Next Issue
Volume 10, April
Previous Issue
Volume 10, February

Table of Contents

Energies, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2017)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Still the ultimate achievable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic bulk-heterojunction [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Analysis of Double Stator Slotted Rotor Permanent Magnet Generator
Energies 2017, 10(3), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030411 - 21 Mar 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
This paper discusses the modeling and analysis of three phase double stator slotted rotor permanent magnet generator (DSSR-PMG). The use of double stator topology through the double magnetic circuit helps to maximize the usage of flux linkage in the yoke structure of the [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the modeling and analysis of three phase double stator slotted rotor permanent magnet generator (DSSR-PMG). The use of double stator topology through the double magnetic circuit helps to maximize the usage of flux linkage in the yoke structure of the single stator topology. The analytical computation is done using Permeance Analysis Method (PAM). Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used for numerical verifications and to verify the design structure a prototype laboratory is performed. The analysis is done with various loading conditions to derive the electromagnetic torque, output power and efficiency for the proposed structure. The analytical, numerical and experimental results from the analysis are found to be in good agreement. The maximum power developed by this generator at rated speed of 2000 rpm is of 1 kW with the operational efficiency of 75%. A rectifier bridge circuit is used to make the generated voltage a storage capable constant voltage to make it suitable for mobile applications (such as Direct Current DC generator). The proposed generator structure is highly recommended for applications such as micro-hydro and small renewable plants. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Accurate and Efficient Torque Control of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor in Electric Vehicles Based on Hall-Effect Sensors
Energies 2017, 10(3), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030410 - 21 Mar 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2544
Abstract
Abstract: In this paper, an effective method to achieve accurate and efficient torque control of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) in electric vehicles, based on low-resolution Hall-effect sensors, is proposed. The high-resolution rotor position is estimated by a proportional integral [...] Read more.
Abstract: In this paper, an effective method to achieve accurate and efficient torque control of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) in electric vehicles, based on low-resolution Hall-effect sensors, is proposed. The high-resolution rotor position is estimated by a proportional integral (PI) regulator using the deviation between actual output power and reference output power. This method can compensate for the Hall position sensor mounting error, and estimate rotor position continuously and accurately. The permanent magnetic flux linkage is also estimated based on a current PI controller. Other important parameters, such as the d-axis and q-axis inductances, stator resistance, and energy loss, are measured offline by experiments. The measured parameters are saved as lookup tables which cover the entire current operating range at different current levels. Based on these accurate parameters, a maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control strategy, combined with the feedforward parameter iteration method, can be achieved for accurate and efficient torque control. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by both simulation and experimental results. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Doping-Induced Isotopic Mg11B2 Bulk Superconductor for Fusion Application
Energies 2017, 10(3), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030409 - 21 Mar 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
Superconducting wires are widely used for fabricating magnetic coils in fusion reactors. Superconducting magnet system represents a key determinant of the thermal efficiency and the construction/operating costs of such a reactor. In consideration of the stability of 11B against fast neutron irradiation [...] Read more.
Superconducting wires are widely used for fabricating magnetic coils in fusion reactors. Superconducting magnet system represents a key determinant of the thermal efficiency and the construction/operating costs of such a reactor. In consideration of the stability of 11B against fast neutron irradiation and its lower induced radioactivation properties, MgB2 superconductor with 11B serving as the boron source is an alternative candidate for use in fusion reactors with a severe high neutron flux environment. In the present work, the glycine-doped Mg11B2 bulk superconductor was synthesized from isotopic 11B powder to enhance the high field properties. The critical current density was enhanced (103 A·cm−2 at 20 K and 5 T) over the entire field in contrast with the sample prepared from natural boron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fusion Power)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Short-Term Load Forecasting Model with a Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Least Squares Support Vector Machine Based on the Denoising Method of Empirical Mode Decomposition and Grey Relational Analysis
Energies 2017, 10(3), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030408 - 21 Mar 2017
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
As an important part of power system planning and the basis of economic operation of power systems, the main work of power load forecasting is to predict the time distribution and spatial distribution of future power loads. The accuracy of load forecasting will [...] Read more.
