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Mar. Drugs, Volume 18, Issue 2 (February 2020) – 61 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Microbial co-cultivation is known to trigger silent biosynthetic gene clusters (BGC) for [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Two New Alginate Lyases of PL7 and PL6 Families from Polysaccharide-Degrading Bacterium Formosa algae KMM 3553T: Structure, Properties, and Products Analysis
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020130 - 24 Feb 2020
Viewed by 281
Abstract
A bifunctional alginate lyase (ALFA3) and mannuronate-specific alginate lyase (ALFA4) genes were found in the genome of polysaccharide-degrading marine bacterium Formosa algae KMM 3553T. They were classified to PL7 and PL6 polysaccharide lyases families and expressed in E. coli. The [...] Read more.
A bifunctional alginate lyase (ALFA3) and mannuronate-specific alginate lyase (ALFA4) genes were found in the genome of polysaccharide-degrading marine bacterium Formosa algae KMM 3553T. They were classified to PL7 and PL6 polysaccharide lyases families and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant ALFA3 appeared to be active both on mannuronate- and guluronate-enriched alginates, as well as pure sodium mannuronate. For all substrates, optimum conditions were pH 6.0 and 35 °C; Km was 0.12 ± 0.01 mg/mL, and half-inactivation time was 30 min at 42 °C. Recombinant ALFA4 was active predominately on pure sodium mannuronate, with optimum pH 8.0 and temperature 30 °C, Km was 3.01 ± 0.05 mg/mL. It was stable up to 30 °C; half-inactivation time was 1 h 40 min at 37 °C. 1H NMR analysis showed that ALFA3 degraded mannuronate and mannuronate-guluronate blocks, while ALFA4 degraded only mannuronate blocks, producing mainly disaccharides. Products of digestion of pure sodium mannuronate by ALFA3 at 200 µg/mL inhibited anchorage-independent colony formation of human melanoma cells SK-MEL-5, SK-MEL-28, and RPMI-7951 up to 17% stronger compared to native polymannuronate. This fact supports previous data and suggests that mannuronate oligosaccharides may be useful for synergic tumor therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polyketide Derivatives from Mangrove Derived Endophytic Fungus Pseudopestalotiopsis theae
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020129 - 23 Feb 2020
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Chemical investigation of secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Pseudopestalotiopsis theae led to the isolation of eighteen new polyketide derivatives, pestalotheols I–Q (19) and cytosporins O–W (1523), together with eight known analogs (10 [...] Read more.
Chemical investigation of secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Pseudopestalotiopsis theae led to the isolation of eighteen new polyketide derivatives, pestalotheols I–Q (19) and cytosporins O–W (1523), together with eight known analogs (1014 and 2426). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by HRMS and 1D and 2D NMR data, as well as by comparison with literature data. Modified Mosher’s method was applied to determine the absolute configuration of some compounds. Compound 23 showed significant cytotoxicity against the mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y with an IC50 value of 3.0 μM. Furthermore, compounds 22 and 23 showed moderate antibacterial activity against drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC BAA-1605) in combination with sublethal colistin concentrations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mining the Metabolome and the Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Potential of Sea Foam-Derived Fungi
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020128 - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Sea foam harbors a diverse range of fungal spores with biological and ecological relevance in marine environments. Fungi are known as the producers of secondary metabolites that are used in health and agricultural sectors, however the potentials of sea foam-derived fungi have remained [...] Read more.
Sea foam harbors a diverse range of fungal spores with biological and ecological relevance in marine environments. Fungi are known as the producers of secondary metabolites that are used in health and agricultural sectors, however the potentials of sea foam-derived fungi have remained unexplored. In this study, organic extracts of six foam-derived fungal isolates belonging to the genera Penicillium, Cladosporium, Emericellopsis and Plectosphaerella were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against plant and human pathogens and anticancer activity. In parallel, an untargeted metabolomics study using UPLC-QToF–MS/MS-based molecular networking (MN) was performed to unlock their chemical inventory. Penicillium strains were identified as the most prolific producers of compounds with an average of 165 parent ions per strain. In total, 49 known mycotoxins and functional metabolites were annotated to specific and ubiquitous parent ions, revealing considerable chemical diversity. This allowed the identification of putative new derivatives, such as a new analog of the antimicrobial tetrapeptide, fungisporin. Regarding bioactivity, the Penicillium sp. isolate 31.68F1B showed a strong and broad-spectrum activity against seven plant and human pathogens, with the phytopathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and the human pathogen Candida albicans being the most susceptible (IC50 values 2.2 and 6.3 µg/mL, respectively). This is the first study mining the metabolome of the sea foam-derived fungi by MS/MS-based molecular networking, and assessing their biological activities against phytopathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products in Crop Protection)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Quorum Sensing Activators and Inhibitors in The Marine Sponge Sarcotragus spinosulus
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020127 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Marine sponges, a well-documented prolific source of natural products, harbor highly diverse microbial communities. Their extracts were previously shown to contain quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules of the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) type, known to orchestrate bacterial gene regulation. Some bacteria and [...] Read more.
