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Mar. Drugs, Volume 17, Issue 1 (January 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Novel methods were tested to culture the collagen-rich sponge Chondrosia reniformis in the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Genomic and Metabolomic Approach to the Discovery of Potential Anti-Quorum Sensing Natural Products from Microbes Associated with Marine Samples from Singapore
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010072
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
With 70% of the Earth’s surface covered in water, the marine ecosystem offers immense opportunities for drug discovery and development. Due to the decreasing rate of novel natural product discovery from terrestrial sources in recent years, many researchers are beginning to look seaward [...] Read more.
With 70% of the Earth’s surface covered in water, the marine ecosystem offers immense opportunities for drug discovery and development. Due to the decreasing rate of novel natural product discovery from terrestrial sources in recent years, many researchers are beginning to look seaward for breakthroughs in new therapeutic agents. As part of an ongoing marine drug discovery programme in Singapore, an integrated approach of combining metabolomic and genomic techniques were initiated for uncovering novel anti-quorum sensing molecules from bacteria associated with subtidal samples collected in the Singapore Strait. Based on the culture-dependent method, a total of 102 marine bacteria strains were isolated and the identities of selected strains were established based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. About 5% of the marine bacterial organic extracts showed quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity in a dose-dependent manner based on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS reporter system. In addition, the extracts were subjected to mass spectrometry-based molecular networking and the genome of selected strains were analysed for known as well as new biosynthetic gene clusters. This study revealed that using integrated techniques, coupled with biological assays, can provide an effective and rapid prioritization of marine bacterial strains for downstream large-scale culturing for the purpose of isolation and structural elucidation of novel bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprospecting of Marine Microorganisms)
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Open AccessArticle Venomics Reveals Venom Complexity of the Piscivorous Cone Snail, Conus tulipa
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010071
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
The piscivorous cone snail Conus tulipa has evolved a net-hunting strategy, akin to the deadly Conus geographus, and is considered the second most dangerous cone snail to humans. Here, we present the first venomics study of C. tulipa venom using integrated transcriptomic [...] Read more.
The piscivorous cone snail Conus tulipa has evolved a net-hunting strategy, akin to the deadly Conus geographus, and is considered the second most dangerous cone snail to humans. Here, we present the first venomics study of C. tulipa venom using integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Parallel transcriptomic analysis of two C. tulipa specimens revealed striking differences in conopeptide expression levels (2.5-fold) between individuals, identifying 522 and 328 conotoxin precursors from 18 known gene superfamilies. Despite broad overlap at the superfamily level, only 86 precursors (11%) were common to both specimens. Conantokins (NMDA antagonists) from the superfamily B1 dominated the transcriptome and proteome of C. tulipa venom, along with superfamilies B2, A, O1, O3, con-ikot-ikot and conopressins, plus novel putative conotoxins precursors T1.3, T6.2, T6.3, T6.4 and T8.1. Thus, C. tulipa venom comprised both paralytic (putative ion channel modulating α-, ω-, μ-, δ-) and non-paralytic (conantokins, con-ikot-ikots, conopressins) conotoxins. This venomic study confirms the potential for non-paralytic conotoxins to contribute to the net-hunting strategy of C. tulipa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Channels as Marine Drug Targets)
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Open AccessArticle Functional Characterization and Evolutionary Analysis of Glycine-Betaine Biosynthesis Pathway in Red Seaweed Pyropia yezoensis
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010070
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
The red seaweed Pyropia yezoensis is an ideal research model for dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying its robust acclimation to abiotic stresses in intertidal zones. Glycine betaine (GB) was an important osmolyte in maintaining osmotic balance and stabilizing the quaternary structure of complex [...] Read more.
The red seaweed Pyropia yezoensis is an ideal research model for dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying its robust acclimation to abiotic stresses in intertidal zones. Glycine betaine (GB) was an important osmolyte in maintaining osmotic balance and stabilizing the quaternary structure of complex proteins under abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, etc.) in plants, animals, and bacteria. However, the existence and possible functions of GB in Pyropia remain elusive. In this study, we observed the rapid accumulation of GB in desiccated Pyropia blades, identifying its essential roles in protecting Pyropia cells against severe osmotic stress. Based on the available genomic and transcriptomic information of Pyropia, we computationally identified genes encoding the three key enzymes in the GB biosynthesis pathway: phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT), choline dehydrogenase (CDH), and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). Pyropia had an extraordinarily expanded gene copy number of CDH (up to seven) compared to other red algae. Phylogeny analysis revealed that in addition to the one conservative CDH in red algae, the other six might have originated from early gene duplication events. In dehydration stress, multiple CDH paralogs and PEAMT genes were coordinating up-regulated and shunted metabolic flux into GB biosynthesis. An elaborate molecular mechanism might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of these genes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fucoidan–Fucoxanthin Ameliorated Cardiac Function via IRS1/GRB2/ SOS1, GSK3β/CREB Pathways and Metabolic Pathways in Senescent Mice
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010069
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
The effects of low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) in combination with high-stability fucoxanthin (HSFUCO) on cardiac function and the metabolic pathways of aging mice (Mus musculus) were investigated. We demonstrated that LMWF and HSFUCO could improve cardiac function in aging mice. [...] Read more.
