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Special Issue "Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Adolf Acquaye

Reader in Sustainability, Kent Business School, University of Kent, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: renewable energy; climate change policies; mitigation and adaptation; energy efficiency; policy and economics; triple bottom line sustainability modelling including carbon accounting; input-output analysis and LCA; green supply chain management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Renewable energy systems (RES) will play a decisive role on the path towards meeting the energy demands of a growing global population and the economic needs of countries at all stages of development if these goals are to be achieved in a climate-friendly environment. Indeed, given contemporary climate change challenges, RES has a dual role to play in both mitigation and adaptation efforts. The search for sustainable energy will therefore continue to dominate the twenty-first century research, business and policy.

Deployment of increasingly renewables energy options continues to expand rapidly with electricity generation from RES currently accounting for half of additional global energy generation (International Energy Agency 2015). This is buoyed by declining costs and, in some cases, by dedicated policy initiatives and/or subsidies. Despite these, present and future advancements in RES present uncertainties in terms of technical, policy and various triple bottom line sustainability dimensions.

This Special Issue, therefore, seeks to contribute to the Renewable Energy agenda through enhanced scientific and multi-disciplinary knowledge to improve performance and deployment by bringing some focus on the shifting energy landscape in order to meet technical, socio-economic and environmental goals as well as for energy security. We therefore invite papers on innovative technical developments, reviews, case studies, analytical, as well as assessment, papers from different disciplines, which are relevant to sustainable and renewable energy systems.

Dr. Adolf Acquaye
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • deployment of RES
  • next generation renewable energy technologies
  • renewable energy markets and financing
  • economics of RES
  • sustainability indicators for RES
  • renewable energy for sustainable development
  • renewable energy and climate policies
  • integration into present and future energy systems

Published Papers (28 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Repercussion of Large Scale Hydro Dam Deployment: The Case of Congo Grand Inga Hydro Project
Energies 2018, 11(4), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040972
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The idea of damming the Congo River has persisted for decades. The Grand Inga project, of up to 42 GW power generation capacity, can only be justified as part of a regional energy master plan for Africa, to bridge the energy gap on [...] Read more.
The idea of damming the Congo River has persisted for decades. The Grand Inga project, of up to 42 GW power generation capacity, can only be justified as part of a regional energy master plan for Africa, to bridge the energy gap on the continent. Proponents of very large dams have often exaggerated potential multiple benefits of a mega dam, marginalise environmental concerns and neglect the true risk of such projects, in particular for the fragile economies of developing countries. Studies have reported the financial risks, cost overruns and schedule spills associated with very large dams. In addition, most of the dams in the region are poorly managed. Therefore, the type and scale of Grand Inga is not the solution for millions of not yet electrified people in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this research, scenarios are defined based on announced costs and expected costs. Cost escalations in the range from 5% to 100% for the Inga project in 2030 and 2040 are considered, as average cost overruns are typically at about 70% or higher for similar mega-dams. It was found that when the cost overrun for the Grand Inga project exceeds 35% and −5% for 2030 and 2040 assumptions, respectively, the project becomes economically non-beneficial. In all scenarios, Sub-Saharan Africa can mainly be powered by solar photovoltaics to cover the electricity demand and complemented by wind energy, supported by batteries. Hydropower and biomass-based electricity can serve as complementary resources. The grid frequency stability of the power system is analysed and discussed in the paper. Benefits of the Inga hydropower project have to be increasingly questioned, in particular due to the fast cost decline of solar photovoltaics and batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Transformation towards a Renewable Energy System in Brazil and Mexico—Technological and Structural Options for Latin America
Energies 2018, 11(4), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040907
Received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (7055 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Newly industrialized countries face major challenges to comply with the Paris Treaty targets as economic growth and prosperity lead to increasing energy demand. Our paper analyses technological and structural options in terms of energy efficiency and renewable energies for a massive reduction of [...] Read more.