Marine sponges, a well-documented prolific source of natural products, harbor highly diverse microbial communities. Their extracts were previously shown to contain quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules of the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) type, known to orchestrate bacterial gene regulation. Some bacteria and eukaryotic organisms are known to produce molecules that can interfere with QS signaling, thus affecting microbial genetic regulation and function. In the present study, we established the production of both QS signal molecules as well as QS inhibitory (QSI) molecules in the sponge species Sarcotragus spinosulus. A total of eighteen saturated acyl chain AHLs were identified along with six unsaturated acyl chain AHLs. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of two brominated metabolites with QSI activity. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by comparative spectral analysis of 1HNMR and HR-MS data and were identified as 3-bromo-4-methoxyphenethylamine (1) and 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (2). The QSI activity of compounds 1 and 2 was evaluated using reporter gene assays for long- and short-chain AHL signals (Escherichia coli pSB1075 and E. coli pSB401, respectively). QSI activity was further confirmed by measuring dose-dependent inhibition of proteolytic activity and pyocyanin production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The obtained results show the coexistence of QS and QSI in S. spinosulus, a complex signal network that may mediate the orchestrated function of the microbiome within the sponge holobiont. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of a New Chitosanase from a Marine Bacillus sp. and the Anti-Oxidant Activity of Its Hydrolysate
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020126 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 293
Abstract
Chitooligosaccharide (COS) has been recognized to exhibit efficient anti-oxidant activity. Enzymatic hydrolysis using chitosanases can retain all the amino and hydroxyl groups of chitosan, which are necessary for its activity. In this study, a new chitosanase encoding gene, csnQ, was cloned from [...] Read more.
Chitooligosaccharide (COS) has been recognized to exhibit efficient anti-oxidant activity. Enzymatic hydrolysis using chitosanases can retain all the amino and hydroxyl groups of chitosan, which are necessary for its activity. In this study, a new chitosanase encoding gene, csnQ, was cloned from the marine Bacillus sp. Q1098 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant chitosanase, CsnQ, showed maximal activity at pH 5.31 and 60 °C. Determination of CsnQ pH-stability showed that CsnQ could retain more than 50% of its activity over a wide pH, from 3.60 to 9.80. CsnQ is an endo-type chitosanase, yielding chitodisaccharide as the main product. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo analyses indicated that chitodisaccharide possesses much more effective anti-oxidant activity than glucosamine and low molecular weight chitosan (LMW-CS) (~5 kDa). Notably, to our knowledge, this is the first evidence that chitodisaccharide is the minimal COS fragment required for free radical scavenging. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Bioactive Metabolites of Marine Origin Have Unusual Effects on Model Membrane Systems
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020125 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Marine sponges and soft corals have yielded novel compounds with antineoplastic and antimicrobial activities. Their mechanisms of action are poorly understood, and in most cases, little relevant experimental evidence is available on this topic. In the present study, we investigated whether agelasine D [...] Read more.
Marine sponges and soft corals have yielded novel compounds with antineoplastic and antimicrobial activities. Their mechanisms of action are poorly understood, and in most cases, little relevant experimental evidence is available on this topic. In the present study, we investigated whether agelasine D (compound 1) and three agelasine analogs (compound 24) as well as malonganenone J (compound 5), affect the physical properties of a simple lipid model system, consisting of dioleoylphospahtidylcholine and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine. The data indicated that all the tested compounds increased stored curvature elastic stress, and therefore, tend to deform the bilayer which occurs without a reduction in the packing stress of the hexagonal phase. Furthermore, lower concentrations (1%) appear to have a more pronounced effect than higher ones (5–10%). For compounds 4 and 5, this effect is also reflected in phospholipid headgroup mobility assessed using 31P chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) values of the lamellar phases. Among the compounds tested, compound 4 stands out with respect to its effects on the membrane model systems, which matches its efficacy against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Future work that aims to increase the pharmacological usefulness of these compounds could benefit from taking into account the compound effects on the fluid lamellar phase at low concentrations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Omic Profiling of Melophlus Sponges Reveals Diverse Metabolomic and Microbiome Architectures that Are Non-overlapping with Ecological Neighbors
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020124 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Marine sponge holobionts, defined as filter-feeding sponge hosts together with their associated microbiomes, are prolific sources of natural products. The inventory of natural products that have been isolated from marine sponges is extensive. Here, using untargeted mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that sponges harbor [...] Read more.
Marine sponge holobionts, defined as filter-feeding sponge hosts together with their associated microbiomes, are prolific sources of natural products. The inventory of natural products that have been isolated from marine sponges is extensive. Here, using untargeted mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that sponges harbor a far greater diversity of low-abundance natural products that have evaded discovery. While these low-abundance natural products may not be feasible to isolate, insights into their chemical structures can be gleaned by careful curation of mass fragmentation spectra. Sponges are also some of the most complex, multi-organismal holobiont communities in the oceans. We overlay sponge metabolomes with their microbiome structures and detailed metagenomic characterization to discover candidate gene clusters that encode production of sponge-derived natural products. The multi-omic profiling strategy for sponges that we describe here enables quantitative comparison of sponge metabolomes and microbiomes to address, among other questions, the ecological relevance of sponge natural products and for the phylochemical assignment of previously undescribed sponge identities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
3D Chitin Scaffolds of Marine Demosponge Origin for Biomimetic Mollusk Hemolymph-Associated Biomineralization Ex-Vivo
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020123 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 441
Abstract
Structure-based tissue engineering requires large-scale 3D cell/tissue manufacture technologies, to produce biologically active scaffolds. Special attention is currently paid to naturally pre-designed scaffolds found in skeletons of marine sponges, which represent a renewable resource of biomaterials. Here, an innovative approach to the production [...] Read more.