The effects of low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) in combination with high-stability fucoxanthin (HSFUCO) on cardiac function and the metabolic pathways of aging mice (Mus musculus) were investigated. We demonstrated that LMWF and HSFUCO could improve cardiac function in aging mice. Aging mice were treated with LMWF and HSFUCO, either on their own or in combination, on 28 consecutive days. Electrocardiography and whole-cell patch-clamp were used to measure QT interval and action potential duration (APD) of the subjects. Cardiac tissue morphology, reactive oxygen species, and Western blot were also applied. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight (UPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry was used for investigating metabolic alterations. The use of LMWF and HSFUCO resulted in improvements in both ventricular rhythms (QT and APD). Treatment with fucoidan and fucoxanthin reduced the expression levels of SOS1 and GRB2 while increasing GSK3β, CREB and IRS1 proteins expression in the aging process. Three main metabolic pathways, namely the TCA cycle, glycolysis, and steroid hormone biosynthesis, were highly enriched in the pathway enrichment analysis. When taken together, the LMWF and HSFUCO treatment improved both the ventricular rhythm and the muscular function of aging subjects by interfering with the metabolism and gene function. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Synthesis of a Chitodisaccharide-Based Affinity Resin for Chitosanases Purification
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010068
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Chitooligosaccharides (CHOS) have gained increasing attention because of their important biological activities. Enhancing the efficiency of CHOS production essentially requires screening of novel chitosanase with unique characteristics. Therefore, a rapid and efficient one-step affinity purification procedure plays important roles in screening native chitosanases. [...] Read more.
Chitooligosaccharides (CHOS) have gained increasing attention because of their important biological activities. Enhancing the efficiency of CHOS production essentially requires screening of novel chitosanase with unique characteristics. Therefore, a rapid and efficient one-step affinity purification procedure plays important roles in screening native chitosanases. In this study, we report the design and synthesis of affinity resin for efficient purification of native chitosanases without any tags, using chitodisaccharides (CHDS) as an affinity ligand, to couple with Sepharose 6B via a spacer, cyanuric chloride. Based on the CHDS-modified affinity resin, a one-step affinity purification method was developed and optimized, and then applied to purify three typical glycoside hydrolase (GH) families: 46, 75, and 80 chitosanase. The three purified chitosanases were homogeneous with purities of greater than 95% and bioactivity recovery of more than 40%. Moreover, we also developed a rapid and efficient affinity purification procedure, in which tag-free chitosanase could be directly purified from supernatant of bacterial culture. The purified chitosanases samples using such a procedure had apparent homogeneity, with more than 90% purity and 10–50% yield. The novel purification methods established in this work can be applied to purify native chitosanases in various scales, such as laboratory and industrial scales. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of OSMAC-Based Cultivation in Metabolome and Anticancer Activity of Fungi Associated with the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010067
Received: 6 January 2019 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
The fungi associated with marine algae are prolific sources of metabolites with high chemical diversity and bioactivity. In this study, we investigated culture-dependent fungal communities associated with the Baltic seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. Altogether, 55 epiphytic and endophytic fungi were isolated and identified. [...] Read more.
The fungi associated with marine algae are prolific sources of metabolites with high chemical diversity and bioactivity. In this study, we investigated culture-dependent fungal communities associated with the Baltic seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. Altogether, 55 epiphytic and endophytic fungi were isolated and identified. Twenty-six strains were selected for a small-scale One-Strain-Many-Compounds (OSMAC)-based fermentation in four media under solid and liquid culture regimes. In total, 208 fungal EtOAc extracts were tested for anticancer activity and general cytotoxicity. Ten most active strains (i.e., 80 extracts) were analyzed for their metabolome by molecular networking (MN), in-silico MS/MS fragmentation analysis (ISDB–UNPD), and manual dereplication. Thirty-six metabolites belonging to 25 chemical families were putatively annotated. The MN clearly distinguished the impact of culture conditions in chemical inventory and anticancer activity of the fungal extracts that was often associated with general toxicity. The bioactivity data were further mapped into MN to seek metabolites exclusively expressed in the active extracts. This is the first report of cultivable fungi associated with the Baltic F. vesiculosus that combined an OSMAC and an integrated MN-based untargeted metabolomics approaches for efficient assessment and visualization of the impact of the culture conditions on chemical space and anticancer potential of the fungi. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Activation of Human Dendritic Cells by Ascophyllan Purified from Ascophyllum nodosum
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010066
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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In our previous study, we showed that ascophyllan purified from Ascophyllum nodosum treatment promotes mouse dendritic cell (DC) activation in vivo, further induces an antigen-specific immune response and has anticancer effects in mice. However, the effect of ascophyllan has not been studied in [...] Read more.
In our previous study, we showed that ascophyllan purified from Ascophyllum nodosum treatment promotes mouse dendritic cell (DC) activation in vivo, further induces an antigen-specific immune response and has anticancer effects in mice. However, the effect of ascophyllan has not been studied in human immune cells, specifically in terms of activation of human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) and human peripheral blood DCs (PBDCs). We found that the treatment with ascophyllan induced morphological changes in MDDCs and upregulated co-stimulatory molecules and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) and MHC II expression. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in culture medium was also dramatically increased following ascophyllan treatment of MDDCs. Moreover, ascophyllan promoted phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK signaling pathways, and inhibition of p38 almost completely suppressed the ascophyllan-induced activation of MDDCs. Finally, treatment with ascophyllan induced activation of BDCA1 and BDCA3 PBDCs. Thus, these data suggest that ascophyllan could be used as an immune stimulator in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Microcarriers Based on Glycosaminoglycan-Like Marine Exopolysaccharide for TGF-β1 Long-Term Protection
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010065
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
Articular cartilage is an avascular, non-innervated connective tissue with limited ability to regenerate. Articular degenerative processes arising from trauma, inflammation or due to aging are thus irreversible and may induce the loss of the joint function. To repair cartilaginous defects, tissue engineering approaches [...] Read more.