Newly industrialized countries face major challenges to comply with the Paris Treaty targets as economic growth and prosperity lead to increasing energy demand. Our paper analyses technological and structural options in terms of energy efficiency and renewable energies for a massive reduction of energy-related CO2 emissions in Latin America. Brazil and Mexico share similar growth prospects but differ significantly with respect to renewable energy potentials. We identify, how this leads to different transformation pathways. By applying an energy system balancing model we develop normative energy system transformation scenarios across the heating, power, and mobility sectors, including their potential interactions. The normative scenarios rely on three basic strategies for both countries: (1) strong exploitation of efficiency potentials; (2) tapping the renewable energy potentials; and (3) sector coupling and electrification of heat supply and transport. Despite economic growth, significant CO2 emission reductions could be achieved in Brazil from 440 Gt/a (2.2 t/cap) in 2012 to 0.4 Gt (2 kg/cap) in 2050 and in Mexico from 400 Gt/a (3.3 t/cap) to 80 Gt (0.5 t/cap). Our study shows the gap between existing policy and scenarios and our strategies, which provide an economically feasible way to comply with the Paris treaty targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of Photovoltaics and LED Energy Efficiency: Case Study in Hungary
Energies 2018, 11(4), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040790
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) energy and energy efficiency have an increasing role in global energy usage. This paper is a study of building photovoltaic systems (PVS) to modernize existing or developed street lighting systems in Hungarian villages of 900–1200 inhabitants. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) energy and energy efficiency have an increasing role in global energy usage. This paper is a study of building photovoltaic systems (PVS) to modernize existing or developed street lighting systems in Hungarian villages of 900–1200 inhabitants. The objective of this study is to show the economic questions related to the investments in photovoltaic systems and light emitting diode (LED) street lighting developments under Hungarian regulations. With the help of this study, it may be possible to support local governments to use combined photovoltaic energy for street lighting developments. This article presents the Hungarian regulations regarding photovoltaic systems and shows why local governments are not able to connect their street lighting systems to photovoltaic systems. Three different investment alternatives for local governments are studied with the help of economic indicators. Our conclusion is that investments in photovoltaic street lighting systems can be profitable if a street lighting system already exists and requires no modernization. Under the current regulations of Hungary, the examined projects can be viable only to offset the energy costs of street lighting by the delivery price of electricity from the PVS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of the Most Effective Point of Connection for Battery Energy Storage Systems Focusing on Power System Frequency Response Improvement
Energies 2018, 11(4), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040763
Received: 27 January 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (31678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the massive penetration of intermittent generation (wind and solar), the reduction of Electrical Power Systems’ (EPSs) inertial frequency response represents a new challenge. One alternative to deal with this scenario may be the application of a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). However, [...] Read more.
With the massive penetration of intermittent generation (wind and solar), the reduction of Electrical Power Systems’ (EPSs) inertial frequency response represents a new challenge. One alternative to deal with this scenario may be the application of a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). However, the main constraint for the massive deployment of BESSs is the high acquisition cost of these storage systems which in some situations, can preclude their use in transmission systems. The main goal of this paper is to propose a systematic procedure to include BESSs in power system aiming to improve the power system frequency response using full linear models and geometric measures. In this work, a generic battery model is developed in a two-area test system with assumed high wind penetration and full conventional generators models. The full power system is linearized, and the geometric measures of controllability associated with of the frequency regulation mode are estimated. Then, these results are used to identify the most effective point of connection for a BESS aiming at the improvement of the power system frequency response. Nonlinear time-domain simulations are carried out to evaluate and validate the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Flexible Biogas in Future Energy Systems—Sleeping Beauty for a Cheaper Power Generation
Energies 2018, 11(4), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040761
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (13119 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increasing proportion of intermittent renewable energies asks for further technologies for balancing demand and supply in the energy system. In contrast to other countries, Germany is characterized by a high installed capacity of dispatchable biogas plants. For this paper, we analyzed the [...] Read more.
The increasing proportion of intermittent renewable energies asks for further technologies for balancing demand and supply in the energy system. In contrast to other countries, Germany is characterized by a high installed capacity of dispatchable biogas plants. For this paper, we analyzed the total system costs varying biogas extension paths and modes of operation for the period of 2016–2035 by using a non-linear optimization model. We took variable costs of existing conventional power plants, as well as variable costs and capital investments in gas turbines, Li-ion batteries, and pumped-storage plants into account. Without the consideration of the costs for biogas plants, an increasing proportion of biogas plants, compared to their phase out, reduces the total system costs. Furthermore, their flexible power generation should be as flexible as possible. The lowest total system costs were calculated in an extension path with the highest rate of construction of new biogas plants. However, the highest marginal utility was assessed by a medium proportion of flexible biogas plants. In conclusion, biogas plants can be a cost-effective option to integrate intermittent renewable energies into the electricity system. The optimal extension path of biogas plants depends on the future installed capacities of conventional and renewable energies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Criteria Analysis of Electricity Generation Scenarios for Sustainable Energy Planning in Pakistan
Energies 2018, 11(4), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040757
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (78062 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The now over a decade-long electricity crisis in Pakistan has adversely affected the socio-economic development of the country. This situation is mainly due to a lack of sustainable energy planning and policy formulation. In this context, energy models can be of great help [...] Read more.