Structure-based tissue engineering requires large-scale 3D cell/tissue manufacture technologies, to produce biologically active scaffolds. Special attention is currently paid to naturally pre-designed scaffolds found in skeletons of marine sponges, which represent a renewable resource of biomaterials. Here, an innovative approach to the production of mineralized scaffolds of natural origin is proposed. For the first time, a method to obtain calcium carbonate deposition ex vivo, using living mollusks hemolymph and a marine-sponge-derived template, is specifically described. For this purpose, the marine sponge Aplysin aarcheri and the terrestrial snail Cornu aspersum were selected as appropriate 3D chitinous scaffold and as hemolymph donor, respectively. The formation of calcium-based phase on the surface of chitinous matrix after its immersion into hemolymph was confirmed by Alizarin Red staining. A direct role of mollusks hemocytes is proposed in the creation of fine-tuned microenvironment necessary for calcification ex vivo. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the sample showed a high CaCO3 amorphous content. Raman spectroscopy evidenced also a crystalline component, with spectra corresponding to biogenic calcite. This study resulted in the development of a new biomimetic product based on ex vivo synthetized ACC and calcite tightly bound to the surface of 3D sponge chitin structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biomaterials 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Light Intensity on Antioxidant Activity of Tropical Microalgae
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020122 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Twelve microalgae species isolated in tropical lagoons of New Caledonia were screened as a new source of antioxidants. Microalgae were cultivated at two light intensities to investigate their influence on antioxidant capacity. To assess antioxidant property of microalgae extracts, four assays with different [...] Read more.
Twelve microalgae species isolated in tropical lagoons of New Caledonia were screened as a new source of antioxidants. Microalgae were cultivated at two light intensities to investigate their influence on antioxidant capacity. To assess antioxidant property of microalgae extracts, four assays with different modes of action were used: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis (3-éthylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonique) (ABTS), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and thiobabituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). This screening was coupled to pigment analysis to link antioxidant activity and carotenoid content. The results showed that none of the microalgae studied can scavenge DPPH and ABTS radicals, but Chaetoceros sp., Nephroselmis sp., and Nitzschia A sp. have the capacity to scavenge peroxyl radical (ORAC) and Tetraselmis sp., Nitzschia A sp., and Nephroselmis sp. can inhibit lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Carotenoid composition is typical of the studied microalgae and highlight the siphonaxanthin, detected in Nephroselmis sp., as a pigment of interest. It was found that xanthophylls were the major contributors to the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity measured with ORAC assay, but there was no link between carotenoids and inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured with TBARS assay. In addition, the results showed that light intensity has a strong influence on antioxidant capacity of microalgae: Overall, antioxidant activities measured with ORAC assay are better in high light intensity whereas antioxidant activities measured with TBARS assay are better in low light intensity. It suggests that different antioxidant compounds production is related to light intensity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Donghaecyclinones A–C: New Cytotoxic Rearranged Angucyclinones from a Volcanic Island-Derived Marine Streptomyces sp.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020121 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Chemical profiling of the Streptomyces sp. strain SUD119, which was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from a volcanic island in Korea, led to the discovery of three new metabolites: donghaecyclinones A–C (13). The structures of 1 [...] Read more.
Chemical profiling of the Streptomyces sp. strain SUD119, which was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from a volcanic island in Korea, led to the discovery of three new metabolites: donghaecyclinones A–C (13). The structures of 13 were found to be rearranged, multicyclic, angucyclinone-class compounds according to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses. The configurations of their stereogenic centers were successfully assigned using a combination of quantum mechanics–based computational methods for calculating the NMR shielding tensor (DP4 and CP3) as well as electronic circular dichroism (ECD) along with a modified version of Mosher’s method. Donghaecyclinones A–C (13) displayed cytotoxicity against diverse human cancer cell lines (IC50: 6.7–9.6 μM for 3). Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Marine Glycoconjugates: Trends and Perspectives
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020120 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Glycoconjugates play significant roles in biological systems and are used in medicine, for example as vaccines [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates: Trends and Perspectives)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Antibacterial Material Production in the Fermentation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-9 from Whitespotted Bamboo Shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum)
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020119 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-9 (GBacillus-9), which is isolated from the intestinal tract of the white-spotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum), can secrete potential antibacterial materials, such as β-1,3-1,4-glucanase and some antimicrobial peptides. However, the low fermentation production has hindered the development of GBacillus-9 as [...] Read more.