As an important part of power system planning and the basis of economic operation of power systems, the main work of power load forecasting is to predict the time distribution and spatial distribution of future power loads. The accuracy of load forecasting will directly influence the reliability of the power system. In this paper, a novel short-term Empirical Mode Decomposition-Grey Relational Analysis-Modified Particle Swarm Optimization-Least Squares Support Vector Machine (EMD-GRA-MPSO-LSSVM) load forecasting model is proposed. The model uses the de-noising method combining empirical mode decomposition and grey relational analysis to process the original load series and forecasts the processed subsequences by the algorithm of modified particle swarm optimization and least square support vector machine. Then, the final forecasting results can be obtained after reconstructing the forecasting series. This paper takes the Jibei area as an example to produce an empirical analysis for load forecasting. The model input includes the hourly load one week before the forecasting day and the daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, daily average temperature, relative humidity, wind force, date type of the forecasting day. The model output is the hourly load of the forecasting day. The models of BP neural network, SVM (Support vector machine), LSSVM (Least squares support vector machine), PSO-LSSVM (Particle swarm optimization-Least squares support vector machine), MPSO-LSSVM (Modified particle swarm optimization-Least squares support vector machine), EMD-MPSO-LSSVM are selected to compare with the model of EMD-GRA-MPSO-LSSVM using the same sample. The comparison results verify that the short-term load forecasting model of EMD-GRA-MPSO-LSSVM proposed in this paper is superior to other models and has strong generalization ability and robustness. It can achieve good forecasting effect with high forecasting accuracy, providing a new idea and reference for accurate short-term load forecasting. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
On the Source of Oscillatory Behaviour during Switching of Power Enhancement Mode GaN HEMTs
Energies 2017, 10(3), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030407 - 21 Mar 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2011
Abstract
With Gallium Nitride (GaN) device technology for power electronics applications being ramped up for volume production, an increasing amount of research is now focused on the performance of GaN power devices in circuits. In this study, an enhancement mode GaN high electron mobility [...] Read more.
With Gallium Nitride (GaN) device technology for power electronics applications being ramped up for volume production, an increasing amount of research is now focused on the performance of GaN power devices in circuits. In this study, an enhancement mode GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is switched in a clamped inductive switching configuration with the aim of investigating the source of oscillatory effects observed. These arise as a result of the increased switching speed capability of GaN devices compared to their silicon counterparts. The study identifies the two major mechanisms (Miller capacitance charge and parasitic common source inductance) that can lead to ringing behaviour during turn-off and considers the effect of temperature on the latter. Furthermore, the experimental results are backed by SPICE modelling to evaluate the contribution of different circuit components to oscillations. The study concludes with good design techniques that can suppress the effects discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Power Devices)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Research on Unstructured Text Data Mining and Fault Classification Based on RNN-LSTM with Malfunction Inspection Report
Energies 2017, 10(3), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030406 - 21 Mar 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
This paper documents the condition-based maintenance (CBM) of power transformers, the analysis of which relies on two basic data groups: structured (e.g., numeric and categorical) and unstructured (e.g., natural language text narratives) which accounts for 80% of data required. However, unstructured data comprised [...] Read more.
This paper documents the condition-based maintenance (CBM) of power transformers, the analysis of which relies on two basic data groups: structured (e.g., numeric and categorical) and unstructured (e.g., natural language text narratives) which accounts for 80% of data required. However, unstructured data comprised of malfunction inspection reports, as recorded by operation and maintenance of the power grid, constitutes an abundant untapped source of power insights. This paper proposes a method for malfunction inspection report processing by deep learning, which combines the text data mining–oriented recurrent neural networks (RNN) with long short-term memory (LSTM). In this paper, the effectiveness of the RNN-LSTM network for modeling inspection data is established with a straightforward training strategy in which we replicate targets at each sequence step. Then, the corresponding fault labels are given in datasets, in order to calculate the accuracy of fault classification by comparison with the original data labels and output samples. Experimental results can reflect how key parameters may be selected in the configuration of the key variables to achieve optimal results. The accuracy of the fault recognition demonstrates that the method we proposed can provide a more effective way for grid inspection personnel to deal with unstructured data. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Environmental Potential of Using Coal-Processing Waste as the Primary and Secondary Fuel for Energy Providers
Energies 2017, 10(3), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030405 - 21 Mar 2017
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1433
Abstract
The main anthropogenic emissions (CO, CO2, NOx, SOx) produced by the processing (combustion) of wastes (coal filter cakes) were measured directly for the first time. The research considered the most widespread coal filter cakes: those of nonbaking, [...] Read more.
The main anthropogenic emissions (CO, CO2, NOx, SOx) produced by the processing (combustion) of wastes (coal filter cakes) were measured directly for the first time. The research considered the most widespread coal filter cakes: those of nonbaking, low-caking, coking, flame, and gas coals. These filter cakes are regarded as promising components for the technologies of coal-water slurry (CWS) and coal-water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP). According to our estimates, the annual increment of such wastes in the world is as high as 100 million tons. Consequently, the effective utilization of these wastes in the power industry is of high interest. The evaluation of hazardous emissions from the combustion of such wastes shows that filter cakes produce a similar amount of CO and CO2 as the initially-used coals but filter cakes are more cost-effective. We have established that CWS and CWSP technologies can be used to reduce NOx and SOx emissions. To reduce CO and CO2 emissions when burning filter cakes, we need to switch to low-temperature combustion. Lowering the combustion temperature of filter cakes from 850 °C down to 650 °C decreases the underburning insignificantly while decreasing CO and CO2 emissions by 30–40%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Energy Management of Parallel-Connected Cells in Electric Vehicles Based on Fuzzy Logic Control
Energies 2017, 10(3), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030404 - 21 Mar 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Inconsistencies that are associated with parallel-connected cells used in electric vehicles induce varied states of charge (SOCs) in each cell. Thus, loop current in the battery pack is inevitable, and this reduces overall capacity, energy utilization rate, and pack lifetime. However, [...] Read more.