Articular cartilage is an avascular, non-innervated connective tissue with limited ability to regenerate. Articular degenerative processes arising from trauma, inflammation or due to aging are thus irreversible and may induce the loss of the joint function. To repair cartilaginous defects, tissue engineering approaches are under intense development. Association of cells and signalling proteins, such as growth factors, with biocompatible hydrogel matrix may lead to the regeneration of the healthy tissue. One current strategy to enhance both growth factor bioactivity and bioavailability is based on the delivery of these signalling proteins in microcarriers. In this context, the aim of the present study was to develop microcarriers by encapsulating Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1) into microparticles based on marine exopolysaccharide (EPS), namely GY785 EPS, for further applications in cartilage engineering. Using a capillary microfluidic approach, two microcarriers were prepared. The growth factor was either encapsulated directly within the microparticles based on slightly sulphated derivative or complexed firstly with the highly sulphated derivative before being incorporated within the microparticles. TGF-β1 release, studied under in vitro model conditions, revealed that the majority of the growth factor was retained inside the microparticles. Bioactivity of released TGF-β1 was particularly enhanced in the presence of highly sulphated derivative. It comes out from this study that GY785 EPS based microcarriers may constitute TGF-β1 reservoirs spatially retaining the growth factor for a variety of tissue engineering applications and in particular cartilage regeneration, where the growth factor needs to remain in the target location long enough to induce robust regenerative responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Polysaccharides in Pharmaceutical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Low Molecular Weight Seleno-Aminopolysaccharide on the Intestinal Mucosal Oxidative Damage
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010064
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Low molecular weight seleno-aminopolysaccharide (LSA) is an organic selenium compound comprising selenium and low molecular weight aminopolysaccharide (LA), a low molecular weight natural linear polysaccharide derived from chitosan. LSA has been found to exert strong pharmacological activity. In this study, we aimed to [...] Read more.
Low molecular weight seleno-aminopolysaccharide (LSA) is an organic selenium compound comprising selenium and low molecular weight aminopolysaccharide (LA), a low molecular weight natural linear polysaccharide derived from chitosan. LSA has been found to exert strong pharmacological activity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of LSA on intestinal mucosal oxidative stress in a weaning piglet model by detecting the growth performance, intestinal mucosal structure, antioxidant indices, and expression level of intracellular transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its related factors. Our results indicated that LSA significantly increased the average daily gain and feed/gain (p < 0.05), suggesting that LSA can effectively promote the growth of weaning piglets. The results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) microscopy showed that LSA effectively reduced intestinal damage, indicating that LSA improved the intestinal stress response and protected the intestinal structure integrity. In addition, diamine oxidase (DAO) and d-lactic acid (d-LA) levels remarkably decreased in LSA group compared with control group (p < 0.05), suggesting that LSA alleviated the damage and permeability of weaning piglets. LSA significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels, but decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, indicating that LSA significantly enhanced the antioxidant capacity and reduced oxidative stress in weaning piglets. RT-PCR results showed that LSA significantly increased GSH-Px1, GSH-Px2, SOD-1, SOD-2, CAT, Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 gene expression (p < 0.05). Western blot analysis revealed that LSA activated the Nrf2 signaling pathway by downregulating the expression of Keap1 and upregulating the expression of Nrf2 to protect intestinal mucosa against oxidative stress. Collectively, LSA reduced intestinal mucosal damage induced by oxidative stress via Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in weaning stress of infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Tetracenomycin X Exerts Antitumour Activity in Lung Cancer Cells through the Downregulation of Cyclin D1
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010063
Received: 2 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Tetracenomycin X (Tcm X) has been reported to have antitumour activity in various cancers, but there have not been any studies on its activity with respect to lung cancer to date. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the anti-lung cancer activity of Tcm [...] Read more.
Tetracenomycin X (Tcm X) has been reported to have antitumour activity in various cancers, but there have not been any studies on its activity with respect to lung cancer to date. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the anti-lung cancer activity of Tcm X. In this study, we found that tetracenomycin X showed antitumour activity in vivo and selectively inhibited the proliferation of lung cancer cells without influencing lung fibroblasts. In addition, apoptosis and autophagy did not contribute to the antitumour activity. Tetracenomycin X exerts antitumour activity through cell cycle arrest induced by the downregulation of cyclin D1. To explore the specific mechanism, we found that tetracenomycin X directly induced cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation and indirectly downregulated cyclin D1 via the activation of p38 and c-JUN proteins. All these findings were explored for the first time, which indicated that tetracenomycin X may be a powerful antimitotic class of anticancer drug candidates for the treatment of lung cancer in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Antithrombotic Properties of Salmon (Salmo salar) Phospholipids in a Novel Food-Grade Extract
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010062
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Marine and salmon polar lipids (PLs) extracted by conventional extractions with non-food-grade solvents (CE-salmon-PLs) possess antithrombotic bioactivities against platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin. Similar effects of food-grade-extracted (FGE) marine PLs have not yet been reported. In this study, food-grade solvents were used to [...] Read more.