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-9 (GBacillus-9), which is isolated from the intestinal tract of the white-spotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum), can secrete potential antibacterial materials, such as β-1,3-1,4-glucanase and some antimicrobial peptides. However, the low fermentation production has hindered the development of GBacillus-9 as biological additives. In this study, the Plackett–Burman design and response surface methodology were used to optimize the fermentation conditions in a shake flask to obtain a higher yield and antibacterial activity of GBacillus-9. On the basis of the data from medium screening, M9 medium was selected as the basic medium for fermentation. The data from the single-factor experiment showed that sucrose had the highest antibacterial activity among the 10 carbon sources. The Plackett–Burman design identified sucrose, NH4Cl, and MgSO4 as the major variables altering antibacterial activity. The optimal concentrations of these compounds to enhance antibacterial activity were assessed using the central composite design. Data showed that sucrose, NH4Cl, and MgSO4 had the highest antibacterial activities at concentrations of 64.8, 1.84, and 0.08 g L−1, respectively. The data also showed that the optimal fermentation conditions for the antibacterial material production of GBacillus-9 were as follows: Inoculum volume of 5%, initial pH of 7.0, temperature of 36 °C, rotating speed of 180 rpm, and fermentation time of 10 h. The optimal fermentation medium and conditions achieved to improve the yield of antibacterial materials for GBacillus-9 can enhance the process of developing biological additives derived from GBacillus-9. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Microbial Compounds from Marine Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Genome Sequencing and Analysis of Thraustochytriidae sp. SZU445 Provides Novel Insights into the Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020118 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Thraustochytriidae sp. have broadly gained attention as a prospective resource for the production of omega-3 fatty acids production in significant quantities. In this study, the whole genome of Thraustochytriidae sp. SZU445, which produces high levels of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), [...] Read more.
Thraustochytriidae sp. have broadly gained attention as a prospective resource for the production of omega-3 fatty acids production in significant quantities. In this study, the whole genome of Thraustochytriidae sp. SZU445, which produces high levels of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), was sequenced and subjected to protein annotation. The obtained clean reads (63.55 Mb in total) were assembled into 54 contigs and 25 scaffolds, with maximum and minimum lengths of 400 and 0.0054 Mb, respectively. A total of 3513 genes (24.84%) were identified, which could be classified into six pathways and 44 pathway groups, of which 68 genes (1.93%) were involved in lipid metabolism. In the Gene Ontology database, 22,436 genes were annotated as cellular component (8579 genes, 38.24%), molecular function (5236 genes, 23.34%), and biological process (8621 genes, 38.42%). Four enzymes corresponding to the classic fatty acid synthase (FAS) pathway and three enzymes corresponding to the classic polyketide synthase (PKS) pathway were identified in Thraustochytriidae sp. SZU445. Although PKS pathway-associated dehydratase and isomerase enzymes were not detected in Thraustochytriidae sp. SZU445, a putative DHA- and DPA-specific fatty acid pathway was identified. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Selected Papers from the Third International Symposium on Life Science
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020117 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 229
Abstract
The search for and isolation of marine biologically active compounds, as well as relevant studies on their structure and properties are important for the adding knowledge about molecular diversity in nature and creation of medicines and other useful products on this basis [...] [...] Read more.
The search for and isolation of marine biologically active compounds, as well as relevant studies on their structure and properties are important for the adding knowledge about molecular diversity in nature and creation of medicines and other useful products on this basis [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd International Symposium on Life Science)
Open AccessArticle
Fucoxanthinol from the Diatom Nitzschia Laevis Ameliorates Neuroinflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV-2 Microglia
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020116 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 311
Abstract
In recent years, microalgae have drawn increasing attention as a valuable source of functional food ingredients. Intriguingly, Nitzschia laevis is rich in fucoxanthinol that is seldom found in natural sources. Fucoxanthinol, a marine xanthophyll carotenoid, possesses various beneficial bioactivities. Nevertheless, it’s not clear [...] Read more.
In recent years, microalgae have drawn increasing attention as a valuable source of functional food ingredients. Intriguingly, Nitzschia laevis is rich in fucoxanthinol that is seldom found in natural sources. Fucoxanthinol, a marine xanthophyll carotenoid, possesses various beneficial bioactivities. Nevertheless, it’s not clear whether fucoxanthinol could exert anti-neuroinflammatory function. In light of these premises, the aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory role of fucoxanthinol purified from Nitzschia laevis in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia. The results showed that pre-treatment of fucoxanthinol remarkably attenuated the expression of LPS-induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction. Modulation mechanism studies revealed that fucoxanthinol hampered nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Meanwhile, fucoxanthinol led to the enhancement of nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and the upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1). Taken together, the results indicated that fucoxanthinol obtained from Nitzschia laevis had great potential as a neuroprotective agent in neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Performance of a Novel Direct Compression Excipient Comprising Roller Compacted Chitin
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020115 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Chitin has been investigated in the context of finding new excipients suitable for direct compression, when subjected to roller compaction. Ball milling was concurrently carried out to compare effects from different energy or stress-inducing techniques. Samples of chitin powders (raw, processed, dried and [...] Read more.
Chitin has been investigated in the context of finding new excipients suitable for direct compression, when subjected to roller compaction. Ball milling was concurrently carried out to compare effects from different energy or stress-inducing techniques. Samples of chitin powders (raw, processed, dried and humidified) were compared for variations in morphology, X-ray diffraction patterns, densities, FT-IR, flowability, compressibility and compactibility. Results confirmed the suitability of roller compaction to convert the fluffy powder of raw chitin to a bulky material with improved flow. X-ray powder diffraction studies showed that, in contrast to the high decrease in crystallinity upon ball milling, roller compaction manifested a slight deformation in the crystal lattice. Moreover, the new excipient showed high resistance to compression, due to the high compactibility of the granules formed. This was correlated to the significant extent of plastic deformation compared to the raw and ball milled forms of chitin. On the other hand, drying and humidification of raw and processed materials presented no added value to the compressibility and compactibility of the directly compressed excipient. Finally, compacted chitin showed direct compression similarity with microcrystalline cellulose when formulated with metronidazole (200 mg) without affecting the immediate drug release action of the drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Open AccessReview
The Biological and Chemical Diversity of Tetramic Acid Compounds from Marine-Derived Microorganisms
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020114 - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Tetramic acid (pyrrolidine-2,4-dione) compounds, isolated from a variety of marine and terrestrial organisms, have attracted considerable attention for their diverse, challenging structural complexity and promising bioactivities. In the past decade, marine-derived microorganisms have become great repositories of novel tetramic acids. Here, we discuss [...] Read more.