The now over a decade-long electricity crisis in Pakistan has adversely affected the socio-economic development of the country. This situation is mainly due to a lack of sustainable energy planning and policy formulation. In this context, energy models can be of great help but only a handful of such efforts have been undertaken in Pakistan. Two key shortcomings pertaining to energy models lead to their low utilization in developing countries. First, the models do not effectively make decisions, but rather provide a set of alternatives based on modeling parameters; and secondly, the complexity of these models is often poorly understood by the decision makers. As such, in this study, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) has been used for the sustainability assessment of energy modeling results for long-term electricity planning. The four scenario alternatives developed in the energy modeling effort, Reference (REF), Renewable Energy Technologies (RET), Clean Coal Maximum (CCM) and Energy Efficiency and Conservation (EEC), have been ranked using the Expert Choice® tool based on the AHP methodology. The AHP decision support framework of this study revealed the EEC scenario as the most favorable electricity generation scenario followed by the REF, RET and CCM scenarios. Besides that, this study proposes policy recommendations to undertake integrated energy modeling and decision analysis for sustainable energy planning in Pakistan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Wind Speed Prediction with Spatio–Temporal Correlation: A Deep Learning Approach
Energies 2018, 11(4), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040705
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind speed prediction with spatio–temporal correlation is among the most challenging tasks in wind speed prediction. In this paper, the problem of predicting wind speed for multiple sites simultaneously is investigated by using spatio–temporal correlation. This paper proposes a model for wind speed [...] Read more.
Wind speed prediction with spatio–temporal correlation is among the most challenging tasks in wind speed prediction. In this paper, the problem of predicting wind speed for multiple sites simultaneously is investigated by using spatio–temporal correlation. This paper proposes a model for wind speed prediction with spatio–temporal correlation, i.e., the predictive deep convolutional neural network (PDCNN). The model is a unified framework, integrating convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and a multi-layer perceptron (MLP). Firstly, the spatial features are extracted by CNNs located at the bottom of the model. Then, the temporal dependencies among these extracted spatial features are captured by the MLP. In this way, the spatial and temporal correlations are captured by PDCNN intrinsically. Finally, PDCNN generates the predicted wind speed by using the learnt spatio–temporal correlations. In addition, three error indices are defined to evaluate the prediction accuracy of the model on the wind turbine array. Experiment results on real-world data show that PDCNN can capture the spatio–temporal correlation effectively, and it outperforms the conventional machine learning models, including multi-layer perceptron, support vector regressor, decision tree, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Feedback Linearization Based NeuroFuzzy Maximum Power Point Tracking for a Photovoltaic System
Energies 2018, 11(3), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030606
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the current smart grid scenario, the evolution of a proficient and robust maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for a PV subsystem has become imperative due to the fluctuating meteorological conditions. In this paper, an adaptive feedback linearization-based NeuroFuzzy MPPT (AFBLNF-MPPT) algorithm [...] Read more.
In the current smart grid scenario, the evolution of a proficient and robust maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for a PV subsystem has become imperative due to the fluctuating meteorological conditions. In this paper, an adaptive feedback linearization-based NeuroFuzzy MPPT (AFBLNF-MPPT) algorithm for a photovoltaic (PV) subsystem in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) is proposed. The performance of the stated (AFBLNF-MPPT) control strategy is approved through a comprehensive grid-tied HRES test-bed established in MATLAB/Simulink. It outperforms the incremental conductance (IC) based adaptive indirect NeuroFuzzy (IC-AIndir-NF) control scheme, IC-based adaptive direct NeuroFuzzy (IC-ADir-NF) control system, IC-based adaptive proportional-integral-derivative (IC-AdapPID) control scheme, and conventional IC algorithm for a PV subsystem in both transient as well as steady-state modes for varying temperature and irradiance profiles. The comparative analyses were carried out on the basis of performance indexes and efficiency of MPPT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Economic Value Assessment and Optimal Sizing of an Energy Storage System in a Grid-Connected Wind Farm
Energies 2018, 11(3), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030591
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study identifies the optimal management policy of a given energy storage system (ESS) installed in a grid-connected wind farm in terms of maximizing the monetary benefits and provides guidelines for defining the economic value of the ESS under optimal management policy and [...] Read more.
This study identifies the optimal management policy of a given energy storage system (ESS) installed in a grid-connected wind farm in terms of maximizing the monetary benefits and provides guidelines for defining the economic value of the ESS under optimal management policy and selecting the optimal size of the ESS based on economic value. Considering stochastic models for wind power and electricity price, we develop a finite-horizon periodic-review Markov decision process (MDP) model to seek the optimal management policy. We also use a simple optimization model to find the optimal storage capacity and charging/discharging capacity of the ESS. By applying our analytic approach to a real-world grid-connected wind farm located in South Korea, we verify the usefulness of this study. Our numerical study shows that the economic value of the ESS is highly dependent on management policy, wind electricity variability, and electricity price variability. Thus, the optimal size of ESS should be carefully determined based on the locational characteristics and management policy even with limited investments. Furthermore, this study provides a meaningful policy implication regarding how much of a subsidy the government should provide for installing ESS in a wind farm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Remote Power Control Injection of Grid-Connected Power Converters Based on Virtual Flux
Energies 2018, 11(3), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030488
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
PDF Full-text (7239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Renewable Energy Source (RES)-based power plants need to control the active and reactive power at the Point of Common Connection (PCC) with the grid, in order to comply with the requirements of the Transmission System Operators (TSOs). This point is normally far away [...] Read more.
