energies-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Microgrids: Planning, Protection and Control

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2020) | Viewed by 38715

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Ontario Tech University, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
Interests: safety engineering; fault diagnosis and amp; amp; real-time simulation; resilient smart energy grids; micro energy grids planning, control, and protection; advanced plasma generation; application on fusion energy; advanced safety and control systems for nuclear power plants; risk-based energy conservation; smart green buildings
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will include papers related to the planning, protection, and control of microgrids and their applications in industry, transportation, water, waste, and urban and residential infrastructures.

Authors are encouraged to present their latest research, or to review topics including methods, approaches, systems, and technology and its interface with other domains such as big data, cybersecurity, human–machine, sustainability, and smart cities. The planning side of microgrids might include technology selection, scheduling, interconnected microgrids, and their integration with regional energy infrastructures. The protection side of microgrids might include topics related to protection strategies, risk management, protection technologies, abnormal scenario assessment, equipment and system protection layers, fault diagnosis,  validation and verification, and intelligent safety systems. The microgrid control side might include control strategies, intelligent control algorithms and systems, control architectures, technologies, embedded systems, monitoring, and deployment and implementation.

Prof. Dr. Hossam A. Gabbar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microgrid design
  • microgrid control
  • microgrid planning
  • microgrid protection
  • integration with smart grids
  • integration with water
  • integration with transportation

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

15 pages, 15477 KiB  
Article
A DC Microgrid System for Powering Remote Areas
by Tri Ardriani, Pekik Argo Dahono, Arwindra Rizqiawan, Erna Garnia, Pungky Dwi Sastya, Ahmad Husnan Arofat and Muhammad Ridwan
Energies 2021, 14(2), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14020493 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3738
Abstract
DC microgrid has been gaining popularity as solution as a more efficient and simpler power system especially for remote areas, where the main grid has yet to be built. This paper proposes a DC microgrid system based on renewable energy sources that employs [...] Read more.
DC microgrid has been gaining popularity as solution as a more efficient and simpler power system especially for remote areas, where the main grid has yet to be built. This paper proposes a DC microgrid system based on renewable energy sources that employs decentralized control and without communication between one grid point and another. It can be deployed as an individual isolated unit or to form an expandable DC microgrid through DC bus for better reliability and efficiency. The key element of the proposed system is the power conditioner system (PCS) that works as an interface between energy sources, storage system, and load. PCS consists of modular power electronics devices and a power management unit, which controls power delivery to the AC load and the grid as well as the storage system charging and discharging sequence. Prototypes with 3 kWp solar PV and 13.8 kWh energy storage were developed and adopt a pole-mounted structure for ease of transportation and installation that are important in remote areas. This paper presents measurement results under several conditions of the developed prototypes. The evaluation shows promising results and a solid basis for electrification in remote areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Planning, Protection and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 4970 KiB  
Article
Performance Comparison between Two Established Microgrid Planning MILP Methodologies Tested On 13 Microgrid Projects
by Michael Stadler, Zack Pecenak, Patrick Mathiesen, Kelsey Fahy and Jan Kleissl
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4460; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174460 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3617
Abstract
Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) optimization algorithms provide accurate and clear solutions for Microgrid and Distributed Energy Resources projects. Full-scale optimization approaches optimize all time-steps of data sets (e.g., 8760 time-step and higher resolutions), incurring extreme and unpredictable run-times, often prohibiting such approaches [...] Read more.
Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) optimization algorithms provide accurate and clear solutions for Microgrid and Distributed Energy Resources projects. Full-scale optimization approaches optimize all time-steps of data sets (e.g., 8760 time-step and higher resolutions), incurring extreme and unpredictable run-times, often prohibiting such approaches for effective Microgrid designs. To reduce run-times down-sampling approaches exist. Given that the literature evaluates the full-scale and down-sampling approaches only for limited numbers of case studies, there is a lack of a more comprehensive study involving multiple Microgrids. This paper closes this gap by comparing results and run-times of a full-scale 8760 h time-series MILP to a peak preserving day-type MILP for 13 real Microgrid projects. The day-type approach reduces the computational time between 85% and almost 100% (from 2 h computational time to less than 1 min). At the same time the day-type approach keeps the objective function (OF) differences below 1.5% for 77% of the Microgrids. The other cases show OF differences between 6% and 13%, which can be reduced to 1.5% or less by applying a two-stage hybrid approach that designs the Microgrid based on down-sampled data and then performs a full-scale dispatch algorithm. This two stage approach results in 20–99% run-time savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Planning, Protection and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 1054 KiB  
Article
Design of a Methodology to Evaluate the Impact of Demand-Side Management in the Planning of Isolated/Islanded Microgrids
by Juan Carlos Oviedo Cepeda, German Osma-Pinto, Robin Roche, Cesar Duarte, Javier Solano and Daniel Hissel
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3459; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133459 - 4 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2890
Abstract
The integration of Demand-Side Management (DSM) in the planning of Isolated/Islanded Microgrids (IMGs) can potentially reduce total costs and customer payments or increase renewable energy utilization. Despite these benefits, there is a paucity in literature exploring how DSM affects the planning and operation [...] Read more.
The integration of Demand-Side Management (DSM) in the planning of Isolated/Islanded Microgrids (IMGs) can potentially reduce total costs and customer payments or increase renewable energy utilization. Despite these benefits, there is a paucity in literature exploring how DSM affects the planning and operation of IMGs. The present work compares the effects of five different strategies of DSM in the planning of IMGs to fulfill the gaps found in the literature. The present work embodies a Disciplined Convex Stochastic Programming formulation that integrates the planning and operation of IMGs using three optimization levels. The first level finds the capacities of the energy sources of the IMG. The second and third levels use a rolling horizon for setting the day-ahead prices or the stimulus of the DSM and the day-ahead optimal dispatch strategy of the IMG, respectively. A case study shows that the Day-Ahead Dynamic Pricing DSM and the Incentive-Based Pricing DSM reduce the total costs and the Levelized Cost of Energy of the project more than the other DSMs. In contrast, the Time of Use DSM reduces the payments of the customers and increases the delivered energy more than the other DSMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Planning, Protection and Control)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