Tetramic acid (pyrrolidine-2,4-dione) compounds, isolated from a variety of marine and terrestrial organisms, have attracted considerable attention for their diverse, challenging structural complexity and promising bioactivities. In the past decade, marine-derived microorganisms have become great repositories of novel tetramic acids. Here, we discuss the biological activities of 277 tetramic acids of eight classifications (simple 3-acyl tetramic acids, 3-oligoenoyltetramic acids, 3-decalinoyltetramic acid, 3-spirotetramic acids, macrocyclic tetramic acids, N-acylated tetramic acids, α-cyclopiazonic acid-type tetramic acids, and other tetramic acids) from marine-derived microbes, including fungi, actinobacteria, bacteria, and cyanobacteria, as reported in 195 research studies up to 2019. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Four New Ricinoleic Acid-Derived 1-O-alkylglycerols
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020113 - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 307
Abstract
A series of novel substituted 1-O-alkylglycerols (AKGs) containing methoxy (8), gem-difluoro (9), azide (10) and hydroxy (11) group at 12 position in the alkyl chain were synthesized from commercially available ricinoleic acid [...] Read more.
A series of novel substituted 1-O-alkylglycerols (AKGs) containing methoxy (8), gem-difluoro (9), azide (10) and hydroxy (11) group at 12 position in the alkyl chain were synthesized from commercially available ricinoleic acid (12). The structures of these new synthesized AKGs were established by NMR experiments as well as from the HRMS and elementary analysis data. The antimicrobial activities of the studied AKGs 811 were evaluated, respectively, and all compounds exhibited antimicrobial activity to different extents alone and also when combined with some commonly used antibiotics (gentamicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin). AKG 11 was viewed as a lead compound for this series as it exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial activity than compounds 810. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating the Antiparasitic Potential of the Marine Sesquiterpene Avarone, Its Reduced Form Avarol, and the Novel Semisynthetic Thiazinoquinone Analogue Thiazoavarone
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020112 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 392
Abstract
The chemical analysis of the sponge Dysidea avara afforded the known sesquiterpene quinone avarone, along with its reduced form avarol. To further explore the role of the thiazinoquinone scaffold as an antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antischistosomal agent, we converted the quinone avarone into the [...] Read more.
The chemical analysis of the sponge Dysidea avara afforded the known sesquiterpene quinone avarone, along with its reduced form avarol. To further explore the role of the thiazinoquinone scaffold as an antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antischistosomal agent, we converted the quinone avarone into the thiazinoquinone derivative thiazoavarone. The semisynthetic compound, as well as the natural metabolites avarone and avarol, were pharmacologically investigated in order to assess their antiparasitic properties against sexual and asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum, larval and adult developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni (eggs included), and also against promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica. Furthermore, in depth computational studies including density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed. A toxic semiquinone radical species which can be produced starting both from quinone- and hydroquinone-based compounds could mediate the anti-parasitic effects of the tested compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from XVI MaNaPro and XI ECMNP)
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Open AccessArticle
The Marine-Derived Triterpenoid Frondoside A Inhibits Thrombus Formation
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020111 - 14 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Background: The marine-derived triterpenoid frondoside A inhibits the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in cancer cells. Because this pathway is also crucially involved in platelet activation, we studied the effect of frondoside A on thrombus formation. Methods: Frondoside A effects on platelet viability, surface adhesion [...] Read more.
Background: The marine-derived triterpenoid frondoside A inhibits the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in cancer cells. Because this pathway is also crucially involved in platelet activation, we studied the effect of frondoside A on thrombus formation. Methods: Frondoside A effects on platelet viability, surface adhesion molecule expression, and intracellular signaling were analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blot. The effect of frondoside A was analyzed by photochemically induced thrombus formation in the mouse dorsal skinfold chamber model and by tail vein bleeding. Results: Concentrations of up to 15 µM frondoside A did not affect the viability of platelets, but reduced their surface expression of P-selectin (CD62P) and the activation of glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa after agonist stimulation. Additional mechanistic analyses revealed that this was mediated by downregulation of PI3K-dependent Akt and extracellular-stimuli-responsive kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Frondoside A significantly prolonged the complete vessel occlusion time in the mouse dorsal skinfold chamber model of photochemically induced thrombus formation and also the tail vein bleeding time when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that frondoside A inhibits agonist-induced CD62P expression and activation of GPIIb/IIIa. Moreover, frondoside A suppresses thrombus formation. Therefore, this marine-derived triterpenoid may serve as a lead compound for the development of novel antithrombotic drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Molecules for the Treatment of Thrombosis)
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Open AccessArticle
Antitumor Activity of Asperphenin A, a Lipopeptidyl Benzophenone from Marine-Derived Aspergillus sp. Fungus, by Inhibiting Tubulin Polymerization in Colon Cancer Cells
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020110 - 13 Feb 2020
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Marine-derived microorganisms are a valuable source of novel bioactive natural products. Asperphenin A is a lipopeptidyl benzophenone metabolite isolated from large-scale cultivation of marine-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus. The compound has shown potent antiproliferative activity against various cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of [...] Read more.