Renewable Energy Source (RES)-based power plants need to control the active and reactive power at the Point of Common Connection (PCC) with the grid, in order to comply with the requirements of the Transmission System Operators (TSOs). This point is normally far away from the power converter station, and the cables and step-up transformers have a non-neglectable influence on the delivered power. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a control algorithm that permits one to control remotely the power injected at the PCC, by adjusting the local controller of the Voltage Source Converters (VSCs). In this work, the synchronization with the grid is done based on the Virtual Flux (VF) concept. The results reveals that the VF estimation is able to produce a reliable estimation of the grid voltage in any point of the network, and makes it possible to calculate the necessary current reference for injecting a desired active and reactive power at a point that can be some kilometres away. In this paper the main principle for this remote power control is presented. Likewise, the simulation and experimental results will be shown in order to analyse the effectiveness of the proposed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Systematic Controller Design for a Grid-Connected Inverter with LCL Filter Using a Discrete-Time Integral State Feedback Control and State Observer
Energies 2018, 11(2), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020437
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL)-type filters are currently preferred as a replacement for L-type filters in distributed generation (DG) power systems, due to their superior harmonic attenuation capability. However, the third-order dynamics introduced by LCL filters pose a challenge to design a satisfactory controller for such [...] Read more.
Inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL)-type filters are currently preferred as a replacement for L-type filters in distributed generation (DG) power systems, due to their superior harmonic attenuation capability. However, the third-order dynamics introduced by LCL filters pose a challenge to design a satisfactory controller for such a system. Conventionally, an LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter can be effectively controlled by using a full-state feedback control. However, this control approach requires the measurement of all system state variables, which brings about more complexity for the inverter system. To address this issue, this paper presents a systematic procedure to design an observer-based integral state feedback control for a LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter in the discrete-time domain. The proposed control scheme consists of an integral state feedback controller and a full-state observer which uses the control input, grid-side currents, and grid voltages to predict all the system state variables. Therefore, only the grid-side current sensors and grid voltage sensors are required to implement the proposed control scheme. Due to the discrete-time integrator incorporated in the state feedback controller, the proposed control scheme ensures both the reference tracking and disturbance rejection performance of the inverter system in a practical and simple way. As a result, superior control performance can be achieved by using the reduced number of sensors, which significantly reduces the cost and complexity of the LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter system in DG applications. To verify the practical usefulness of the proposed control scheme, a 2 kW three-phase prototype grid-connected inverter has been constructed, and the proposed control system has been implemented based on 32-bit floating-point digital signal processor (DSP) TMS320F28335. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated through the comprehensive simulation and experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Linking of Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvement in Indonesia’s Steel Industry
Energies 2018, 11(1), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010234
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 18 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy use in Indonesia’s steel industry accounts for about 20–35% of total production costs. Consequently, energy end-use efficiency is a crucial measure that is used to reduce energy intensity and decrease production costs. This article aims to investigate the relationships among different barriers [...] Read more.
Energy use in Indonesia’s steel industry accounts for about 20–35% of total production costs. Consequently, energy end-use efficiency is a crucial measure that is used to reduce energy intensity and decrease production costs. This article aims to investigate the relationships among different barriers to energy efficiency improvement (EEI), using a framework with the following six constructs: government policy, the financial–economic factor, the managerial–organizational factor, the technological factor, workforce, and quality and type of feedstock and fuel used. The data were collected from steel firm practitioners in Indonesia, using a questionnaire to test our framework. The results demonstrate that the applied framework was applicable. We find that EEI is moderately influenced by all constructs but that the managerial–organizational factor has the greatest direct effect on improvements and is the most significant factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermodynamic and Environmental Analysis of Scaling up Cogeneration Units Driven by Sugarcane Biomass to Enhance Power Exports
Energies 2018, 11(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010073
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When manual harvesting of sugarcane was discontinued in many regions of Brazil, interest in power generation by burning the bagasse and straw in cogeneration units rose. Exergy analysis is often applied to increase the thermodynamic yield of these plants by identifying irreversibility and [...] Read more.