Marine and salmon polar lipids (PLs) extracted by conventional extractions with non-food-grade solvents (CE-salmon-PLs) possess antithrombotic bioactivities against platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin. Similar effects of food-grade-extracted (FGE) marine PLs have not yet been reported. In this study, food-grade solvents were used to extract PLs from Irish organic farmed salmon (Salmo salar) fillets (FGE-salmon-PLs), while their antithrombotic bioactivities were assessed in human platelets induced by platelet aggregation agonists (PAF/thrombin). FGE-salmon-PLs were further separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) into lipid subclasses, and the antithrombotic bioactivities of each subclass were also assessed. LC-MS was utilized to elucidate the structure-activity relationships. FGE-salmon-PLs strongly inhibited PAF-induced platelet aggregation, while their relevant anti-thrombin effects were at least three times more potent than the previously reported activities of CE-salmon-PLs. TLC-derived lipid fractions corresponding to phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) were the most bioactive lipid subclasses obtained, especially against thrombin. Their LC-MS analysis elucidated that they are diacyl- or alkyl-acyl- PC and PE moieties baring ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) at their sn-2 position, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Our results concerning the potent antithrombotic effects of FGE-salmon-PLs against both PAF and thrombin pathways strongly suggest that such food-grade extracts are putative candidates for the development of novel cardioprotective supplements and nutraceuticals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Fermented Fish Oil on Fine Particulate Matter-Induced Skin Aging
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010061
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Skin is exposed to various harmful environmental factors such as air pollution, which includes different types of particulate matter (PM). Atmospheric PM has harmful effects on humans through increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been reported to promote skin [...] Read more.
Skin is exposed to various harmful environmental factors such as air pollution, which includes different types of particulate matter (PM). Atmospheric PM has harmful effects on humans through increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been reported to promote skin aging via the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which in turn can cause the degradation of collagen. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermented fish oil (FFO) derived from mackerel on fine PM (particles with a diameter < 2.5 µm: PM2.5)-induced skin aging in human keratinocytes. We found that FFO inhibited the PM2.5-induced generation of intracellular ROS and MMPs, including MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. In addition, FFO significantly abrogated the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels in PM2.5-treated cells and was also found to block the PM2.5-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein 1 (MAPK/AP-1) pathway. In conclusion, FFO has an anti-aging effect on PM2.5-induced aging in human keratinocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Antioxidant)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Networking Reveals Two Distinct Chemotypes in Pyrroloiminoquinone-Producing Tsitsikamma favus Sponges
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010060
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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The temperate marine sponge, Tsitsikamma favus, produces pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids with potential as anticancer drug leads. We profiled the secondary metabolite reservoir of T. favus sponges using HR-ESI-LC-MS/MS-based molecular networking analysis followed by preparative purification efforts to map the diversity of new and [...] Read more.
The temperate marine sponge, Tsitsikamma favus, produces pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids with potential as anticancer drug leads. We profiled the secondary metabolite reservoir of T. favus sponges using HR-ESI-LC-MS/MS-based molecular networking analysis followed by preparative purification efforts to map the diversity of new and known pyrroloiminoquinones and related compounds in extracts of seven specimens. Molecular taxonomic identification confirmed all sponges as T. favus and five specimens (chemotype I) were found to produce mainly discorhabdins and tsitsikammamines. Remarkably, however, two specimens (chemotype II) exhibited distinct morphological and chemical characteristics: the absence of discorhabdins, only trace levels of tsitsikammamines and, instead, an abundance of unbranched and halogenated makaluvamines. Targeted chromatographic isolation provided the new makaluvamine Q, the known makaluvamines A and I, tsitsikammamine B, 14-bromo-7,8-dehydro-3-dihydro-discorhabdin C, and the related pyrrolo-ortho-quinones makaluvamine O and makaluvone. Purified compounds displayed different activity profiles in assays for topoisomerase I inhibition, DNA intercalation and antimetabolic activity against human cell lines. This is the first report of makaluvamines from a Tsitsikamma sponge species, and the first description of distinct chemotypes within a species of the Latrunculiidae family. This study sheds new light on the putative pyrroloiminoquinone biosynthetic pathway of latrunculid sponges. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Marine Drugs in 2018
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010059
Published: 16 January 2019
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Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Potent Cytotoxic Analogs of Amphidinolides from the Atlantic Octocoral Stragulum bicolor
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010058
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Amphidinolides are cytotoxic macrolides produced by symbiotic unicellular microalgae of the genus Amphidinium. Here we describe the identification of four related molecules belonging to this macrolide family isolated from the invertebrate Stragulum bicolor. The new molecules, named amphidinolide PX1-PX3 and stragulin [...] Read more.
Amphidinolides are cytotoxic macrolides produced by symbiotic unicellular microalgae of the genus Amphidinium. Here we describe the identification of four related molecules belonging to this macrolide family isolated from the invertebrate Stragulum bicolor. The new molecules, named amphidinolide PX1-PX3 and stragulin A (14), show an unprecedented carbon skeleton whose complete stereochemistry has been determined by spectroscopic and computational methods. Differences in the structures of these molecules modulate their biological activity in a panel of tumor cell lines, but the opened derivative stragulin (4) shows a very potent and specific cytotoxic activity (IC50 0.18 µM) against the aggressive human melanoma cell A2058. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Clerodane Diterpenes from the Marine Sponge Raspailia bouryesnaultae Collected in South Brazil
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010057
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 31 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
The marine sponge Raspailia bouryesnaultae, collected in South Brazil, was selected for detailed investigation considering the results of a screening that pointed to an in vitro antiproliferative effect against non-small cells of human lung cancer (A549) and anti-herpes activity against Herpes Simplex [...] Read more.
