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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010071

Venomics Reveals Venom Complexity of the Piscivorous Cone Snail, Conus tulipa

1
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4068, Australia
2
Institut des Biomolecules Max Mousseron, UMR 5247, Université Montpellier-CNRS, 34093 Montpellier, France
3
Léon Bérard Cancer Center, 28 rue Laennec, 69008 Lyon, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Channels as Marine Drug Targets)
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Abstract

The piscivorous cone snail Conus tulipa has evolved a net-hunting strategy, akin to the deadly Conus geographus, and is considered the second most dangerous cone snail to humans. Here, we present the first venomics study of C. tulipa venom using integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Parallel transcriptomic analysis of two C. tulipa specimens revealed striking differences in conopeptide expression levels (2.5-fold) between individuals, identifying 522 and 328 conotoxin precursors from 18 known gene superfamilies. Despite broad overlap at the superfamily level, only 86 precursors (11%) were common to both specimens. Conantokins (NMDA antagonists) from the superfamily B1 dominated the transcriptome and proteome of C. tulipa venom, along with superfamilies B2, A, O1, O3, con-ikot-ikot and conopressins, plus novel putative conotoxins precursors T1.3, T6.2, T6.3, T6.4 and T8.1. Thus, C. tulipa venom comprised both paralytic (putative ion channel modulating α-, ω-, μ-, δ-) and non-paralytic (conantokins, con-ikot-ikots, conopressins) conotoxins. This venomic study confirms the potential for non-paralytic conotoxins to contribute to the net-hunting strategy of C. tulipa. View Full-Text
Keywords: conotoxin; Conus tulipa; intraspecific variation; venomics; transcriptomics; proteomics; conantokins; net hunting strategy; nirvana cabal; ion channel modulators conotoxin; Conus tulipa; intraspecific variation; venomics; transcriptomics; proteomics; conantokins; net hunting strategy; nirvana cabal; ion channel modulators
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Dutt, M.; Dutertre, S.; Jin, A.-H.; Lavergne, V.; Alewood, P.F.; Lewis, R.J. Venomics Reveals Venom Complexity of the Piscivorous Cone Snail, Conus tulipa. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 71.

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