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Open AccessArticle

Mining the Metabolome and the Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Potential of Sea Foam-Derived Fungi

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GEOMAR Centre for Marine Biotechnology (GEOMAR-Biotech), Research Unit Marine Natural Products Chemistry, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Am Kiel-Kanal 44, 24106 Kiel, Germany
2
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Kiel University, Christian-Albrechts-Platz 4, 24118 Kiel, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020128
Received: 24 January 2020 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 21 February 2020 / Published: 22 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products in Crop Protection)
Sea foam harbors a diverse range of fungal spores with biological and ecological relevance in marine environments. Fungi are known as the producers of secondary metabolites that are used in health and agricultural sectors, however the potentials of sea foam-derived fungi have remained unexplored. In this study, organic extracts of six foam-derived fungal isolates belonging to the genera Penicillium, Cladosporium, Emericellopsis and Plectosphaerella were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against plant and human pathogens and anticancer activity. In parallel, an untargeted metabolomics study using UPLC-QToF–MS/MS-based molecular networking (MN) was performed to unlock their chemical inventory. Penicillium strains were identified as the most prolific producers of compounds with an average of 165 parent ions per strain. In total, 49 known mycotoxins and functional metabolites were annotated to specific and ubiquitous parent ions, revealing considerable chemical diversity. This allowed the identification of putative new derivatives, such as a new analog of the antimicrobial tetrapeptide, fungisporin. Regarding bioactivity, the Penicillium sp. isolate 31.68F1B showed a strong and broad-spectrum activity against seven plant and human pathogens, with the phytopathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and the human pathogen Candida albicans being the most susceptible (IC50 values 2.2 and 6.3 µg/mL, respectively). This is the first study mining the metabolome of the sea foam-derived fungi by MS/MS-based molecular networking, and assessing their biological activities against phytopathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea foam; marine fungi; metabolomics; molecular network; phytopathogen; antimicrobial activity sea foam; marine fungi; metabolomics; molecular network; phytopathogen; antimicrobial activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oppong-Danquah, E.; Passaretti, C.; Chianese, O.; Blümel, M.; Tasdemir, D. Mining the Metabolome and the Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Potential of Sea Foam-Derived Fungi. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 128.

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