The marine sponge Raspailia bouryesnaultae, collected in South Brazil, was selected for detailed investigation considering the results of a screening that pointed to an in vitro antiproliferative effect against non-small cells of human lung cancer (A549) and anti-herpes activity against Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (KOS and 29R strains) of ethanolic extracts. The fractionation and chemical investigation of the sponge’s hexanic fraction led to the isolation and structural elucidation of six clerodane diterpenes. The main component was identified as the already-reported raspailol (1), isolated from a sponge of the same genus collected in New Zealand. The structure of a new diterpene (2) with a rearranged skeleton was established by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and 1D and 2D Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) experiments, and named here as raspadiene. Furthermore, four diterpenes were elucidated as isomers of clerodane diterpenes previously obtained from plants, namely kerlinic acid (3), kerlinic acid methyl ester (4), annonene (5), and 6-hydroxyannonene (6). They differ in their stereochemistry, since these diterpenes are characterized by a trans ring fusion at the decalin moiety and the relative configuration of the two methyl groups at C-8 and C-9 in a cis relationship (type trans/cis). The Raspailia diterpenes have a cis ring fusion at the decalin moiety, and the two methyl groups at C-8 and C-9 are in a trans relationship (type cis/trans). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their potential antiproliferative effects on human cancer cell line A549, and it was observed that the diterpenes bearing a hydroxyl group at C-6 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values lower than 25 μM. The evaluation of the potential anti-herpes activity against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS and 29R strains) showed that the more promising results were observed for the new compound 2, since it inhibited HSV-1 (KOS and 29R strains) replication by 83% and 74%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Nitrogenous Terpenoids from Two South China Sea Nudibranchs Phyllidiella pustulosa, Phyllidia coelestis, and Their Sponge-Prey Acanthella cavernosa
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010056
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
A detailed chemical investigation of two South China Sea nudibranchs Phyllidiella pustulosa and Phyllidia coelestis, as well as their possible sponge-prey Acanthella cavernosa, led to the isolation of one new nitrogenous cadinane-type sesquiterpenoid xidaoisocyanate A (1), one new naturally [...] Read more.
A detailed chemical investigation of two South China Sea nudibranchs Phyllidiella pustulosa and Phyllidia coelestis, as well as their possible sponge-prey Acanthella cavernosa, led to the isolation of one new nitrogenous cadinane-type sesquiterpenoid xidaoisocyanate A (1), one new naturally occurring nitrogen-containing kalihinane-type diterpenoid bisformamidokalihinol A (16), along with 17 known nitrogenous terpenoids (215, 1719). The structures of all the isolates were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and by the comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. In addition, the absolute stereochemistry of the previously reported axiriabiline A (5) was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. In a bioassay, the bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids 8, 10, and 11 exhibited cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Defense in Marine Organisms)
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Open AccessArticle UVA and UVB Photoprotective Capabilities of Topical Formulations Containing Mycosporine-like Amino Acids (MAAs) through Different Biological Effective Protection Factors (BEPFs)
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010055
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
The safety and stability of synthetic UV-filters and the procedures for evaluating the photoprotective capability of commercial sunscreens are under continuous review. The influence of pH and temperature stressors on the stability of certain Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) isolated at high purity levels [...] Read more.
The safety and stability of synthetic UV-filters and the procedures for evaluating the photoprotective capability of commercial sunscreens are under continuous review. The influence of pH and temperature stressors on the stability of certain Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) isolated at high purity levels was examined. MAAs were highly stable at room temperature during 24 h at pH 4.5–8.5. At 50 °C, MAAs showed instability at pH 10.5 while at 85 °C, progressive disappearances were observed for MAAs through the studied pH range. In alkaline conditions, their degradation was much faster. Mycosporine-serinol and porphyra-334 (+shinorine) were the most stable MAAs under the conditions tested. They were included in four cosmetically stable topical sunscreens, of which the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) and other Biological Effective Protection Factors (BEPFs) were calculated. The formulation containing these MAAs showed similar SPF and UVB-BEPFs values as those of the reference sunscreen, composed of synthetic UV absorbing filters in similar percentages, while UVA-BEPFs values were slightly lower. Current in vitro data strongly suggest that MAAs, as natural and safe UV-absorbing and antioxidant compounds, have high potential for protection against the diverse harmful effects of solar UV radiation. In addition, novel complementary in vitro tests for evaluation of commercial sunscreens efficacy are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Photoagaing and Photo-Protective Compounds from Marine Organisms)
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Open AccessCommunication Pathway Analysis of Fucoidan Activity Using a Yeast Gene Deletion Library Screen
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010054
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Fucoidan, the sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharide derived from brown macroalgae, was reported to display some anti-cancer effects in in vitro and in vivo models that included apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The proposed mechanisms of action involve enhanced immune surveillance and direct pro-apoptotic effects [...] Read more.
Fucoidan, the sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharide derived from brown macroalgae, was reported to display some anti-cancer effects in in vitro and in vivo models that included apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The proposed mechanisms of action involve enhanced immune surveillance and direct pro-apoptotic effects via the activation of cell signaling pathways that remain largely uncharacterized. This study aimed to identify cellular pathways influenced by fucoidan using an unbiased genetic approach to generate additional insights into the anti-cancer effects of fucoidan. Drug–gene interactions of Undaria pinnatifida fucoidan were assessed by a systematic screen of the entire set of 4,733 halpoid Saccharomyces cerevsiae gene deletion strains. Some of the findings were confirmed using cell cycle analysis and DNA damage detection in non-immortalized human dermal fibroblasts and colon cancer cells. The yeast deletion library screen and subsequent pathway and interactome analysis identified global effects of fucoidan on a wide range of eukaryotic cellular processes, including RNA metabolism, protein synthesis, sorting, targeting and transport, carbohydrate metabolism, mitochondrial maintenance, cell cycle regulation, and DNA damage repair-related pathways. Fucoidan also reduced clonogenic survival, induced DNA damage and G1-arrest in colon cancer cells, while these effects were not observed in non-immortalized human fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate global effects of fucoidan in diverse cellular processes in eukaryotic cells and further our understanding about the inhibitory effect of Undaria pinnatifida fucoidan on the growth of human cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Fragment-Based Structural Optimization of a Natural Product Itampolin A as a p38α Inhibitor for Lung Cancer
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010053
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
Marine animals and plants provide abundant secondary metabolites with antitumor activity. Itampolin A is a brominated natural tyrosine secondary metabolite that is isolated from the sponge Iotrochota purpurea. Recently, we have achieved the first total synthesis of this brominated tyrosine secondary metabolite, [...] Read more.