When manual harvesting of sugarcane was discontinued in many regions of Brazil, interest in power generation by burning the bagasse and straw in cogeneration units rose. Exergy analysis is often applied to increase the thermodynamic yield of these plants by identifying irreversibility and work availability. Conversely, pressure for adopting clean energy requires these systems to be evaluated for suitable environmental performance. This study identified and discussed the thermodynamic and environmental effects of scaling up systems that operate according Rankine cycle with reheating. Ten scenarios have been designed considering different levels of steam pressure and addition rates of straw remaining in the sugarcane cultivation. The thermodynamic analysis revealed a 37% improvement in the exergy efficiency and 63% of increasing in power generation to raise the steam pressure from 20 to 100 bar. Moreover, the use of 50% of residual straw into units operating at 100 bar can more than double the amount of electricity exported. If addressed considering a life cycle perspective, the use of straw improves the environmental performance of the cogeneration for Climate Change and Particle Matter Formation but provides additional impacts in terms of Water and Fossil resources depletions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Production Analysis and Optimization of Mini-Grid in Remote Areas: The Case Study of Habaswein, Kenya
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122041
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 3 December 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (4050 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rural electrification in remote areas of developing countries has several challenges which hinder energy access to the population. For instance, the extension of the national grid to provide electricity in these areas is largely not viable. The Kenyan Government has put a target [...] Read more.
Rural electrification in remote areas of developing countries has several challenges which hinder energy access to the population. For instance, the extension of the national grid to provide electricity in these areas is largely not viable. The Kenyan Government has put a target to achieve universal energy access by the year 2020. To realize this objective, the focus of the program is being shifted to establishing off-grid power stations in rural areas. Among rural areas to be electrified is Habaswein, which is a settlement in Kenya’s northeastern region without connection to the national power grid, and where Kenya Power installed a stand-alone hybrid mini-grid. Based on field observations, power generation data analysis, evaluation of the potential energy resources and simulations, this research intends to evaluate the performance of the Habaswein mini-grid and optimize the existing hybrid generation system to enhance its reliability and reduce the operation costs. The result will be a suggestion of how Kenyan rural areas could be sustainably electrified by using renewable energy based off-grid power stations. It will contribute to bridge the current research gap in this area, and it will be a vital tool to researchers, implementers and the policy makers in energy sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Equivalent Modeling of a Grid-Tied Microgrid Based on Characteristic Model and Measurement Data
Energies 2017, 10(12), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10121951
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3023 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microgrids can significantly improve the utilization of distributed generation (DG) and the reliability of the power supply. However, in the grid-tied operational mode, the interaction between the microgrid and the distribution network cannot be ignored. The paper proposes an equivalent modeling method for [...] Read more.
Microgrids can significantly improve the utilization of distributed generation (DG) and the reliability of the power supply. However, in the grid-tied operational mode, the interaction between the microgrid and the distribution network cannot be ignored. The paper proposes an equivalent modeling method for the microgrid under grid-tied mode based on a characteristic model. It can simplify the microgrid model in the numerical simulation of the distribution network. The proposed equivalent model can present the dynamic response of a microgrid but not miss any of its primary characteristics. The characteristic model is represented by a low-order time-varying differential equation with the same characteristics of the original microgrid system. During the modeling process, the voltage and the power exchanged between the microgrid and distribution network are collected as the training data for the identification of model parameters. A recursive damped least squares algorithm (RDLS) is used for the parameter identification. A microgrid system containing different DGs is built to test the proposed modeling method in DIgSILENT, and the results show that the proposed dynamic equivalent modeling method is effective and the characteristic model can present the dynamic behaviors of the detailed model of a microgrid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Visualizing National Electrification Scenarios for Sub-Saharan African Countries
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1899; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111899
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Some 630 million people representing two-thirds of all Africans have no access to electricity, which is identified as a key barrier towards further development. Three main electrification options are considered within our work: grid extensions, mini-grids and solar home systems (SHS). A methodology [...] Read more.
