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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010029

Development of an Integrated Mariculture for the Collagen-Rich Sponge Chondrosia reniformis

1
Porifarma BV, Poelbos 3, 6718 HT Ede, The Netherlands
2
Marine Animal Ecology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Studio Associato Gaia, Piazza della Vittoria 15/23, 16121 Genova, Italy
4
Department of Freshwater and Marine Ecology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94248, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 5 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collagen from Marine Biological Source and Medical Applications)
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Abstract

In this study, novel methods were tested to culture the collagen-rich sponge Chondrosia reniformis Nardo, 1847 (Demospongiae, Chondrosiida, Chondrosiidae) in the proximity of floating fish cages. In a trial series, survival and growth of cultured explants were monitored near a polluted fish farm and a pristine control site. Attachment methods, plate materials, and plate orientation were compared. In a first trial, chicken wire-covered polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was found to be the most suitable substrate for C. reniformis (100% survival). During a second trial, survival on chicken wire-covered PVC, after six months, was 79% and 63% for polluted and pristine environments, respectively. Net growth was obtained only on culture plates that were oriented away from direct sunlight (39% increase in six months), whereas sponges decreased in size when sun-exposed. Chicken wire caused pressure on explants and it resulted in unwanted epibiont growth and was therefore considered to be unsuitable for long-term culture. In a final trial, sponges were glued to PVC plates and cultured for 13 months oriented away from direct sunlight. Both survival and growth were higher at the polluted site (86% survival and 170% growth) than at the pristine site (39% survival and 79% growth). These results represent a first successful step towards production of sponge collagen in integrated aquacultures. View Full-Text
Keywords: mariculture; sponge; Chondrosia reniformis; fishfarm; integrated multitrophic aquaculture mariculture; sponge; Chondrosia reniformis; fishfarm; integrated multitrophic aquaculture
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Gökalp, M.; Wijgerde, T.; Sarà, A.; De Goeij, J.M.; Osinga, R. Development of an Integrated Mariculture for the Collagen-Rich Sponge Chondrosia reniformis. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 29.

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