Marine-derived microorganisms are a valuable source of novel bioactive natural products. Asperphenin A is a lipopeptidyl benzophenone metabolite isolated from large-scale cultivation of marine-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus. The compound has shown potent antiproliferative activity against various cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of action remained to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated the antitumor activity and molecular mechanism of asperphenin A in human colon cancer cells for the first time. Asperphenin A inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells through G2/M cell cycle arrest followed by apoptosis. We further discovered that asperphenin A can trigger microtubule disassembly. In addition to its effect on cell cycle, asperphenin A-induced reactive oxygen species. The compound suppressed the growth of tumors in a colon cancer xenograft model without any overt toxicity and exhibited a combination effect with irinotecan, a topoisomerase I inhibitor. Moreover, we identified the aryl ketone as a key component in the molecular structure responsible for the biological activity of asperphenin A using its synthetic derivatives. Collectively, this study has revealed the antiproliferative and antitumor mechanism of asperphenin A and suggested its possibility as a chemotherapeutic agent and lead compound with a novel structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Prostaglandin Pathway in Dinoflagellates by Transcriptome Data Mining
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020109 - 13 Feb 2020
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Dinoflagellates, a major class of marine eukaryote microalgae composing the phytoplankton, are widely recognised as producers of a large variety of toxic molecules, particularly neurotoxins, which can also act as potent bioactive pharmacological mediators. In addition, similarly to other microalgae, they are also [...] Read more.
Dinoflagellates, a major class of marine eukaryote microalgae composing the phytoplankton, are widely recognised as producers of a large variety of toxic molecules, particularly neurotoxins, which can also act as potent bioactive pharmacological mediators. In addition, similarly to other microalgae, they are also good producers of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), important precursors of key molecules involved in cell physiology. Among PUFA derivatives are the prostaglandins (Pgs), important physiological mediators in several physiological and pathological processes in humans, also used as “biological” drugs. Their synthesis is very expensive because of the elevated number of reaction steps required, thus the search for new Pgs production methods is of great relevance. One possibility is their extraction from microorganisms (e.g., diatoms), which have been proved to produce the same Pgs as humans. In the present study, we took advantage of the available transcriptomes for dinoflagellates in the iMicrobe database to search for the Pgs biosynthetic pathway using a bioinformatic approach. Here we show that dinoflagellates express nine Pg-metabolism related enzymes involved in both Pgs synthesis and reduction. Not all of the enzymes were expressed simultaneously in all the species analysed and their expression was influenced by culturing conditions, especially salinity of the growth medium. These results confirm the existence of a biosynthetic pathway for these important molecules in unicellular microalgae other than diatoms, suggesting a broad diffusion and conservation of the Pgs pathway, which further strengthen their importance in living organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinformatics of Marine Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle
COSMO-RS Based Prediction for Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA) Extraction from Microalgae Biomass Using Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs)
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020108 - 12 Feb 2020
Viewed by 303
Abstract
One of the essential fatty acids with therapeutic impacts on human health is known to be omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). More lately, ionic liquids (ILs) have received significant attention among scientists in overcoming the disadvantages of traditional solvents in biomass lipid extraction. [...] Read more.
One of the essential fatty acids with therapeutic impacts on human health is known to be omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). More lately, ionic liquids (ILs) have received significant attention among scientists in overcoming the disadvantages of traditional solvents in biomass lipid extraction. However, the large pool of cations and anions possibly accessible will lead to a growing number of innovatively synthesized ILs. Nevertheless, the exhaustive measurement of all these systems is economically impractical. The conductive screening model for real solvents (COSMO-RS) is considered a precious approach with the availability of a few models to predict the characteristics of ILs. This work introduces the estimate of capacity values at infinite dilution for a range of ILs using COSMO-RS software as part of solid-liquid extraction. This favorable outcome presented that the capacity values of the IL molecules are extremely dependent on both anions and cations. Among the 352 combinations of cation/anion tested, short alkyl chain cations coupled with inorganic anions were found to be most efficient and therefore superior in the extraction method. Sulphate-, chloride-, and bromide-based ILs were found to have higher extraction capacities in contrast with the remainders, while propanoate revealed an extraordinary capacity when combined with ethyl-based cations. Eventually, the predicted results from COSMO-RS were validated through the experimentally calculated extraction yield of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) compound from Nannochloropsis sp. microalgae. Three selected ILs namely [EMIM][Cl], [TMAm][Cl], and [EMPyrro][Br] were selected from COSMO-RS for empirical extraction purpose and the validation results pinpointed the good prediction capability of COSMO-RS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Discorhabdin B Dimers with Anticancer Activity from the Antarctic Deep-Sea Sponge Latrunculia biformis
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020107 - 11 Feb 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Latrunculia sponges represent a rich source of discorhabdin-type pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids, a few of which comprise a dimeric structure. The anticancer-activity-guided isolation of the n-hexane subextract of the Antarctic deep-sea sponge Latrunculia biformis yielded the known compound (−)-(1R,2R,6R [...] Read more.