26 pages, 16592 KiB  
Article
A Virtual Tool for Load Flow Analysis in a Micro-Grid
by Giovanni Artale, Giuseppe Caravello, Antonio Cataliotti, Valentina Cosentino, Dario Di Cara, Salvatore Guaiana, Ninh Nguyen Quang, Marco Palmeri, Nicola Panzavecchia and Giovanni Tinè
Energies 2020, 13(12), 3173; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123173 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2704
Abstract
This paper proposes a virtual tool for load flow analysis in energy distribution systems of micro-grids. The solution is based on a low-cost measurement architecture, which entails low-voltage power measurements in each secondary substation and a voltage measurement at the beginning of the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a virtual tool for load flow analysis in energy distribution systems of micro-grids. The solution is based on a low-cost measurement architecture, which entails low-voltage power measurements in each secondary substation and a voltage measurement at the beginning of the medium voltage (MV) feeder. The proposed virtual tool periodically queries these instruments to acquire the measurements. Then, it implements a backward–forward load flow algorithm, to evaluate the power flow in each branch and the voltage at each node. The virtual tool performances are validated using power measurements acquired at the beginning of each MV feeder. The uncertainties on each calculated quantity are also evaluated starting from the uncertainties due to the used measurement instruments. Moreover, the influence of the line parameter uncertainties on the evaluated quantities is also considered. The validated tool is useful for the online analysis of power flows and also for planning purposes, as it allows verifying the influence of future distributed generator power injection. In fact, the tool is able to off-line perform the load flow calculation in differently distributed generation scenarios. The micro-grid of Favignana Island was used as a case study to test the developed virtual tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Planning, Protection and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 1965 KiB  
Article
A Chronological Literature Review of Electric Vehicle Interactions with Power Distribution Systems
by Andrés Arias-Londoño, Oscar Danilo Montoya and Luis Fernando Grisales-Noreña
Energies 2020, 13(11), 3016; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13113016 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5517
Abstract
In the last decade, the deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) has been largely promoted. This development has increased challenges in the power systems in the context of planning and operation due to the massive amount of recharge needed for EVs. Furthermore, EVs may [...] Read more.
In the last decade, the deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) has been largely promoted. This development has increased challenges in the power systems in the context of planning and operation due to the massive amount of recharge needed for EVs. Furthermore, EVs may also offer new opportunities and can be used to support the grid to provide auxiliary services. In this regard, and considering the research around EVs and power grids, this paper presents a chronological background review of EVs and their interactions with power systems, particularly electric distribution networks, considering publications from the IEEE Xplore database. The review is extended from 1973 to 2019 and is developed via systematic classification using key categories that describe the types of interactions between EVs and power grids. These interactions are in the framework of the power quality, study of scenarios, electricity markets, demand response, demand management, power system stability, Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) concept, and optimal location of battery swap and charging stations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Planning, Protection and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 412 KiB  
Article
Optimal Location-Reallocation of Battery Energy Storage Systems in DC Microgrids
by Oscar Danilo Montoya, Walter Gil-González and Edwin Rivas-Trujillo
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2289; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092289 - 5 May 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
