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Open AccessArticle

3D Chitin Scaffolds of Marine Demosponge Origin for Biomimetic Mollusk Hemolymph-Associated Biomineralization Ex-Vivo

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Faculty of Chemical Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60965 Poznan, Poland
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Institute of Electronics and Sensor Materials, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner str. 3, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
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Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
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Clinical Sensoring and Monitoring, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany
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Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Epizootiology and Clinic of Infectious Diseases, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 30, 20612 Lublin, Poland
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Montenegro, Kruševac bb, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
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Department of Pharmacy, National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, 21018 Vinnitsa, Ukraine
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Department of Microbiology, National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, 21018 Vinnitsa, Ukraine
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Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, Russia
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Taxonomy and Systematics Group, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, 2333CR Leiden, The Netherlands
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Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, 9747AG Groningen, The Netherlands
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Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, Florida Atlantic University, 5600 Old Dixie Hwy, Fort Pierce, FL 34946, USA
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Department of Heat Treatment and Physics of Metal, Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg, Russia
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The Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya Str. 20, 620990 Ekaterinburg, Russia
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Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical School, Durham, NC 27708, USA
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Department of Sciences of Earth, Environment and Life, University of Genoa, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova, Italy
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Center for Advanced Technology, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61614 Poznan, Poland
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020123
Received: 30 December 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2020 / Accepted: 14 February 2020 / Published: 19 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biomaterials 2020)
Structure-based tissue engineering requires large-scale 3D cell/tissue manufacture technologies, to produce biologically active scaffolds. Special attention is currently paid to naturally pre-designed scaffolds found in skeletons of marine sponges, which represent a renewable resource of biomaterials. Here, an innovative approach to the production of mineralized scaffolds of natural origin is proposed. For the first time, a method to obtain calcium carbonate deposition ex vivo, using living mollusks hemolymph and a marine-sponge-derived template, is specifically described. For this purpose, the marine sponge Aplysin aarcheri and the terrestrial snail Cornu aspersum were selected as appropriate 3D chitinous scaffold and as hemolymph donor, respectively. The formation of calcium-based phase on the surface of chitinous matrix after its immersion into hemolymph was confirmed by Alizarin Red staining. A direct role of mollusks hemocytes is proposed in the creation of fine-tuned microenvironment necessary for calcification ex vivo. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the sample showed a high CaCO3 amorphous content. Raman spectroscopy evidenced also a crystalline component, with spectra corresponding to biogenic calcite. This study resulted in the development of a new biomimetic product based on ex vivo synthetized ACC and calcite tightly bound to the surface of 3D sponge chitin structure. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitin; scaffold; sponges; hemocytes; hemolymph; biomineralization; calcite chitin; scaffold; sponges; hemocytes; hemolymph; biomineralization; calcite
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Wysokowski, M.; Machałowski, T.; Petrenko, I.; Schimpf, C.; Rafaja, D.; Galli, R.; Ziętek, J.; Pantović, S.; Voronkina, A.; Kovalchuk, V.; Ivanenko, V.N.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Diaz, C.; Khrunyk, Y.; Stelling, A.L.; Giovine, M.; Jesionowski, T.; Ehrlich, H. 3D Chitin Scaffolds of Marine Demosponge Origin for Biomimetic Mollusk Hemolymph-Associated Biomineralization Ex-Vivo. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 123.

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