Marine animals and plants provide abundant secondary metabolites with antitumor activity. Itampolin A is a brominated natural tyrosine secondary metabolite that is isolated from the sponge Iotrochota purpurea. Recently, we have achieved the first total synthesis of this brominated tyrosine secondary metabolite, which was found to be a potent p38α inhibitor exhibiting anticancer effects. A fragment-based drug design (FBDD) was carried out to optimize itampolin A. Forty-five brominated tyrosine derivatives were synthesized with interesting biological activities. Then, a QSAR study was carried out to explore the structural determinants responsible for the activity of brominated tyrosine skeleton p38α inhibitors. The lead compound was optimized by a FBDD method, then three series of brominated tyrosine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activities against p38α and tumor cells. Compound 6o (IC50 = 0.66 μM) exhibited significant antitumor activity against non-small cell lung A549 cells (A549). This also demonstrated the feasibility of the FBDD method of structural optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Structure Analysis and Anti-Tumor and Anti-Angiogenic Activities of Sulfated Galactofucan Extracted from Sargassum thunbergii
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010052
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Sulfated galactofucan (ST-2) was obtained from Sargassum thunbergii. It was then desulfated to obtain ST-2-DS, and autohydrolyzed and precipitated by ethanol to obtain the supernatant (ST-2-S) and precipitate (ST-2-C). ST-2-C was further fractionated by gel chromatography into two fractions, ST-2-H (high molecular [...] Read more.
Sulfated galactofucan (ST-2) was obtained from Sargassum thunbergii. It was then desulfated to obtain ST-2-DS, and autohydrolyzed and precipitated by ethanol to obtain the supernatant (ST-2-S) and precipitate (ST-2-C). ST-2-C was further fractionated by gel chromatography into two fractions, ST-2-H (high molecular weight) and ST-2-L (low molecular weight). Mass spectrometry (MS) of ST-2-DS was performed to elucidate the backbone of ST-2. It was shown that ST-2-DS contained a backbone of alternating galactopyranose residues (Gal)n (n ≤ 3) and fucopyranose residues (Fuc)n. In addition, ST-2-S was also determined by MS to elucidate the branches of ST-2. It was suggested that sulfated fuco-oligomers might be the branches of ST-2. Compared to the NMR spectra of ST-2-H, the spectra of ST-2-L was more recognizable. It was shown that ST-2-L contain a backbone of (Gal)n and (Fuc)n, sulfated mainly at C4 of Fuc, and interspersed with galactose (the linkages were likely to be 1→2 and 1→6). Therefore, ST-2 might contain a backbone of (Gal)n (n ≤ 3) and (Fuc)n. The sulfation pattern was mainly at C4 of fucopyranose and partially at C4 of galactopyranose, and the branches were mainly sulfated fuco-oligomers. Finally, the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activities of ST-2 and its derivates were determined. It was shown that the low molecular-weight sulfated galactofucan, with higher fucose content, had better anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Polydeoxyribonucleotide Extracted from Salmon Sperm on the Restoration of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010051
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Bisphosphonates (BPs) used for treating skeletal diseases can induce bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Despite much effort, effective remedies are yet to be established. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) extracted from salmon sperm for the treatment [...] Read more.
Bisphosphonates (BPs) used for treating skeletal diseases can induce bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Despite much effort, effective remedies are yet to be established. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) extracted from salmon sperm for the treatment of BRONJ, in a BRONJ-induced rat model. Compared with BRONJ-induced samples, PDRN-treated samples exhibited lower necrotic bone percentages and increased numbers of blood vessels and attached osteoclast production. Moreover, local administration of PDRN at a high concentration (8 mg/kg) remarkably resolved the osteonecrosis. Findings from this study suggest that local administration of PDRN at a specific concentration may be considered clinically for the management of BRONJ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Organisms for Bone Regeneration)
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Open AccessArticle Marine Bacterial Polysaccharide EPS11 Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth and Metastasis via Blocking Cell Adhesion and Attenuating Filiform Structure Formation
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010050
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Our previous results suggested that EPS11, a novel marine bacterial polysaccharide, might be a potential drug candidate for human non-small cell lung carcinoma treatment. In this study, we further investigate the anticancer mechanisms against liver cancer and the anti-metastatic effects in vivo of [...] Read more.