Inconsistencies that are associated with parallel-connected cells used in electric vehicles induce varied states of charge (SOCs) in each cell. Thus, loop current in the battery pack is inevitable, and this reduces overall capacity, energy utilization rate, and pack lifetime. However, no method is available to address loop current. To reduce loop current and the resulting battery inconsistency, a parallel-connected cell pack (PCCP) model that considers thermal effects is established, and a novel Simscape model that is based on PCCP is successfully constructed. Furthermore, the strategy of parallel-connected cell energy management (PCCEM) is proposed to utilize fuzzy logic control (FLC) strategy, which automatically adjusts the number of cells in a circuit in accordance with the load demand, and turns on the first N switches in the corresponding SOC order. The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) driving cycle simulation shows that the PCCEM strategy considerably reduces loop current and improves the consistency of battery performance and the utilization rate of battery power. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Power Controlling, Monitoring and Routing Center Enabled by a DC-Transformer †
Energies 2017, 10(3), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030403 - 21 Mar 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
The penetration of various types of renewable sources and on-site storage devices have recently focused attention towards DC power distribution in consumer grids to achieve the target of zero/positive energy buildings and communities. To achieve this target, the most important component is the [...] Read more.
The penetration of various types of renewable sources and on-site storage devices have recently focused attention towards DC power distribution in consumer grids to achieve the target of zero/positive energy buildings and communities. To achieve this target, the most important component is the DC consumer grid architecture which can integrate not only renewable sources and storage, but also enable the implementation in any conventional AC distribution network without any significant upgrade. To this end, a unique DC Transformer enabled DC microgrid architecture is presented in this paper. The architecture, called PCmRC (power controlling monitoring routing center) is proposed to manage distributed energy sources and storage at any stage and also directly interconnects the DC consumer grid with the conventional AC power grid. This paper also investigates detailed control algorithms of each component and the DC Transformer topology in addition to proposing four unique stages of grid operational modes to enhance the overall grid stability in any operational condition. The main objectives are to maximize the exploitation of renewable sources, to decrease reliance on fossil fuels, to boost the overall efficiency of the grid by reducing the power conversion losses and demand side management in all possible forms. The simulation platform is designed in MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results of several types of case studies show the effectiveness of the proposed power distribution and management model. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Smart Grid)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
High Frequency Dual-Buck Full-Bridge Inverter Utilizing a Dual-Core MCU and Parallel Algorithm for Renewable Energy Applications
Energies 2017, 10(3), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030402 - 21 Mar 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
A high frequency dual-buck full-bridge inverter for small power renewable energy applications is proposed in this paper. The implementation of the wide band gap SiC (Silicon Carbide) power device contributes to the high switching frequency of 400 kHz. This high frequency contributes to [...] Read more.
A high frequency dual-buck full-bridge inverter for small power renewable energy applications is proposed in this paper. The implementation of the wide band gap SiC (Silicon Carbide) power device contributes to the high switching frequency of 400 kHz. This high frequency contributes to reduced converter volume as well as improved power density, which greatly strengthens its portability and application range. For the control strategy, a voltage-current dual loop controller is employed. A three-pole-three-zero (3P3Z) compensator is applied in the current loop in order to track the current reference without static error. A voltage loop two-pole two-zero (2P2Z) compensator is used to generate the current reference for stabilizing the DC bus voltage. Not only is the inner current loop analyzed in detail, which includes the modeling of the equivalent inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL)-type inverter and the design of the 3P3Z compensator, but also the outer voltage loop is discussed, the model of which is established based on the energy balance. Furthermore, a feedback linearization method is adopted to simplify the duty cycle calculation and helps to accelerate the control speed. A second-order generalized integrator software phase lock loop (SOGI-SPLL) is employed to obtain the phase angle and to synchronize the inverter output current with the grid voltage. A parallel structure algorithm is conducted based on a dual-core microcontroller unit (MCU) for the first time to control the high frequency inverter. This approach avoids the contradiction between the high frequency operation and the limited computing capacity of the conventional single-core MCUs. The software structure, time-consuming distribution, and interactive communication method are analyzed in detailed. Finally, this paper verifies the feasibility of the theoretical analyses through simulation and experiments based on a 1 kW prototype. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Methodology for Determination of the Number of Equipment Malfunctions Due to Voltage Sags
Energies 2017, 10(3), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030401 - 20 Mar 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
This article deals with the assessment of the reliability of sensitive equipment due to voltage sags. The most frequent problems of power quality are voltage sags. Equipment that cannot withstand short-term voltage sag is defined as sensitive device. Sensitivity of such equipment can [...] Read more.
