-open throttle. In addition, combustion and exhaust characteristics of the engines with a B/S ratio of 0.88 and 1.15 were analyzed. The combustion pressure inside the combustion chamber was measured to analyze the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and the heat release rate, and the combustion rate was calculated. In the results of combustion characteristics by the difference of B/S ratio, the influence of flame propagation velocity and turbulence intensity is the largest. The 0.88 B/S ratio engine, which has a small bore, has a faster combustion rate than the 1.15 B/S ratio engine due to its larger flame surface area and larger turbulence intensity. This represents a higher efficiency combustion result. Finally, the high oxygen content of ethanol has the characteristic of decreasing soot formation and increasing particle oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Energy Assessment of Alternative Fuels)
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Open AccessArticle
NOx Emissions from Euro 5 and Euro 6 Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles under Real Driving Conditions
Energies 2020, 13(1), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010218 - 02 Jan 2020
Abstract
Despite the strengthening of vehicle emissions standards and test methods, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from on-road mobile sources are not being notably reduced. The introduction of real driving emission (RDE) regulations is expected to reduce the discrepancy between emission regulations and actual air [...] Read more.
Despite the strengthening of vehicle emissions standards and test methods, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from on-road mobile sources are not being notably reduced. The introduction of real driving emission (RDE) regulations is expected to reduce the discrepancy between emission regulations and actual air pollution. To analyze the effects of RDE regulations on heavy-duty diesel vehicles, pollutants emitted while driving were measured using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for Euro 5 and Euro 6 vehicles, which were produced before and after RDE regulations, respectively. NOx emissions were compared as a function of emissions allowance standards, gross vehicle weight (GVW), average vehicle speed, and ambient temperature. NOx emissions from Euro 6 vehicles were found to be low, regardless of GVW; emissions from both vehicular categories increased with a decline in the average speed. To reflect real road driving characteristics more broadly in the RDE test method for heavy-duty vehicles, it is necessary to consider engine power, which is a criterion for classifying effective sections, in the moving average window (MAW) analysis method, as well as including cold start conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Energy Assessment of Alternative Fuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Water Vapor Injection on the Distributions of Equivalence Ratio and the NO Emission Reduction in a CI Engine
Energies 2019, 12(22), 4248; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224248 - 07 Nov 2019
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a water vapor injection into the intake port of a small compression ignition engine and analyze the effect of the collisions between the water particles and the injected fuel on combustion and [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a water vapor injection into the intake port of a small compression ignition engine and analyze the effect of the collisions between the water particles and the injected fuel on combustion and exhaust emission performances. To simulate the water vapor by the ultrasonic humidifier in the numerical analysis, the water particles were introduced into the cylinder through an intake port during the intake process, and the amount was varied from 10% to 30% of the injected fuel mass per stroke. When the water vapor was injected into the intake port, the rich equivalence ratio region was distributed in the center of cylinder. In addition, the ISNO (indicated specific nitrogen oxide) values decreased up to 46% more than the values for the condition without the water-vapor-injection. However, the ISSoot (indicated specific soot) exhibited similar values in any conditions. For starts of energizing timing that were BTDC (before top dead center) 25 deg and 15 deg, the ISFC (indicated fuel consumption) values decreased with increased portions of water vapor. However, in the case of BTDC 05deg, the ignition delay was too long, which deteriorated combustion performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Energy Assessment of Alternative Fuels)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Review on the Use of Diesel–Biodiesel–Alcohol Blends in Compression Ignition Engines
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12071194 - 27 Mar 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
The use of alternative fuels contributes to the lowering of the carbon footprint of the internal combustion engine. Biofuels are the most important kinds of alternative fuels. Currently, thanks to the new manufacturing processes of biofuels, there is potential to decrease greenhouse gas [...] Read more.
The use of alternative fuels contributes to the lowering of the carbon footprint of the internal combustion engine. Biofuels are the most important kinds of alternative fuels. Currently, thanks to the new manufacturing processes of biofuels, there is potential to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, compared to fossil fuels, on a well-to-wheel basis. Amongst the most prominent alternative fuels to be used in mixtures/blends with fossil fuels in internal combustion (IC) engines are biodiesel, bioethanol, and biomethanol. With this perspective, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends in compression ignition (CI) engines. Many studies have been conducted to assess the impacts of biodiesel use on engine operation. The addition of alcohols such as methanol and ethanol is also practised in biodiesel–diesel blends, due to their miscibility with the pure biodiesel. Alcohols improve the physico-chemical properties of biodiesel–diesel blends, which lead to improved CI engine operation. This review paper discusses some results of recent studies on biodiesel, bioethanol, and biomethanol production, their physicochemical properties, and also, on the influence of the use of diesel–biodiesel–alcohols blends in CI engines: combustion characteristics, performance, and emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Energy Assessment of Alternative Fuels)
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