Our previous results suggested that EPS11, a novel marine bacterial polysaccharide, might be a potential drug candidate for human non-small cell lung carcinoma treatment. In this study, we further investigate the anticancer mechanisms against liver cancer and the anti-metastatic effects in vivo of EPS11. Firstly, we found that EPS11 exerts cytotoxic effects via blocking cell adhesion and destroying filiform structure formation in Huh7.5 cells. Moreover, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of EPS11-treated Huh7.5 cells revealed that expression of many adhesion-related proteins was significantly changed. It is noteworthy that the expression of CD99, a key factor related to cell adhesion, migration and cell death, is remarkably down-regulated after EPS11 treatment. Importantly, over-expression of CD99 partly rescues cell death rate, and improves cell adhesion and migration ability in Huh7.5 treated by EPS11. Thus, we propose that CD99 is a potential action target of EPS11, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, adhesion and migration. Notably, administration of EPS11 simultaneously with tumor induction evidently reduces tumor nodule formation in the lungs, which strongly indicates that EPS11 has anti-metastatic effects in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that EPS11 inhibits liver cancer cell growth via blocking cell adhesion and attenuating filiform structure formation, and has potential as an anti-cancer drug, targeting metastasis of cancer cells, in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Microbes - II)
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Open AccessArticle CYC27 Synthetic Derivative of Bromophenol from Red Alga Rhodomela confervoides: Anti-Diabetic Effects of Sensitizing Insulin Signaling Pathways and Modulating RNA Splicing-Associated RBPs
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010049
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) lie at the center of posttranscriptional regulation and the dysregulation of RBPs contributes to diabetes. Therefore, the modulation of RBPs is anticipated to become a potential therapeutic approach to diabetes. CYC27 is a synthetic derivative of marine bromophenol BDB, which [...] Read more.
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) lie at the center of posttranscriptional regulation and the dysregulation of RBPs contributes to diabetes. Therefore, the modulation of RBPs is anticipated to become a potential therapeutic approach to diabetes. CYC27 is a synthetic derivative of marine bromophenol BDB, which is isolated from red alga Rhodomela confervoides. In this study, we found that CYC27 significantly lowered the blood glucose levels of diabetic BKS db mice. Moreover, CYC27 effectively ameliorated dyslipidemia in BKS db mice by reducing their total serum cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Furthermore, CYC27 was an insulin-sensitizing agent with increased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptors and relevant downstream factors. Finally, to systemically study the mechanisms of CYC27, label-free quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis was performed to investigate global changes in phosphorylation. Enriched GO annotation showed that most regulated phosphoproteins were related to RNA splicing and RNA processing. Enriched KEGG analysis showed that a spliceosome-associated pathway was the predominant pathway after CYC27 treatment. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis showed that CYC27 modulated the process of mRNA splicing via phosphorylation of the relevant RBPs, including upregulated Cstf3 and Srrt. Our results suggested that CYC27 treatment exerted promising anti-diabetic effects by sensitizing the insulin signaling pathways and modulating RNA splicing-associated RBPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Drugs in the Management of Metabolic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle From Aggregates to Porous Three-Dimensional Scaffolds through a Mechanochemical Approach to Design Photosensitive Chitosan Derivatives
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010048
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
The crustacean processing industry produces large quantities of waste by-products (up to 70%). Such wastes could be used as raw materials for producing chitosan, a polysaccharide with a unique set of biochemical properties. However, the preparation methods and the long-term stability of chitosan-based [...] Read more.
The crustacean processing industry produces large quantities of waste by-products (up to 70%). Such wastes could be used as raw materials for producing chitosan, a polysaccharide with a unique set of biochemical properties. However, the preparation methods and the long-term stability of chitosan-based products limit their application in biomedicine. In this study, different scale structures, such as aggregates, photo-crosslinked films, and 3D scaffolds based on mechanochemically-modified chitosan derivatives, were successfully formed. Dynamic light scattering revealed that aggregation of chitosan derivatives becomes more pronounced with an increase in the number of hydrophobic substituents. Although the results of the mechanical testing revealed that the plasticity of photo-crosslinked films was 5–8% higher than that for the initial chitosan films, their tensile strength remained unchanged. Different types of polymer scaffolds, such as flexible and porous ones, were developed by laser stereolithography. In vivo studies of the formed structures showed no dystrophic and necrobiotic changes, which proves their biocompatibility. Moreover, the wavelet analysis was used to show that the areas of chitosan film degradation were periodic. Comparing the results of the wavelet analysis and X-ray diffraction data, we have concluded that degradation occurs within less ordered amorphous regions in the polymer bulk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Products for Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Antibacterial Peptides Isolated from the Maillard Reaction Products of Half-Fin Anchovy (Setipinna taty) Hydrolysates/Glucose and Their Mode of Action in Escherichia Coli
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010047
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
The Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of half-fin anchovy hydrolysates and glucose, named as HAHp(9.0)-G MRPs, were fractionated by size exclusion chromatography into three major fractions (F1–F3). F2, which demonstrated the strongest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and showed self-production [...] Read more.
The Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of half-fin anchovy hydrolysates and glucose, named as HAHp(9.0)-G MRPs, were fractionated by size exclusion chromatography into three major fractions (F1–F3). F2, which demonstrated the strongest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and showed self-production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), was extracted by solid phase extraction. The hydrophobic extract of F2 was further isolated by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography into sub-fractions HE-F2-1 and HE-F2-2. Nine peptides were identified from HE-F2-1, and two peptides from HE-F2-2 using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry. Three peptides, FEDQLR (HGM-Hp1), ALERTF (HGM-Hp2), and RHPEYAVSVLLR (HGM-Hp3), with net charges of −1, 0, and +1, respectively, were synthesized. The minimal inhibitory concentration of these synthetic peptides was 2 mg/mL against E. coli. Once incubated with logarithmic growth phase of E. coli, HGM-Hp1 and HGM-Hp2 induced significant increases of both extracellular and intracellular H2O2 formation. However, HGM-Hp3 only dramatically enhanced intracellular H2O2 production in E. coli. The increased potassium ions in E. coli suspension after addition of HGM-Hp1 or HGM-Hp2 indicated the destruction of cell integrity via irreversible membrane damage. It is the first report of hydrolysates MRPs-derived peptides that might perform the antibacterial activity via inducing intracellular H2O2 production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Citrinin Monomer and Dimer Derivatives with Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities Isolated from the Deep Sea-Derived Fungus Penicillium citrinum NLG-S01-P1
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010046
Received: 8 December 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Two previously unreported citrinin dimer derivatives, penicitol D (1) and 1-epi-citrinin H1 (2), were isolated from the culture of a deep sea-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum NLG-S01-P1, together with 11 biogenetic related compounds (313). [...] Read more.