This article deals with the assessment of the reliability of sensitive equipment due to voltage sags. The most frequent problems of power quality are voltage sags. Equipment that cannot withstand short-term voltage sag is defined as sensitive device. Sensitivity of such equipment can be described by the voltage–tolerance curves. A device (generator) to generate voltage sags (also interruptions) with duration at least 1 ms has been designed and developed for this purpose. Equipment sensitive to voltage sags was tested using this generator. Overall, five types of sensitive equipment were tested: personal computers, fluorescent lamps, drives with speed control, programmable logic controllers, and contactors. The measured sensitivity curves of these devices have been used to determine the number of trips (failures) due to voltage sags. Two probabilistic methods (general probability method and cumulative probability method) to determine probability of equipment failure occurrence are used. These methods were applied to real node in the distribution system with its actual performance of voltage sags/swells. The calculations also contain different levels of sensitivity of the sensitive equipment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Droop Control Based Three Phase Bidirectional AC-DC Converter for More Electric Aircraft Applications
Energies 2017, 10(3), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030400 - 20 Mar 2017
Viewed by 2479
Abstract
This paper addresses the design and implementation of a droop controlled three phase bidirectional AC-DC converter for more electric aircraft (MEA) applications. A unified control strategy using a droop characteristic is presented to achieve the bidirectional power flow between the AC and DC [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the design and implementation of a droop controlled three phase bidirectional AC-DC converter for more electric aircraft (MEA) applications. A unified control strategy using a droop characteristic is presented to achieve the bidirectional power flow between the AC and DC source while maintaining a stable DC output voltage. Based on the rigorous control design, the converter is capable of operating over a wide frequency range with a unity power factor. The key findings obtained from the theoretical analysis are confirmed by simulation studies and further validated by a scaled down laboratory prototype. The practical results show good performance of the bidirectional converter and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Development of Brazilian Biodiesel Sector from the Perspective of Stakeholders
Energies 2017, 10(3), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030399 - 20 Mar 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
In Brazil, the main program with respect to biodiesel is the National Program of Biodiesel Production and Use (NPBP). It is also considered the regulation mark of biodiesel production in Brazil and its directives are social inclusion and regional development. Considering these directives, [...] Read more.
In Brazil, the main program with respect to biodiesel is the National Program of Biodiesel Production and Use (NPBP). It is also considered the regulation mark of biodiesel production in Brazil and its directives are social inclusion and regional development. Considering these directives, this paper aims to analyse the perspective of biodiesel sector stakeholders in Brazil to understand whether NPBP directives are in consonance with the reality of the sector for its development. A questionnaire was created with 48 questions in order to understand the importance of 13 variables for the stakeholders, and the responses were treated by factor analysis (FA). The results showed the existence of a trade-off related to technological advances in biodiesel production that confronts NPBP directives, that is, the biodiesel sector tends not to evolve in terms of the use of advanced technologies. If policies change so as to develop the biodiesel sector using advanced technologies, NPBP should change its directives in order to involve family farmers in another way in the Brazilian economy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Experimental Results on a Wireless Wattmeter Device for the Integration in Home Energy Management Systems
Energies 2017, 10(3), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030398 - 20 Mar 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
This paper presents a home area network (HAN)-based domestic load energy consumption monitoring prototype device as part of an advanced metering system (AMS). This device can be placed on individual loads or configured to measure several loads as a whole. The wireless communication [...] Read more.
This paper presents a home area network (HAN)-based domestic load energy consumption monitoring prototype device as part of an advanced metering system (AMS). This device can be placed on individual loads or configured to measure several loads as a whole. The wireless communication infrastructure is supported on IEEE 805.12.04 radios that run a ZigBee stack. Data acquisition concerning load energy transit is processed in real time and the main electrical parameters are then transmitted through a RF link to a wireless terminal unit, which works as a data logger and as a human-machine interface. Voltage and current sensing are implemented using Hall effect principle-based transducers, while C code is developed on two 16/32-bit microcontroller units (MCUs). The main features and design options are then thoroughly discussed. The main contribution of this paper is that the proposed metering system measures the reactive energy component through the Hilbert transform for low cost measuring device systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Methods for Smart Grids Planning and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Thermal Stability of Modified Insulation Paper Cellulose Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Energies 2017, 10(3), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030397 - 20 Mar 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
In this paper, polysiloxane is used to modify insulation paper cellulose, and molecular dynamics methods are used to evaluate the glass transition temperature and mechanical properties of the paper before and after the modification. Analysis of the static mechanical performance of the model [...] Read more.
In this paper, polysiloxane is used to modify insulation paper cellulose, and molecular dynamics methods are used to evaluate the glass transition temperature and mechanical properties of the paper before and after the modification. Analysis of the static mechanical performance of the model shows that, with increasing temperature, the elastic modulus of both the modified and unmodified cellulose models decreases gradually. However, the elastic modulus of the modified model is greater than that of the unmodified model. Using the specific volume method and calculation of the mean square displacement of the models, the glass transition temperature of the modified cellulose model is found to be 48 K higher than that of the unmodified model. Finally, the changes in the mechanical properties and glass transition temperature of the model are analyzed by energy and free volume theory. The glass transition temperatures of the unmodified and modified cellulose models are approximately 400 K and 450 K, respectively. These results are consistent with the conclusions obtained from the specific volume method and the calculation of the mean square displacement. It can be concluded that the modification of insulation paper cellulose with polysiloxane will effectively improve its thermal stability. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Improved Multi-Infeed Effective Short-Circuit Ratio for AC/DC Power Systems with Massive Shunt Capacitors Installed
Energies 2017, 10(3), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030396 - 20 Mar 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
The multi-infeed effective short-circuit ratio (MESCR) is widely used in indicating the strength of multi-infeed AC/DC power systems. However, when the widely used MESCR was adopted to evaluate the stability margin of the Eastern China Grid including three infeed ultra-high-voltage DC (UHVDC) and [...] Read more.
The multi-infeed effective short-circuit ratio (MESCR) is widely used in indicating the strength of multi-infeed AC/DC power systems. However, when the widely used MESCR was adopted to evaluate the stability margin of the Eastern China Grid including three infeed ultra-high-voltage DC (UHVDC) and five high-voltage DC transmission lines in 2016, the MESCR result indicated the system was strong enough but in fact occasionally collapses after the N-1 contingency. To determine the reason for this conflict, this paper theoretically analyzes the limitations of the existing MESCR. The theoretical analysis reveals that when a large amount of capacitor compensations are concentratively installed in the system, the conventional MESCR will not be able to reflect the capacitor compensations’ influence on the system stability, and no matter how many capacitors are installed or where the capacitors are installed, the MESCR almost retains the same value; namely, the MESCR is saturated in such systems. To address the saturation problem of conventional MESCR, this paper proposes an improved multi-infeed effective short-circuit ratio (IMESCR) which considers the influences of all capacitor compensations by converting all capacitors installed throughout the system to virtual capacitors at the DC inverter station. Case studies are carried out based on the New England 39-bus system and the Eastern China Grid, respectively. The simulation results verify the theoretical analysis of the MESCR’s limitations in evaluating the stability of power systems with massive capacitors installed, and proves that the proposed IMESCR could accurately indicate the strength of AC/DC power systems. Therefore, the proposed IMESCR provides a new index for evaluating the stability margin of power systems with massive capacitor compensations installed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Wind Turbine Power Curve Design for Optimal Power Generation in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effect
Energies 2017, 10(3), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030395 - 20 Mar 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2597
Abstract
In modern wind farms, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is widely implemented. Using the MPPT method, each individual wind turbine is controlled by its pitch angle and tip speed ratio to generate the maximum active power. In a wind farm, the upstream wind [...] Read more.
In modern wind farms, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is widely implemented. Using the MPPT method, each individual wind turbine is controlled by its pitch angle and tip speed ratio to generate the maximum active power. In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to its downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. According to the wake model, downstream power loss is also determined by the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of the upstream wind turbine. By optimizing the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of each wind turbine, the total active power of the wind farm can be increased. In this paper, the optimal pitch angle and tip speed ratio are selected for each wind turbine by the exhausted search. Considering the estimation error of the wake model, a solution to implement the optimized pitch angle and tip speed ratio is proposed, which is to generate the optimal control curves for each individual wind turbine off-line. In typical wind farms with regular layout, based on the detailed analysis of the influence of pitch angle and tip speed ratio on the total active power of the wind farm by the exhausted search, the optimization is simplified with the reduced computation complexity. By using the optimized control curves, the annual energy production (AEP) is increased by 1.03% compared to using the MPPT method in a case-study of a typical eighty-turbine wind farm. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Wind Turbines) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Neuro-Fuzzy Wavelet Based Adaptive MPPT Algorithm for Photovoltaic Systems
Energies 2017, 10(3), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030394 - 20 Mar 2017
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2278
Abstract
An intelligent control of photovoltaics is necessary to ensure fast response and high efficiency under different weather conditions. This is often arduous to accomplish using traditional linear controllers, as photovoltaic systems are nonlinear and contain several uncertainties. Based on the analysis of the [...] Read more.
An intelligent control of photovoltaics is necessary to ensure fast response and high efficiency under different weather conditions. This is often arduous to accomplish using traditional linear controllers, as photovoltaic systems are nonlinear and contain several uncertainties. Based on the analysis of the existing literature of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques, a high performance neuro-fuzzy indirect wavelet-based adaptive MPPT control is developed in this work. The proposed controller combines the reasoning capability of fuzzy logic, the learning capability of neural networks and the localization properties of wavelets. In the proposed system, the Hermite Wavelet-embedded Neural Fuzzy (HWNF)-based gradient estimator is adopted to estimate the gradient term and makes the controller indirect. The performance of the proposed controller is compared with different conventional and intelligent MPPT control techniques. MATLAB results show the superiority over other existing techniques in terms of fast response, power quality and efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Power Systems Research 2017)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
International Electronical Committee (IEC) 61850 Mapping with Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) in Smart Grids Based European Telecommunications Standard Institute Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Environment
Energies 2017, 10(3), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030393 - 20 Mar 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2982
Abstract
As power systems develop rapidly into smarter and more flexible configurations, so too must the communication technologies that support them. Machine-to-machine (M2M) communication in power systems enables information collection by combining sensors and communication protocols. In doing so, M2M technology supports communication between [...] Read more.
As power systems develop rapidly into smarter and more flexible configurations, so too must the communication technologies that support them. Machine-to-machine (M2M) communication in power systems enables information collection by combining sensors and communication protocols. In doing so, M2M technology supports communication between machines to improve power quality and protection coordination. When functioning in a “smart grid” environment, M2M has been labelled by the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). International Electronical Committee (IEC) 61850 as the most important standard in power network systems. As evidence, this communication platform has been used for device data collection/control in substation automation systems and distribution automation systems. If the IEC 61850 information model were to be combined with a set of contemporary web protocols, the potential benefits would be enormous. Therefore, a constrained application protocol (CoAP) has been adopted to create an ETSI M2M communication architecture. CoAP is compared with other protocols (MQTT, SOAP) to demonstrate the validity of using it. This M2M communication technology is applied in an IEC61850, and use the OPNET Modeler 17.1 to demonstrate intercompatibility of CoAP Gateway. The proposed IEC 61850 and CoAP mapping scheme reduces the mapping time and improves throughput. CoAP is useful in the ETSI M2M environment where device capability is able to be limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Smart Grid)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Stand-Alone Power System Based on Solar Power/Batteries for Global System for Mobile Communications Base Stations
Energies 2017, 10(3), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030392 - 19 Mar 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
Energy consumption in cellular networks is receiving significant attention from academia and the industry due to its significant potential economic and ecological influence. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. Technological advancements and cost reduction for [...] Read more.
Energy consumption in cellular networks is receiving significant attention from academia and the industry due to its significant potential economic and ecological influence. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. Technological advancements and cost reduction for photovoltaics are making cellular base stations (BSs; a key source of energy consumption in cellular networks) powered by solar energy sources a long-term promising solution for the mobile cellular network industry. This paper addresses issues of deployment and operation of two solar-powered global system for mobile communications (GSM) BSs that are being deployed at present (GSM BS 2/2/2 and GSM BS 4/4/4). The study is based on the characteristics of South Korean solar radiation exposure. The optimum criteria as well as economic and technical feasibility for various BSs are analyzed using a hybrid optimization model for electric renewables. In addition, initial capital, replacement, operations, maintenance, and total net present costs for various solar-powered BSs are discussed. Furthermore, the economic feasibility of the proposed solar system is compared with conventional energy sources in urban and remote areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Assessment Analysis and Forecasting for Security Early Warning of Energy Consumption Carbon Emissions in Hebei Province, China
Energies 2017, 10(3), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030391 - 19 Mar 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Against the backdrop of increasingly serious global climate change and the development of the low-carbon economy, the coordination between energy consumption carbon emissions (ECCE) and regional population, resources, environment, economy and society has become an important subject. In this paper, the research focuses [...] Read more.
Against the backdrop of increasingly serious global climate change and the development of the low-carbon economy, the coordination between energy consumption carbon emissions (ECCE) and regional population, resources, environment, economy and society has become an important subject. In this paper, the research focuses on the security early warning of ECCE in Hebei Province, China. First, an assessment index system of the security early warning of ECCE is constructed based on the pressure-state-response (P-S-R) model. Then, the variance method and linearity weighted method are used to calculate the security early warning index of ECCE. From the two dimensions of time series and spatial pattern, the security early warning conditions of ECCE are analyzed in depth. Finally, with the assessment analysis of the data from 2000 to 2014, the prediction of the security early warning of carbon emissions from 2015 to 2020 is given, using a back propagation neural network based on a kidney-inspired algorithm (KA-BPNN) model. The results indicate that: (1) from 2000 to 2014, the security comprehensive index of ECCE demonstrates a fluctuating upward trend in general and the trend of the alarm level is “Severe warning”–“Moderate warning”–“Slight warning”; (2) there is a big spatial difference in the security of ECCE, with relatively high-security alarm level in the north while it is relatively low in the other areas; (3) the security index shows the trend of continuing improvement from 2015 to 2020, however the security level will remain in the state of “Semi-secure” for a long time and the corresponding alarm is still in the state of “Slight warning”, reflecting that the situation is still not optimistic. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Online Reliable Peak Charge/Discharge Power Estimation of Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Packs
Energies 2017, 10(3), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030390 - 19 Mar 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
The accurate peak power estimation of a battery pack is essential to the power-train control of electric vehicles (EVs). It helps to evaluate the maximum charge and discharge capability of the battery system, and thus to optimally control the power-train system to meet [...] Read more.
The accurate peak power estimation of a battery pack is essential to the power-train control of electric vehicles (EVs). It helps to evaluate the maximum charge and discharge capability of the battery system, and thus to optimally control the power-train system to meet the requirement of acceleration, gradient climbing and regenerative braking while achieving a high energy efficiency. A novel online peak power estimation method for series-connected lithium-ion battery packs is proposed, which considers the influence of cell difference on the peak power of the battery packs. A new parameter identification algorithm based on adaptive ratio vectors is designed to online identify the parameters of each individual cell in a series-connected battery pack. The ratio vectors reflecting cell difference are deduced strictly based on the analysis of battery characteristics. Based on the online parameter identification, the peak power estimation considering cell difference is further developed. Some validation experiments in different battery aging conditions and with different current profiles have been implemented to verify the proposed method. The results indicate that the ratio vector-based identification algorithm can achieve the same accuracy as the repetitive RLS (recursive least squares) based identification while evidently reducing the computation cost, and the proposed peak power estimation method is more effective and reliable for series-connected battery packs due to the consideration of cell difference. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Risk of Residential Peak Electricity Demand: A Comparison of Five European Countries
Energies 2017, 10(3), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030385 - 19 Mar 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
The creation of a Europe-wide electricity market combined with the increased intermittency of supply from renewable sources calls for an investigation into the risk of aggregate peak demand. This paper makes use of a risk model to assess differences in time-use data from [...] Read more.
The creation of a Europe-wide electricity market combined with the increased intermittency of supply from renewable sources calls for an investigation into the risk of aggregate peak demand. This paper makes use of a risk model to assess differences in time-use data from residential end-users in five different European electricity markets. Drawing on the Multinational Time-Use Survey database, it assesses risk in relation to the probability of electrical appliance use within households for five European countries. Findings highlight in which countries and for which activities the risk of aggregate peak demand is higher and link smart home solutions (automated load control, dynamic pricing and smart appliances) to different levels of peak demand risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Technologies for Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Performance Improvement for Two-Stage Single-Phase Grid-Connected Converters Using a Fast DC Bus Control Scheme and a Novel Synchronous Frame Current Controller
Energies 2017, 10(3), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030389 - 18 Mar 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2060
Abstract
Two-stage single-phase grid-connected converters are widely used in renewable energy applications. Due to the presence of a second harmonic ripple across the DC bus voltage, it is very challenging to design the DC bus voltage control scheme in single-phase grid-connected inverters. The DC [...] Read more.
Two-stage single-phase grid-connected converters are widely used in renewable energy applications. Due to the presence of a second harmonic ripple across the DC bus voltage, it is very challenging to design the DC bus voltage control scheme in single-phase grid-connected inverters. The DC bus voltage controller must filter the ripple and balance a tradeoff between low harmonic distortion and high bandwidth. This paper presents a fast DC bus voltage controller, which uses a second order digital finite impulse response (FIR) notch filter in conjunction with input power feedforward scheme to ensure the steady-state and dynamic performance. To gain the input power without extra hardware, a Kalman filter is incorporated to estimate the DC bus input current. At the same time, a modulation compensation strategy is implemented to eliminate the nonlinearity of the grid current control loop, which is caused by the DC bus voltage ripple. Moreover, a novel synchronous frame current controller for single-phase systems is also introduced, and its equivalent model in stationary frame has been derived. Simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the effective of the proposed control scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Using Grass Cuttings from Sports Fields for Anaerobic Digestion and Combustion
Energies 2017, 10(3), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030388 - 18 Mar 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Sports fields provide a recreation space for citizens, but also generate grass biomass, which is cut weekly during the main seasons and therefore could be used in energy generation (combustion or anaerobic digestion). To evaluate the technical suitability of the grass cuttings, silage [...] Read more.
Sports fields provide a recreation space for citizens, but also generate grass biomass, which is cut weekly during the main seasons and therefore could be used in energy generation (combustion or anaerobic digestion). To evaluate the technical suitability of the grass cuttings, silage was produced from four sports fields during one vegetation period and investigated for relevant properties. Potential methane yield was determined with batch tests. Mean methane yield was 291.86 lN·kg−1 VSadded (VS, volatile solid). Neutral detergent fiber concentration was low (44.47% DM, dry matter), yet mineral concentration was high in comparison to grass types cut at a lower frequency. Concentrations of Cl, N, and S, which may lead to unfavorable emissions, fouling, and corrosion during combustion, were too high for an unproblematic combustion process. This was still the case even after applying a mineral-reducing pretreatment, which generates a fiber-rich press cake and a press fluid rich in easy soluble substances. Digestion of the press fluid led to methane yields of 340.10 lN·kg−1 VSadded and the press cake had a higher heating value of 19.61 MJ·kg−1 DM, which is close to that of coniferous wood. It can be concluded that biomass from sports fields could be a suitable co-substrate in bio-energy generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Energy Storage Systems Grid Code Requirements on Interface Protection Performances in Low Voltage Networks
Energies 2017, 10(3), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030387 - 18 Mar 2017
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
The ever-growing penetration of local generation in distribution networks and the large diffusion of energy storage systems (ESSs) foreseen in the near future are bound to affect the effectiveness of interface protection systems (IPSs), with negative impact on the safety of medium voltage [...] Read more.
The ever-growing penetration of local generation in distribution networks and the large diffusion of energy storage systems (ESSs) foreseen in the near future are bound to affect the effectiveness of interface protection systems (IPSs), with negative impact on the safety of medium voltage (MV) and low voltage (LV) systems. With the scope of preserving the main network stability, international and national grid connection codes have been updated recently. Consequently, distributed generators (DGs) and storage units are increasingly called to provide stabilizing functions according to local voltage and frequency. This can be achieved by suitably controlling the electronic power converters interfacing small-scale generators and storage units to the network. The paper focuses on the regulating functions required to storage units by grid codes currently in force in the European area. Indeed, even if such regulating actions would enable local units in participating to network stability under normal steady-state operating conditions, it is shown through dynamic simulations that they may increase the risk of unintentional islanding occurrence. This means that dangerous operating conditions may arise in LV networks in case dispersed generators and storage systems are present, even if all the end-users are compliant with currently applied connection standards. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Equivalent Electrical Circuits of Thermoelectric Generators under Different Operating Conditions
Energies 2017, 10(3), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030386 - 18 Mar 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
Energy harvesting has become a promising and alternative solution to conventional energy generation patterns to overcome the problem of supplying autonomous electrical systems. More particularly, thermal energy harvesting technologies have drawn a major interest in both research and industry. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs) can [...] Read more.
Energy harvesting has become a promising and alternative solution to conventional energy generation patterns to overcome the problem of supplying autonomous electrical systems. More particularly, thermal energy harvesting technologies have drawn a major interest in both research and industry. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs) can be used in two different operating conditions, under constant temperature gradient or constant heat flow. The commonly used TEG electrical model, based on a voltage source in series with an electrical resistance, shows its limitations especially under constant heat flow conditions. Here, the analytical electrical modeling, taking into consideration the internal and contact thermal resistances of a TEG under constant temperature gradient and constant heat flow conditions, is first given. To give further insight into the electrical behavior of a TEG module in different operating conditions, we propose a new and original way of emulating the above analytical expressions with usual electronics components (voltage source, resistors, diode), whose values are determined with the TEG’s parameters. Note that such a TEG emulation is particularly suited when designing the electronic circuitry commonly associated to the TEG, to realize both Maximum Power Point Tracking and output voltage regulation. First, the proposed equivalent electrical circuits are validated through simulation with a SPICE environment in static operating conditions using only one value of either temperature gradient or heat flow. Then, they are also analyzed in dynamic operating conditions where both temperature gradient and heat flow are considered as time-varying functions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Simultaneous On-State Voltage and Bond-Wire Resistance Monitoring of Silicon Carbide MOSFETs
Energies 2017, 10(3), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030384 - 18 Mar 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
In fast switching power semiconductors, the use of a fourth terminal to provide the reference potential for the gate signal—known as a kelvin-source terminal—is becoming common. The introduction of this terminal presents opportunities for condition monitoring systems. This article demonstrates how the voltage [...] Read more.
In fast switching power semiconductors, the use of a fourth terminal to provide the reference potential for the gate signal—known as a kelvin-source terminal—is becoming common. The introduction of this terminal presents opportunities for condition monitoring systems. This article demonstrates how the voltage between the kelvin-source and power-source can be used to specifically monitor bond-wire degradation. Meanwhile, the drain to kelvin-source voltage can be monitored to track defects in the semiconductor die or gate driver. Through an accelerated aging test on 20 A Silicon Carbide Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs), it is shown that there are opposing trends in the evolution of the on-state resistances of both the bond-wires and the MOSFET die. In summary, after 50,000 temperature cycles, the resistance of the bond-wires increased by up to 2 mΩ, while the on-state resistance of the MOSFET dies decreased by approximately 1 mΩ. The conventional failure precursor (monitoring a single forward voltage) cannot distinguish between semiconductor die or bond-wire degradation. Therefore, the ability to monitor both these parameters due to the presence of an auxiliary-source terminal can provide more detailed information regarding the aging process of a device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Power Devices)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Process Heat Generation Potential from Solar Concentration Technologies in Latin America: The Case of Argentina
Energies 2017, 10(3), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030383 - 17 Mar 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2109
Abstract
This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC), linear Fresnel collector (LFC) and parabolic trough collector (PTC)—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas [...] Read more.
This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC), linear Fresnel collector (LFC) and parabolic trough collector (PTC)—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas without energy supply exist. The analysis is addressed from energy, economic and environmental perspective. A specific application for Argentina in which fourteen locations are analyzed is considered. Results show that solar concentration technologies can be an economically and environmentally viable alternative. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) ranges between 2.5 and 16.9 c€/kWh/m2 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided range between 33 and 348 kgCO2/(m2·year). CPC technology stands out as the most recommendable technology when the working fluid temperature ranges from 373 K to 423 K. As the working fluid temperature increases the differences between the LCOE values of the CPC and LFC technologies decrease. When 523 K is reached LFC technology is the one which presents the lowest LCOE values for all analyzed sites, while the LCOE values of PTC technology are close to CPC technology values. Results show that solar concentration technologies have reached economic and environmental competitiveness levels under certain scenarios, mainly linked to solar resource available, thermal level requirements and solar technology cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Smart Home Energy Management
Energies 2017, 10(3), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030382 - 17 Mar 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
The new challenges on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Automatic Home Systems (AHS) focus on the methods useful to monitor, control, and optimize the data management flow and the use of energy.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Home Energy Management)
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop