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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010061

Effect of Fermented Fish Oil on Fine Particulate Matter-Induced Skin Aging

1
School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
2
Choung Ryong Fisheries Co. LTD, 7825 Iljudong-ro, Namwon-epu, Seogwipo, Jeju 63612, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Antioxidant)
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Abstract

Skin is exposed to various harmful environmental factors such as air pollution, which includes different types of particulate matter (PM). Atmospheric PM has harmful effects on humans through increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been reported to promote skin aging via the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which in turn can cause the degradation of collagen. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermented fish oil (FFO) derived from mackerel on fine PM (particles with a diameter < 2.5 µm: PM2.5)-induced skin aging in human keratinocytes. We found that FFO inhibited the PM2.5-induced generation of intracellular ROS and MMPs, including MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. In addition, FFO significantly abrogated the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels in PM2.5-treated cells and was also found to block the PM2.5-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein 1 (MAPK/AP-1) pathway. In conclusion, FFO has an anti-aging effect on PM2.5-induced aging in human keratinocytes. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; matrix metalloproteinase; fermented fish oil; oxidative stress; skin aging particulate matter; matrix metalloproteinase; fermented fish oil; oxidative stress; skin aging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hyun, Y.J.; Piao, M.J.; Kang, K.A.; Zhen, A.X.; Madushan Fernando, P.D.S.; Kang, H.K.; Ahn, Y.S.; Hyun, J.W. Effect of Fermented Fish Oil on Fine Particulate Matter-Induced Skin Aging. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 61.

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