Two previously unreported citrinin dimer derivatives, penicitol D (1) and 1-epi-citrinin H1 (2), were isolated from the culture of a deep sea-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum NLG-S01-P1, together with 11 biogenetic related compounds (313). A plausible biogenetic pathway for compounds 24 was proposed. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were established through analysis of extensive spectroscopic data and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) ECD calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 showed antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Compounds 5 and 10 displayed relatively stronger activities than the other compounds against Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio campbellii. Compound 1 showed the most potent cytotoxic activity towards the HeLa cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Microbes - II)
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Open AccessArticle Illustrating and Enhancing the Biosynthesis of Astaxanthin and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Aurantiochytrium sp. SK4
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010045
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
The marine thraustochytrids are a promising source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the ketocarotenoid astaxanthin. In this study, the biosynthetic pathways of these two important metabolites in Aurantiochytrium sp. SK4 was illustrated by the analyses of the genome, transcriptome, key enzymes, and pathway [...] Read more.
The marine thraustochytrids are a promising source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the ketocarotenoid astaxanthin. In this study, the biosynthetic pathways of these two important metabolites in Aurantiochytrium sp. SK4 was illustrated by the analyses of the genome, transcriptome, key enzymes, and pathway products. Two sets of genes were involved in two pathways for the biosynthesis of fatty acids. The absence of Δ-15 desaturase genes and the presence of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), up to 12% of total fatty acids suggest that Aurantiochytrium sp. SK4 may synthesize DHA mainly via a polyketide synthase (PKS) pathway. Three enzymes, namely geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS), farnysyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), and geranylgeranyle diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) were found to be involved in the formation of GGPP that was subsequently catalyzed to β-carotene by a trifunctional CrtIBY enzyme. β-Carotene might be ketolated and then hydroxylated into astaxanthin based on the carotenoid profiles. The formation of GGPP was proposed to be the limiting steps for carotenoid production. Overexpression of the Archaeoglobus GPS together with the Escherichia coli isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase, and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin resulted in not only 1.85- and 5.02-fold increases of total carotenoids and astaxanthin, but also 2.40- and 2.74-fold increases of total fatty acids and DHA. This study provides insights into the biosynthesis of carotenoids and fatty acids in Aurantiochytrium. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Adipogenesis by Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) through AMPK Activation in Adipocytes
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010044
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effect and the mechanism of action of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) isolated from Ishige okamurae in 3T3-L1 cells. The antiobesity effects were examined by evaluating intracellular fat accumulation in Oil Red O-stained adipocytes. Based on [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effect and the mechanism of action of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) isolated from Ishige okamurae in 3T3-L1 cells. The antiobesity effects were examined by evaluating intracellular fat accumulation in Oil Red O-stained adipocytes. Based on the results, DPHC dose-dependently inhibited the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPHC significantly inhibited adipocyte-specific proteins such as SREBP-1c, PPARγ, C/EBP α, and adiponectin, as well as adipogenic enzymes, including perilipin, FAS, FABP4, and leptin in adipocytes. These results indicated that DPHC primarily acts by regulating adipogenic-specific proteins through inhibiting fat accumulation and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes. DPHC treatment significantly increased both AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in adipocytes. These results indicate that DPHC inhibits the fat accumulation by activating AMPK and ACC in 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that DPHC can be used as a potential therapeutic agent against obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Evaluation of a Chitosan Oligosaccharide-Streptomycin Conjugate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010043
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Microbial biofilms are considerably more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells. It has been reported that chitosan coupling with the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin dramatically disrupted biofilms of several Gram-positive bacteria. This finding suggested the application of the covalent conjugate of antimicrobial natural polysaccharides [...] Read more.
Microbial biofilms are considerably more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells. It has been reported that chitosan coupling with the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin dramatically disrupted biofilms of several Gram-positive bacteria. This finding suggested the application of the covalent conjugate of antimicrobial natural polysaccharides and antibiotics on anti-infection therapy. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the chitosan-streptomycin conjugate (CS-Strep) remains unclear and the poor water-solubility of the conjugate might restrict its applications for anti-infection therapy. In this study, we conjugated streptomycin with water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharides (COS). Unlike CS-Strep, the COS-streptomycin conjugate (COS-Strep) barely affected biofilms of tested Gram-positive bacteria. However, COS-Strep efficiently eradicated established biofilms of the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This activity of COS-Strep was influenced by the degree of polymerization of chitosan oligosaccharide. The increased susceptibility of P. aeruginosa biofilms to antibiotics after conjugating might be related to the following: Suppression of the activation of MexX-MexY drug efflux pump system induced by streptomycin treatment; and down-regulation of the biosynthesis of biofilm exopolysaccharides. Thus, this work indicated that covalently linking antibiotics to chitosan oligosaccharides was a possible approach for the development of antimicrobial drugs against biofilm-related infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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