Latrunculia sponges represent a rich source of discorhabdin-type pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids, a few of which comprise a dimeric structure. The anticancer-activity-guided isolation of the n-hexane subextract of the Antarctic deep-sea sponge Latrunculia biformis yielded the known compound (−)-(1R,2R,6R,8S,6’S)-discorhabdin B dimer (1) and two new derivatives, (−)-(1S,2R,6R,8S,6’S)-discorhabdin B dimer (2) and (−)-(1R,2R,6R,8S,6’S)-16’,17’-dehydrodiscorhabdin B dimer (3). The chemical structures of compounds 13 were elucidated by means of HR-ESIMS, NMR, [α]D, ECD spectroscopy, and a comparison with the previously reported discorhabdin analogs. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant in vitro anticancer activity against the human colon cancer cell line (HCT-116), with IC50 values of 0.16 and 2.01 µM, respectively. Compared to monomeric discorhabdins, dimeric discorhabdins are very rare in Nature. This study adds two new discorhabdin dimers (2 and 3) to this small pyrroloiminoquinone subfamily. This is also the first report of compound 1 as a natural product and the first assessment of its in vitro anticancer activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Alkaloids)
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Open AccessArticle
A Pharmacological Comparison of Two Isomeric Nicotinic Receptor Agonists: The Marine Toxin Isoanatabine and the Tobacco Alkaloid Anatabine
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020106 - 11 Feb 2020
Viewed by 276
Abstract
Many organisms possess “secondary” compounds to avoid consumption or to immobilize prey. While the most abundant or active compounds are initially investigated, more extensive analyses reveal other “minor” compounds with distinctive properties that may also be of biomedical and pharmaceutical significance. Here, we [...] Read more.
Many organisms possess “secondary” compounds to avoid consumption or to immobilize prey. While the most abundant or active compounds are initially investigated, more extensive analyses reveal other “minor” compounds with distinctive properties that may also be of biomedical and pharmaceutical significance. Here, we present an initial in vitro investigation of the actions of two isomeric tetrahydropyridyl ring-containing anabasine analogs: isoanatabine, an alkaloid isolated from a marine worm, and anatabine, a relatively abundant minor alkaloid in commercial tobacco plants. Both compounds have a double bond that is distal to the piperidine ring nitrogen of anabasine. Racemic isoanatabine and anatabine were synthesized and their S- and R-enantiomers were isolated by chiral high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both isoanatabines displayed higher efficacies at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) relative to the anatabines; R-isoanatabine was most potent. Radioligand binding experiments revealed similar α4β2 nAChR binding affinities for the isoanatabines, but R-anatabine affinity was twice that of S-anatabine. While the two anatabines and S-isoanatabine were highly efficacious agonists at α7 nAChRs, R-isoanatabine was only a weak partial agonist. The four compounds share an ability to stimulate both α4β2 and α7 nAChRs, a property that may be useful in developing more efficacious drugs to treat neurodegenerative and other medical disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins Affecting Cholinergic System)
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Open AccessArticle
Floridoside Exhibits Antioxidant Properties by Activating HO-1 Expression via p38/ERK MAPK Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020105 - 10 Feb 2020
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Floridoside is a low-molecular-weight organic compound, which can be accumulated by red algae under stressful conditions to protect cells via its excellent antioxidant properties. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant mechanism of floridoside toward human hepatocyte L-02 cells. We found that [...] Read more.
Floridoside is a low-molecular-weight organic compound, which can be accumulated by red algae under stressful conditions to protect cells via its excellent antioxidant properties. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant mechanism of floridoside toward human hepatocyte L-02 cells. We found that floridoside had no toxicity to L-02 cells, and no reactive oxidative species were induced by it either. However, the expression of hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein was up-regulated upon exposure to floridoside, and two antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GSH-Px, were activated by floridoside. Moreover, we investigated the pathway involved in the production of these antioxidants, p38/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK-nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and activation of ARE luciferase activity were observed upon exposure to floridoside. siRNA interference and inhibitor treatment suppressed the HO-1 expression and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, respectively. These results indicated that floridoside exerted its antioxidant activity by activating HO-1 expression via p38/ERK MAPK-Nrf2 pathway in human hepatocyte L-02 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Product and Oxidative Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Fucoidan Inhibition of Osteosarcoma Cells is Species and Molecular Weight Dependent
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020104 - 08 Feb 2020
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Fucoidan is a brown algae-derived polysaccharide having several biomedical applications. This study simultaneously compares the anti-cancer activities of crude fucoidans from Fucus vesiculosus and Sargassum filipendula, and effects of low (LMW, 10–50 kDa), medium (MMW, 50–100 kDa) and high (HMW, >100 kDa) [...] Read more.