This paper deals with the problem of optimal location and reallocation of battery energy storage systems (BESS) in direct current (dc) microgrids with constant power loads. The optimization model that represents this problem is formulated with two objective functions. The first model corresponds [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the problem of optimal location and reallocation of battery energy storage systems (BESS) in direct current (dc) microgrids with constant power loads. The optimization model that represents this problem is formulated with two objective functions. The first model corresponds to the minimization of the total daily cost of buying energy in the spot market by conventional generators and the second to the minimization of the costs of the daily energy losses in all branches of the network. Both the models are constrained by classical nonlinear power flow equations, distributed generation capabilities, and voltage regulation, among others. These formulations generate a nonlinear mixed-integer programming (MINLP) model that requires special methods to be solved. A dc microgrid composed of 21-nodes with existing BESS is used for validating the proposed mathematical formula. This system allows to identify the optimal location or reallocation points for these batteries by improving the daily operative costs regarding the base cases. All the simulations are conducted via the general algebraic modeling system, widely known as the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Planning, Protection and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 15678 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design of a Stand-Alone Residential Hybrid Microgrid System for Enhancing Renewable Energy Deployment in Japan
by Yuichiro Yoshida and Hooman Farzaneh
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071737 - 5 Apr 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 4581
Abstract
This paper aims at the optimal designing of a stand-alone microgrid (PV/wind/battery/diesel) system, which can be utilized to meet the demand load requirements of a small residential area in Kasuga City, Fukuoka. The simulation part is developed to estimate the electrical power generated [...] Read more.
This paper aims at the optimal designing of a stand-alone microgrid (PV/wind/battery/diesel) system, which can be utilized to meet the demand load requirements of a small residential area in Kasuga City, Fukuoka. The simulation part is developed to estimate the electrical power generated by each component, taking into account the variation of the weather parameters, such as wind, solar irradiation, and ambient temperature. The optimal system design is then based on the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method to find the optimal configuration of the proposed system, using the least-cost perspective approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Planning, Protection and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3635 KiB  
Article
Structural Condition for Controllable Power Flow System Containing Controllable and Fluctuating Power Devices
by Saher Javaid, Mineo Kaneko and Yasuo Tan
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1627; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071627 - 2 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2058
Abstract
This paper discusses a structural property for a power system to continue a safe operation under power fluctuation caused by fluctuating power sources and loads. Concerns over global climate change and gas emissions have motivated development and integration of renewable energy sources such [...] Read more.
This paper discusses a structural property for a power system to continue a safe operation under power fluctuation caused by fluctuating power sources and loads. Concerns over global climate change and gas emissions have motivated development and integration of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar to fulfill power demand. The energy generated from these sources exhibits fluctuations and uncertainty which is uncontrollable. In addition, the power fluctuations caused by power loads also have the same consequences on power system. To mitigate the effects of uncontrollable power fluctuations, a power flow control is presented which allocates power levels for controllable power sources and loads and connections between power devices. One basic function for the power flow control is to balance the generated power with the power demand. However, due to the structural limitations, i.e., the power level limitations of controllable sources and loads and the limitation of power flow channels, the power balance may not be achieved. This paper proposes two theorems about the structural conditions for a power system to have a feasible solution which achieves the power balance between power sources and power loads. The discussions in this paper will provide a solid theoretical background for designing a power flow system which proves robustness against fluctuations caused by fluctuating power devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Planning, Protection and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