Some 630 million people representing two-thirds of all Africans have no access to electricity, which is identified as a key barrier towards further development. Three main electrification options are considered within our work: grid extensions, mini-grids and solar home systems (SHS). A methodology is applied to all sub-Saharan African countries to identify in high geospatial resolution which electrification option is appropriate taking into account datasets for night light imagery, population distribution and grid infrastructure. Four different scenarios are considered reflecting grid development and electrification constraints due to low population density. The results clearly indicate a dominating role of SHS for achieving a fast electrification of the not supplied people. The share of supplied people by mini-grids is found to be rather low while grid extension serves a large share of the population. The decisive factors for these distinctions are population density and distance to grid. We applied several scenarios and sensitivities to understand the influence of these key parameters. The highest trade-off happens between SHS and grid extension depending on the selected thresholds. Mini-grid deployments remain in the range of 8 to 21%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Solar-Powered Base Stations for Green Mobile Networks
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10081208
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
The rapid growth of mobile communication technology and the corresponding significant increase in the number of cellular base stations (BSs) have increased operational expenses (OPEX) for mobile operators, due to increased electricity prices and fossil fuel consumption. Thus, identifying alternative solutions to reduce [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of mobile communication technology and the corresponding significant increase in the number of cellular base stations (BSs) have increased operational expenses (OPEX) for mobile operators, due to increased electricity prices and fossil fuel consumption. Thus, identifying alternative solutions to reduce OPEX has become a major priority of mobile operators. Solar energy is considered an economically attractive and eco-friendly option. This paper examines solar energy solutions for different generations of mobile communications by conducting a comparative analysis of solar-powered BSs based on three aspects: architecture, energy production, and optimal system cost. In addition, the economic feasibility of the solar energy solution compared with conventional sources is discussed. The simulation results suggest that solar-powered BSs would be a suitable long-term solution for the mobile cellular network industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A “New-Deal” for the Development of Photovoltaic Investments in Greece? A Parametric Techno-Economic Assessment
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10081173
Received: 7 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to identify the financial impact imposed by cost containment measures and especially by the feed in tariff (FiT) reduction upon the profitability of different photovoltaic (PV) investments and the electricity charge faced by consumers. A fully parametric [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to identify the financial impact imposed by cost containment measures and especially by the feed in tariff (FiT) reduction upon the profitability of different photovoltaic (PV) investments and the electricity charge faced by consumers. A fully parametric analysis is carried out by varying the following parameters: total installation costs based on their activation date, interest rate for a bank loan, use of a construction subsidy, tax imposition levels, the solidarity surcharge differentiated by the activation and the purchase agreement date and the issuance of credit invoice. During the simulations the simple payback period, the internal rate of return and the profitability index were calculated for the most common investment cases. These were identified through empirical observations on the deployment of PV stations. The profitability of PV stations connected to the medium voltage network were by far affected the most by the cutback while farmers’ PV stations and PV rooftop systems were comparatively less affected. Parameters such as the size of the station and the PV activation date were crucial for the assessment of the viability of PV stations. From a social perspective, the FiT cutback prevented an additional 40% increase in the electricity charge paid by electricity consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Complementary Power Control for Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Tidal Stream Turbine Generation Plants
Energies 2017, 10(7), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070862
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The latest forecasts on the upcoming effects of climate change are leading to a change in the worldwide power production model, with governments promoting clean and renewable energies, as is the case of tidal energy. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to improve the [...] Read more.
The latest forecasts on the upcoming effects of climate change are leading to a change in the worldwide power production model, with governments promoting clean and renewable energies, as is the case of tidal energy. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to improve the efficiency and lower the costs of the involved processes in order to achieve a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE) that allows these devices to be commercially competitive. In this context, this paper presents a novel complementary control strategy aimed to maximize the output power of a Tidal Stream Turbine (TST) composed of a hydrodynamic turbine, a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) and a back-to-back power converter. In particular, a global control scheme that supervises the switching between the two operation modes is developed and implemented. When the tidal speed is low enough, the plant operates in variable speed mode, where the system is regulated so that the turbo-generator module works in maximum power extraction mode for each given tidal velocity. For this purpose, the proposed back-to-back converter makes use of the field-oriented control in both the rotor side and grid side converters, so that a maximum power point tracking-based rotational speed control is applied in the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) to obtain the maximum power output. Analogously, when the system operates in power limitation mode, a pitch angle control is used to limit the power captured in the case of high tidal speeds. Both control schemes are then coordinated within a novel complementary control strategy. The results show an excellent performance of the system, affording maximum power extraction regardless of the tidal stream input. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Step towards the Hydrogen Economy—A Life Cycle Cost Analysis of A Hydrogen Refueling Station
Energies 2017, 10(6), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10060763
Received: 8 April 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
This study was aimed to define a methodology based on existing literature and evaluate the levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH) for a decentralized hydrogen refueling station (HRS) in Halle, Belgium. The results are based on a comprehensive data collection, along with real cost [...] Read more.
This study was aimed to define a methodology based on existing literature and evaluate the levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH) for a decentralized hydrogen refueling station (HRS) in Halle, Belgium. The results are based on a comprehensive data collection, along with real cost information. The main results indicated that a LCOH of 10.3 €/kg at the HRS can be reached over a lifetime of 20 years, if an average electricity cost of 0.04 €/kWh could be achieved and if the operating hours are maximized. Furthermore, if the initial capital costs can be reduced by 80%, in the case of direct subsidy, the LCOH could even fall to 6.7 €/kg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimizing the Renewable Energy Potential: Myth or Future Trend in Romania
Energies 2017, 10(6), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10060759
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the potential of Romanian renewable energy across energy production and consumption definitions. Moreover, it presents a model that estimates the regional evolution of renewable energy diffusion, focusing primarily on hydro energy. Statistics showed that Romanian consumers have a key role [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the potential of Romanian renewable energy across energy production and consumption definitions. Moreover, it presents a model that estimates the regional evolution of renewable energy diffusion, focusing primarily on hydro energy. Statistics showed that Romanian consumers have a key role in developing the renewable energy market, while it is also very important to ensure the ability of renewable energy suppliers to accommodate this demand. Sample data and econometric analysis were applied to delineate factors influencing Romanian consumers’ awareness about renewable energy. The findings highlighted a strong connection between those who bear the cost of renewable energy development and the actual beneficiaries of a clean environment; in that sense, they identify the major drivers and barriers for renewable energy diffusion in Romania. The results of this research could be used for further research in the area of implementing renewable energy projects in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Economics and Resources Analysis of the Potential Use of Reprocessing Options by a Medium Sized Nuclear Reactor Fleet
Energies 2017, 10(5), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050690
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
Reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel is or has been implemented in several countries with significant numbers of nuclear power plants and installed capacity. In this work, a set of scenarios has been analyzed to find the key variables for the implementation of reprocessing [...] Read more.
Reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel is or has been implemented in several countries with significant numbers of nuclear power plants and installed capacity. In this work, a set of scenarios has been analyzed to find the key variables for the implementation of reprocessing in medium sized fleets. The inventories of the Spanish nuclear fuel cycle scenario were chosen as representative, considering two different reactor lifetimes and reprocessing strategies, with the aim of burning the maximum amount of the Pu mass generated in the cycle. The simulations of the scenarios were performed with the TR_EVOL code developed at CIEMAT. Results show that the lifetime of the reactors has an impact in the possible reduction in the Pu amount. Some scenarios show a shortage of Pu available for mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication coming from the reprocessing of UO2 spent fuel. This work has verified that, for medium sized fuel cycle scenarios, the parameters with the most importance are the reprocessing cost and natural uranium cost. A smaller impact in the comparison is also found for the cost of the final disposal and the possibility of valuing the surplus Pu and reprocessed uranium existent at the end of the cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Case Study on the Socio-Economic Benefit of Allowing Active Power Curtailment to Postpone Grid Upgrades
Energies 2017, 10(5), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050632
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
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Abstract
The penetration of distributed generation is rapidly increasing in the power system. Traditionally, a fit-and-forget approach has been applied for grid integration of distributed generation, by investing in a grid capacity that can deal with worst-case situations. However, there is now increasing interest [...] Read more.
The penetration of distributed generation is rapidly increasing in the power system. Traditionally, a fit-and-forget approach has been applied for grid integration of distributed generation, by investing in a grid capacity that can deal with worst-case situations. However, there is now increasing interest for the possible cost savings that can be achieved through more active network management. This paper presents a case study on the possible socio-economic benefit of postponing a grid upgrade in an area of surplus generation. Two alternatives for grid integration of an 8 MW run-on-river hydro power plant in the southern part of Norway are investigated: (i) grid upgrade; and (ii) active power curtailment whenever needed to avoid network congestion. This study shows that cost savings corresponding to 13% of the investment cost for the grid upgrade is possible through active power curtailment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Allocation of Energy Storage System Considering Multi-Correlated Wind Farms
Energies 2017, 10(5), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050625
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (868 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the increasing penetration of wind power, not only the uncertainties but also the correlation among the wind farms should be considered in the power system analysis. In this paper, Clayton-Copula method is developed to model the multiple correlated wind distribution and a [...] Read more.
With the increasing penetration of wind power, not only the uncertainties but also the correlation among the wind farms should be considered in the power system analysis. In this paper, Clayton-Copula method is developed to model the multiple correlated wind distribution and a new point estimation method (PEM) is proposed to discretize the multi-correlated wind distribution. Furthermore, combining the proposed modeling and discretizing method with Hybrid Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (HMOPSO), a comprehensive algorithm is explored to minimize the power system cost and the emissions by searching the best placements and sizes of energy storage system (ESS) considering wind power uncertainties in multi-correlated wind farms. In addition, the variations of load are also taken into account. The IEEE 57-bus system is adopted to perform case studies using the proposed approach. The results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in determining the optimal storage allocations considering multi-correlated wind farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Process Heat Generation Potential from Solar Concentration Technologies in Latin America: The Case of Argentina
Energies 2017, 10(3), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030383
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (12051 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC), linear Fresnel collector (LFC) and parabolic trough collector (PTC)—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas [...] Read more.
This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC), linear Fresnel collector (LFC) and parabolic trough collector (PTC)—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas without energy supply exist. The analysis is addressed from energy, economic and environmental perspective. A specific application for Argentina in which fourteen locations are analyzed is considered. Results show that solar concentration technologies can be an economically and environmentally viable alternative. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) ranges between 2.5 and 16.9 c€/kWh/m2 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided range between 33 and 348 kgCO2/(m2·year). CPC technology stands out as the most recommendable technology when the working fluid temperature ranges from 373 K to 423 K. As the working fluid temperature increases the differences between the LCOE values of the CPC and LFC technologies decrease. When 523 K is reached LFC technology is the one which presents the lowest LCOE values for all analyzed sites, while the LCOE values of PTC technology are close to CPC technology values. Results show that solar concentration technologies have reached economic and environmental competitiveness levels under certain scenarios, mainly linked to solar resource available, thermal level requirements and solar technology cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Voltage-Sensorless Control Scheme for a Grid Connected Inverter Using Disturbance Observer
Energies 2017, 10(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10020166
Received: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 2 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A grid connected inverter usually requires voltage and current measurements to control the active and reactive powers as well as the inverter output currents. While voltage sensors are essential to obtain reliable information on the phase angle, these additional components certainly increase the [...] Read more.
A grid connected inverter usually requires voltage and current measurements to control the active and reactive powers as well as the inverter output currents. While voltage sensors are essential to obtain reliable information on the phase angle, these additional components certainly increase the production costs and complexity. In this paper, a voltage-sensorless control scheme for a grid connected inverter using a disturbance observer (DOB) is presented. The grid voltages are estimated by DOB in the stationary reference frame using the current measurements and reference signals. Even though the DOB estimates the grid voltages with reasonable accuracy in the presence of the uncertainty such as the unbalanced condition and harmonic distortion, the resultant waveform shows a phase lag depending on the estimation bandwidth. To overcome this limitation, a phase lead compensation is introduced. By using these techniques, the phase angle of grid voltages can be completely restored even if the phase angle of grid is initially unknown. The proposed scheme is simple and straightforward. In addition, it does not require any additional hardware. The feasibility of the proposed voltage-sensorless control scheme is demonstrated through simulations and experiments using 2 kVA prototype inverter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Parallel Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm for Short-Term Economic Environmental Hydrothermal Scheduling
Energies 2017, 10(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10020163
Received: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 31 January 2017
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (4345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the increasingly serious energy crisis and environmental pollution, the short-term economic environmental hydrothermal scheduling (SEEHTS) problem is becoming more and more important in modern electrical power systems. In order to handle the SEEHTS problem efficiently, the parallel multi-objective genetic algorithm (PMOGA) is [...] Read more.
With the increasingly serious energy crisis and environmental pollution, the short-term economic environmental hydrothermal scheduling (SEEHTS) problem is becoming more and more important in modern electrical power systems. In order to handle the SEEHTS problem efficiently, the parallel multi-objective genetic algorithm (PMOGA) is proposed in the paper. Based on the Fork/Join parallel framework, PMOGA divides the whole population of individuals into several subpopulations which will evolve in different cores simultaneously. In this way, PMOGA can avoid the wastage of computational resources and increase the population diversity. Moreover, the constraint handling technique is used to handle the complex constraints in SEEHTS, and a selection strategy based on constraint violation is also employed to ensure the convergence speed and solution feasibility. The results from a hydrothermal system in different cases indicate that PMOGA can make the utmost of system resources to significantly improve the computing efficiency and solution quality. Moreover, PMOGA has competitive performance in SEEHTS when compared with several other methods reported in the previous literature, providing a new approach for the operation of hydrothermal systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessReview
Solar Energy Potentials and Benefits in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: A Review of Substantial Issues
Energies 2018, 11(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020372
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 20 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5018 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is a well-known fact that the fossil fuel industry has dominated the economy of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries during the last few decades. However, recent developments show that most of the GCC countries plan to increase the share of renewable [...] Read more.
It is a well-known fact that the fossil fuel industry has dominated the economy of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries during the last few decades. However, recent developments show that most of the GCC countries plan to increase the share of renewable energy (RE) in their future electrical power production. To ensure realistic increase in the share of RE in the production of electricity in the future, firm policies must be laid down with the objective to promote and market the benefit of RE to their citizens. Due to the high-solar radiation in the GCC region, the focus is now on solar energy development. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the progress made on solar energy in the GCC together with the challenges and the way forward. Some of the challenges and barriers hindering the development of RE in the GCC are in the area of technological know-how, policy development, and insufficient application of RE technology integrated in the buildings among others. Areas of improvement include promoting research and development, public/private initiatives, legislation and regulatory framework, solutions to technical issues and exchange of knowledge, scientific advice, and last but not the least is the issue of building integration with RE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
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