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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010062

In Vitro Antithrombotic Properties of Salmon (Salmo salar) Phospholipids in a Novel Food-Grade Extract

1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, V94 T9PX Limerick, Ireland
2
Shannon Applied Biotechnology Centre, Limerick Institute of Technology, Moylish Park, V94 E8YF Limerick, Ireland
3
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of the Environment, University of the Aegean, GR 81400 Myrina, Lemnos, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract

Marine and salmon polar lipids (PLs) extracted by conventional extractions with non-food-grade solvents (CE-salmon-PLs) possess antithrombotic bioactivities against platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin. Similar effects of food-grade-extracted (FGE) marine PLs have not yet been reported. In this study, food-grade solvents were used to extract PLs from Irish organic farmed salmon (Salmo salar) fillets (FGE-salmon-PLs), while their antithrombotic bioactivities were assessed in human platelets induced by platelet aggregation agonists (PAF/thrombin). FGE-salmon-PLs were further separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) into lipid subclasses, and the antithrombotic bioactivities of each subclass were also assessed. LC-MS was utilized to elucidate the structure-activity relationships. FGE-salmon-PLs strongly inhibited PAF-induced platelet aggregation, while their relevant anti-thrombin effects were at least three times more potent than the previously reported activities of CE-salmon-PLs. TLC-derived lipid fractions corresponding to phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) were the most bioactive lipid subclasses obtained, especially against thrombin. Their LC-MS analysis elucidated that they are diacyl- or alkyl-acyl- PC and PE moieties baring ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) at their sn-2 position, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Our results concerning the potent antithrombotic effects of FGE-salmon-PLs against both PAF and thrombin pathways strongly suggest that such food-grade extracts are putative candidates for the development of novel cardioprotective supplements and nutraceuticals. View Full-Text
Keywords: salmon; polar lipids; platelet aggregation; platelet-activating factor (PAF); thrombin; phosphatidylcholine; phosphatidylethanolamine; LC-MS; EPA; DHA; PUFA; phospholipids salmon; polar lipids; platelet aggregation; platelet-activating factor (PAF); thrombin; phosphatidylcholine; phosphatidylethanolamine; LC-MS; EPA; DHA; PUFA; phospholipids
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Tsoupras, A.; Lordan, R.; Shiels, K.; Saha, S.K.; Nasopoulou, C.; Zabetakis, I. In Vitro Antithrombotic Properties of Salmon (Salmo salar) Phospholipids in a Novel Food-Grade Extract. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 62.

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