Fucoidan is a brown algae-derived polysaccharide having several biomedical applications. This study simultaneously compares the anti-cancer activities of crude fucoidans from Fucus vesiculosus and Sargassum filipendula, and effects of low (LMW, 10–50 kDa), medium (MMW, 50–100 kDa) and high (HMW, >100 kDa) molecular weight fractions of S. filipendula fucoidan against osteosarcoma cells. Glucose, fucose and acid levels were lower and sulphation was higher in F. vesiculosus crude fucoidan compared to S. filipendula crude fucoidan. MMW had the highest levels of sugars, acids and sulphation among molecular weight fractions. There was a dose-dependent drop in focal adhesion formation and proliferation of cells for all fucoidan-types, but F. vesiculosus fucoidan and HMW had the strongest effects. G1-phase arrest was induced by F. vesiculosus fucoidan, MMW and HMW, however F. vesiculosus fucoidan treatment also caused accumulation in the sub-G1-phase. Mitochondrial damage occurred for all fucoidan-types, however F. vesiculosus fucoidan led to mitochondrial fragmentation. Annexin V/PI, TUNEL and cytochrome c staining confirmed stress-induced apoptosis-like cell death for F. vesiculosus fucoidan and features of stress-induced necrosis-like cell death for S. filipendula fucoidans. There was also variation in penetrability of different fucoidans inside the cell. These differences in anti-cancer activity of fucoidans are applicable for osteosarcoma treatment. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Biosynthesis of Saxitoxin in Marine Dinoflagellates: An Omics Perspective
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020103 - 05 Feb 2020
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Saxitoxin is an alkaloid neurotoxin originally isolated from the clam Saxidomus giganteus in 1957. This group of neurotoxins is produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria and marine dinoflagellates. The saxitoxin biosynthesis pathway was described for the first time in the 1980s and, [...] Read more.
Saxitoxin is an alkaloid neurotoxin originally isolated from the clam Saxidomus giganteus in 1957. This group of neurotoxins is produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria and marine dinoflagellates. The saxitoxin biosynthesis pathway was described for the first time in the 1980s and, since then, it was studied in more than seven cyanobacterial genera, comprising 26 genes that form a cluster ranging from 25.7 kb to 35 kb in sequence length. Due to the complexity of the genomic landscape, saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates remains unknown. In order to reveal and understand the dynamics of the activity in such impressive unicellular organisms with a complex genome, a strategy that can carefully engage them in a systems view is necessary. Advances in omics technology (the collective tools of biological sciences) facilitated high-throughput studies of the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of dinoflagellates. The omics approach was utilized to address saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellates in response to environmental stresses to improve understanding of dinoflagellates gene–environment interactions. Therefore, in this review, the progress in understanding dinoflagellate saxitoxin biosynthesis using an omics approach is emphasized. Further potential applications of metabolomics and genomics to unravel novel insights into saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates are also reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Plankton)
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Open AccessArticle
A Truncated Galectin-3 Isolated from Skin Mucus of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar Binds to and Modulates the Proteome of the Gram-Negative Bacteria Moritella viscosa
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020102 - 04 Feb 2020
Viewed by 560
Abstract
The mucus of fish skin plays a vital role in innate immune defense. Some mucus proteins have the potential to incapacitate pathogens and/or inhibit their passage through the skin. In this study the aim was to isolate and characterize galectin(s), β-galactosides binding proteins, [...] Read more.
The mucus of fish skin plays a vital role in innate immune defense. Some mucus proteins have the potential to incapacitate pathogens and/or inhibit their passage through the skin. In this study the aim was to isolate and characterize galectin(s), β-galactosides binding proteins, present in skin mucus. A novel short form of galectin-3 was isolated from Atlantic salmon skin mucus by α-lactose agarose based affinity chromatography followed by Sephadex G-15 gel filtration. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that the isolated protein was the C-terminal half of galectin-3 (galectin-3C). Galectin-3C showed calcium independent and lactose inhabitable hemagglutination, and agglutinated the Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria Moritella viscosa. Galectin-3 mRNA was highly expressed in skin and gill, followed by muscle, hindgut, spleen, stomach, foregut, head kidney, and liver. Moritella viscosa incubated with galectin-3C had a modified proteome. Proteins with changed abundance included multidrug transporter and three ribosomal proteins L7/12, S2, and S13. Overall, this study shows the isolation and characterization of a novel galectin-3 short form involved in pathogen recognition and modulation, and hence in immune defense of Atlantic salmon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Defense in Marine Organisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Profiling and the Value of Processing By-Products from Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020101 - 04 Feb 2020
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Fish processing industries generate a large volume of discards. In order to fulfil with the principles of a sustainable circular economy, it is necessary to maintain aquaculture by-products in the food chain through the production of high-value biomolecules that can be used as [...] Read more.
Fish processing industries generate a large volume of discards. In order to fulfil with the principles of a sustainable circular economy, it is necessary to maintain aquaculture by-products in the food chain through the production of high-value biomolecules that can be used as novel ingredients. In this study, we try to give value to the gilthead sea bream by-products, evaluating the composition and the nutritional value of the muscle and six discards commonly obtained from the fish processing industry (fishbone, gills, guts, heads, liver, and skin), which represent ≈ 61% of the whole fish. Significant differences were detected among muscle and by-products for fatty acid and amino acid profile, as well as mineral content. The discards studied were rich in protein (10%–25%), showing skin and fishbone to have the highest contents. The amino acid profile reflected the high quality of its protein, with 41%–49% being essential amino acids—lysine, leucine, and arginine were the most abundant amino acids. Guts, liver, and skin were the fattiest by-products (25%–35%). High contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (31%–34%), n-3 fatty acids (12%–14%), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (6%–8%) characterized these discards. The head displayed by far the highest ash content (9.14%), which was reflected in the mineral content, especially in calcium and phosphorous. These results revealed that gilthead sea bream by-products can be used as source of value-added products such as protein, oils, and mineral supplements. Full article
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