43 pages, 24733 KiB  
Article
Qualitative and Quantitative Transient Stability Assessment of Stand-Alone Hybrid Microgrids in a Cluster Environment
by Kishan Veerashekar, Halil Askan and Matthias Luther
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051286 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3999
Abstract
Neighboring stand-alone hybrid microgrids with diesel generators (DGs) as well as grid-feeding photovoltaics (PV) and grid-forming battery storage systems (BSS) can be coupled to reduce fuel costs and emissions as well as to enhance the security of supply. In contrast to the research [...] Read more.
Neighboring stand-alone hybrid microgrids with diesel generators (DGs) as well as grid-feeding photovoltaics (PV) and grid-forming battery storage systems (BSS) can be coupled to reduce fuel costs and emissions as well as to enhance the security of supply. In contrast to the research in control and small-signal rotor angle stability of microgrids, there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the transient stability of off-grid hybrid microgrids in a cluster environment. Therefore, the large-signal rotor angle stability of pooled microgrids was assessed qualitatively and also quantitatively in this research work. Quantitative transient stability assessment (TSA) was carried out with the help of the—recently developed and validated—micro-hybrid method by combining time-domain simulations and transient energy function analyses. For this purpose, three realistic dynamic microgrids were modelled regarding three operating modes (island, interconnection, and cluster) as well as the conventional scenario “classical” and four hybrid scenarios (“storage”, “sun”, “sun & storage”, and “night”) regarding different instants of time on a tropical partly sunny day. It can be inferred that, coupling hybrid microgrids is feasible from the voltage, frequency, and also transient stability point of view. However, the risk of large-signal rotor angle instability in pooled microgrids is relatively higher than in islanded microgrids. Along with critical clearing times, new stability-related indicators such as system stability degree and corrected critical clearing times should be taken into account in the planning phase and in the operation of microgrids. In principle, a general conclusion concerning the best operating mode and scenario of the investigated microgrids cannot be drawn. TSA of pooled hybrid microgrids should be performed—on a regular basis especially in the grid operation—for different loading conditions, tie-line power flows, topologies, operating modes, and scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Planning, Protection and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 5930 KiB  
Article
A Model-Based Design Approach for Stability Assessment, Control Tuning and Verification in Off-Grid Hybrid Power Plants
by Lennart Petersen, Florin Iov and German Claudio Tarnowski
Energies 2020, 13(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010049 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6267
Abstract
This paper proposes detailed and practical guidance on applying model-based design (MBD) for voltage and frequency stability assessments, control tuning and verification of off-grid hybrid power plants (HPPs) comprising both grid-forming and grid-feeding inverter units and synchronous generation. First, the requirement specifications are [...] Read more.
This paper proposes detailed and practical guidance on applying model-based design (MBD) for voltage and frequency stability assessments, control tuning and verification of off-grid hybrid power plants (HPPs) comprising both grid-forming and grid-feeding inverter units and synchronous generation. First, the requirement specifications are defined by means of system, functional and model requirements. Secondly, a modular approach for state-space modelling of the distributed energy resources (DERs) is presented. Flexible merging of subsystems by properly defining input and output vectors is highlighted to describe the dynamics of the HPP during various operating states. Eigenvalue (EV) and participation factor (PF) analyses demonstrate the necessity of assessing small-signal stability over a wide range of operational scenarios. A sensitivity analysis shows the impact of relevant system parameters on critical EVs and enables one to finally design and tune the central HPP controller (HPPC). The rapid control prototyping and control verification stages are accomplished by means of discrete-time domain models being used in both off-line simulation studies and real-time hardware-in-the-loop (RT-HIL) testing. The outcome of this paper is targeted at off-grid HPP operators seeking to achieve a proof-of-concept on stable voltage and frequency regulation. Nonetheless, the overall methodology is applicable to on-grid HPPs, too. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Planning, Protection and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop