Energies, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2017) – 114 articles
Cover Story (view full-size image): The development of distributed energy resources increases the needs of higher grid capacity. It is shown that by performing and comparing three power transformer capacity allocation mechanisms among virtual power plants (VPPs), the congestion problem at the transformer level can be prevented. Inside each VPP, an ACOPF problem is formulated to minimize operational costs, taking into account line thermal limits, voltage limits, and the transformer use power limits/congestion price resulting from the capacity allocation mechanism. View this paper.
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