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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 18, Issue 4 (April 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Phytocompounds have been used in medicine for centuries owing to their potential in [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Glyoxalase Goes Green: The Expanding Roles of Glyoxalase in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040898
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (6435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The ubiquitous glyoxalase enzymatic pathway is involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis. The glyoxalase system has been more extensively studied in animals versus plants. Plant glyoxalases have been primarily associated with stress responses and their overexpression is
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The ubiquitous glyoxalase enzymatic pathway is involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis. The glyoxalase system has been more extensively studied in animals versus plants. Plant glyoxalases have been primarily associated with stress responses and their overexpression is known to impart tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In plants, glyoxalases exist as multigene families, and new roles for glyoxalases in various developmental and signaling pathways have started to emerge. Glyoxalase-based MG detoxification has now been shown to be important for pollination responses. During self-incompatibility response in Brassicaceae, MG is required to target compatibility factors for proteasomal degradation, while accumulation of glyoxalase leads to MG detoxification and efficient pollination. In this review, we discuss the importance of glyoxalase systems and their emerging biological roles in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glyoxalase System)
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Open AccessReview Health Effects of Psidium guajava L. Leaves: An Overview of the Last Decade
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040897
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (824 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today, there is increasing interest in discovering new bioactive compounds derived from ethnomedicine. Preparations of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves have traditionally been used to manage several diseases. The pharmacological research in vitro as well as in vivo has been widely used
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Today, there is increasing interest in discovering new bioactive compounds derived from ethnomedicine. Preparations of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves have traditionally been used to manage several diseases. The pharmacological research in vitro as well as in vivo has been widely used to demonstrate the potential of the extracts from the leaves for the co-treatment of different ailments with high prevalence worldwide, upholding the traditional medicine in cases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and parasitic infections. Moreover, the biological activity has been attributed to the bioactive composition of the leaves, to some specific phytochemical subclasses, or even to individual compounds. Phenolic compounds in guava leaves have been credited with regulating blood-glucose levels. Thus, the aim of the present review was to compile results from in vitro and in vivo studies carried out with guava leaves over the last decade, relating the effects to their clinical applications in order to focus further research for finding individual bioactive compounds. Some food applications (guava tea and supplementary feed for aquaculture) and some clinical, in vitro, and in vivo outcomes are also included. Full article
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Open AccessReview Synaptic Homeostasis and Its Immunological Disturbance in Neuromuscular Junction Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040896
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (6072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the neuromuscular junction, postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) clustering, trans-synaptic communication and synaptic stabilization are modulated by the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity. The synaptic functions are based presynaptically on the active zone architecture, synaptic vesicle proteins, Ca2+ channels and synaptic
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In the neuromuscular junction, postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) clustering, trans-synaptic communication and synaptic stabilization are modulated by the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity. The synaptic functions are based presynaptically on the active zone architecture, synaptic vesicle proteins, Ca2+ channels and synaptic vesicle recycling. Postsynaptically, they are based on rapsyn-anchored nAChR clusters, localized sensitivity to ACh, and synaptic stabilization via linkage to the extracellular matrix so as to be precisely opposed to the nerve terminal. Focusing on neural agrin, Wnts, muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (a mediator of agrin and Wnts signalings and regulator of trans-synaptic communication), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (the receptor of agrin and Wnts and participant in retrograde signaling), laminin-network (including muscle-derived agrin), extracellular matrix proteins (participating in the synaptic stabilization) and presynaptic receptors (including muscarinic and adenosine receptors), we review the functional structures of the synapse by making reference to immunological pathogenecities in postsynaptic disease, myasthenia gravis. The synapse-related proteins including cortactin, coronin-6, caveolin-3, doublecortin, R-spondin 2, amyloid precursor family proteins, glia cell-derived neurotrophic factor and neurexins are also discussed in terms of their possible contribution to efficient synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Neuromuscular Synapse in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Acteoside and Isoacteoside Protect Amyloid β Peptide Induced Cytotoxicity, Cognitive Deficit and Neurochemical Disturbances In Vitro and In Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040895
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5961 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Acteoside and isoacteoside, two phenylethanoid glycosides, coexist in some plants. This study investigates the memory-improving and cytoprotective effects of acteoside and isoacteoside in amyloid β peptide 1-42 (Aβ 1-42)-infused rats and Aβ 1-42-treated SH-SY5Y cells. It further elucidates the role of amyloid cascade
[...] Read more.
Acteoside and isoacteoside, two phenylethanoid glycosides, coexist in some plants. This study investigates the memory-improving and cytoprotective effects of acteoside and isoacteoside in amyloid β peptide 1-42 (Aβ 1-42)-infused rats and Aβ 1-42-treated SH-SY5Y cells. It further elucidates the role of amyloid cascade and central neuronal function in these effects. Acteoside and isoacteoside ameliorated cognitive deficits, decreased amyloid deposition, and reversed central cholinergic dysfunction that were caused by Aβ 1-42 in rats. Acteoside and isoacteoside further decreased extracellular Aβ 1-40 production and restored the cell viability that was decreased by Aβ 1-42 in SH-SY5Y cells. Acteoside and isoacteoside also promoted Aβ 1-40 degradation and inhibited Aβ 1-42 oligomerization in vitro. However, the memory-improving and cytoprotective effects of isoacteoside exceeded those of acteoside. Isoacteoside promoted exploratory behavior and restored cortical and hippocampal dopamine levels, but acteoside did not. We suggest that acteoside and isoacteoside ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction that was caused by Aβ 1-42 by blocking amyloid deposition via preventing amyloid oligomerization, and reversing central neuronal function via counteracting amyloid cytotoxicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Altered Adipogenesis in Zebrafish Larvae Following High Fat Diet and Chemical Exposure Is Visualised by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040894
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 8 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (4958 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Early life stage exposure to environmental chemicals may play a role in obesity by altering adipogenesis; however, robust in vivo methods to quantify these effects are lacking. The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of developmental exposure to chemicals on
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Early life stage exposure to environmental chemicals may play a role in obesity by altering adipogenesis; however, robust in vivo methods to quantify these effects are lacking. The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of developmental exposure to chemicals on adipogenesis in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We used label-free Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy for the first time to image zebrafish adipogenesis at 15 days post fertilization (dpf) and compared standard feed conditions (StF) to a high fat diet (HFD) or high glucose diet (HGD). We also exposed zebrafish embryos to a non-toxic concentration of tributyltin (TBT, 1 nM) or Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCiPP, 0.5 µM) from 0–6 dpf and reared larvae to 15 dpf under StF. Potential molecular mechanisms of altered adipogenesis were examined by qPCR. Diet-dependent modulation of adipogenesis was observed, with HFD resulting in a threefold increase in larvae with adipocytes, compared to StF and HGD. Developmental exposure to TBT but not TDCiPP significantly increased adipocyte differentiation. The expression of adipogenic genes such as pparda, lxr and lepa was altered in response to HFD or chemicals. This study shows that SRS microscopy can be successfully applied to zebrafish to visualize and quantify adipogenesis, and is a powerful approach for identifying obesogenic chemicals in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish: A Model for Toxicological Research)
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Open AccessArticle Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Mediated Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Induced-Neurotoxicity via Epigenetics Regulation in SK-N-SH Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040893
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
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Abstract
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a new kind of persistent organic pollutant, is widely distributed in the environment and exists in various organisms, where it is also a neurotoxic compound. However, the potential mechanism of its neurotoxicity is still unclear. To examine the role of
[...] Read more.
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a new kind of persistent organic pollutant, is widely distributed in the environment and exists in various organisms, where it is also a neurotoxic compound. However, the potential mechanism of its neurotoxicity is still unclear. To examine the role of epigenetics in the neurotoxicity induced by PFOS, SK-N-SH cells were treated with different concentrations of PFOS or control medium (0.1% DMSO) for 48 h. The mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), microRNA-16, microRNA-22, and microRNA-30a-5p were detected by Quantitative PCR (QPCR). Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to measure the protein levels of BDNF, and a western blot was applied to analyze the protein levels of DNMTs. Bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) was used to detect the methylation status of the BDNF promoter I and IV. Results of MTT assays indicated that treatment with PFOS could lead to a significant decrease of cell viability, and the treated cells became shrunk. In addition, PFOS exposure decreased the expression of BDNF at mRNA and protein levels, increased the expression of microRNA-16, microRNA-22, microRNA-30a-5p, and decreased the expression of DNMT1 at mRNA and protein levels, but increased the expression of DNMT3b at mRNA and protein levels. Our results also demonstrate that PFOS exposure changes the methylation status of BDNF promoter I and IV. The findings of the present study suggest that methylation regulation of BDNF gene promoter and increases of BDNF-related-microRNA might underlie the mechanisms of PFOS-induced neurotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)
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Open AccessArticle E2/ER β Enhances Calcineurin Protein Degradation and PI3K/Akt/MDM2 Signal Transduction to Inhibit ISO-Induced Myocardial Cell Apoptosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040892
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Secretion of multifunctional estrogen and its receptor has been widely considered as the reason for markedly higher frequency of heart disease in men than in women. 17β-Estradiol (E2), for instance, has been reported to prevent development of cardiac apoptosis via activation of estrogen
[...] Read more.
Secretion of multifunctional estrogen and its receptor has been widely considered as the reason for markedly higher frequency of heart disease in men than in women. 17β-Estradiol (E2), for instance, has been reported to prevent development of cardiac apoptosis via activation of estrogen receptors (ERs). In addition, protein phosphatase such as protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and calcineurin (PP2B) are also involved in cardiac hypertrophy and cell apoptosis signaling. However, the mechanism by which E2/ERβ suppresses apoptosis is not fully understood, and the role of protein phosphatase in E2/ERβ action also needs further investigation. In this study, we observed that E2/ERβ inhibited isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial cell apoptosis, cytochrome c release and downstream apoptotic markers. Moreover, we found that E2/ERβ blocks ISO-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells through the enhancement of calcineurin protein degradation through PI3K/Akt/MDM2 signaling pathway. Our results suggest that supplementation with estrogen and/or overexpression of estrogen receptor β gene may prove to be effective means to treat stress-induced myocardial damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
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Open AccessArticle Role of RHEB in Regulating Differentiation Fate of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cartilage and Bone Regeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040880
Received: 19 February 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Advances in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cell replacement therapies are promising approaches to treat cartilage and bone defects since substantial differentiation capacities of MSCs match the demands of tissue regeneration. Our understanding of the dynamic process requiring indispensable differentiation of MSCs remains
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Advances in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cell replacement therapies are promising approaches to treat cartilage and bone defects since substantial differentiation capacities of MSCs match the demands of tissue regeneration. Our understanding of the dynamic process requiring indispensable differentiation of MSCs remains limited. Herein, we describe the role of RHEB (Ras homolog enriched in brain) regulating gene signature for differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. RHEB-overexpression increases the proliferation of the ASCs. RHEB enhances the chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs in 3D culture via upregulation of SOX9 with concomitant increase in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and type II collagen (COL2). RHEB increases the osteogenesis via upregulation of runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) with an increase in the calcium and phosphate contents. RHEB also increases the expression of osteogenic markers, osteonectin and osteopontin. RHEB knockdown ASCs were incapable of expressing sufficient SRY (Sex determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9) and RUNX2, and therefore had decreased chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation. RHEB-overexpression impaired ASCs differentiation into adipogenic lineage, through downregulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ). Conversely, RHEB knockdown abolished the negative regulation of adipogenesis. We demonstrate that RHEB is a novel regulator, with a critical role in ASCs lineage determination, and RHEB-modulated ASCs may be useful as a cell therapy for cartilage and bone defect treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bone and Cartilage Research)
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Open AccessArticle CoQ10 Deficiency May Indicate Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cr(VI) Toxicity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040816
Received: 11 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To investigate the toxic mechanism of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) and search for an antidote for Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity, a study of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Cr(VI) and cell survival by recovering mitochondrial function was performed. In the present study, we found that the gene
[...] Read more.
To investigate the toxic mechanism of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) and search for an antidote for Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity, a study of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Cr(VI) and cell survival by recovering mitochondrial function was performed. In the present study, we found that the gene expression of electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) was strongly downregulated by Cr(VI) exposure. The levels of coenzyme 10 (CoQ10) and mitochondrial biogenesis presented by mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA copy number were also significantly reduced after Cr(VI) exposure. The subsequent, Cr(VI)-induced mitochondrial damage and apoptosis were characterized by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ATP production, increased methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, increased Ca2+ levels, Cyt c release, decreased Bcl-2 expression, and significantly elevated Bax expression. The Cr(VI)-induced deleterious changes were attenuated by pretreatment with CoQ10 in L-02 hepatocytes. These data suggest that Cr(VI) induces CoQ10 deficiency in L-02 hepatocytes, indicating that this deficiency may be a biomarker of mitochondrial dysfunction in Cr(VI) poisoning and that exogenous administration of CoQ10 may restore mitochondrial function and protect the liver from Cr(VI) exposure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Commitment of Scaffold Proteins in the Onco-Biology of Human Colorectal Cancer and Liver Metastases after Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040891
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 15 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Scaffold proteins play pivotal roles in the regulation of signaling pathways, integrating external and internal stimuli to various cellular outputs. We report the pattern of cellular and subcellular expression of scaffoldins angiomotin-like 2 (AmotL2), FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP51) and IQ motif containing
[...] Read more.
Scaffold proteins play pivotal roles in the regulation of signaling pathways, integrating external and internal stimuli to various cellular outputs. We report the pattern of cellular and subcellular expression of scaffoldins angiomotin-like 2 (AmotL2), FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP51) and IQ motif containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) in colorectal cancer (CRC) and metastases in liver resected after oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (CT). Positive immunostaining for the three scaffoldins was found in most cells in healthy colon, tumor, healthy liver and metastasized liver. The patterns of expression of AmotL2, FKBP51 and IQGAP1 show the greatest variability in immune system cells and neurons and glia cells and the least in blood vessel cells. The simultaneous subcellular localization in tumor cells and other cell types within the tumor suggest an involvement of these three scaffoldins in cancer biology, including a role in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition. The display in differential localization and quantitative expression of AmotL2, FKBP51, and IQGAP1 could be used as biomarkers for more accurate tumor staging and as potential targets for anti-cancer therapeutics by blocking or slowing down their interconnecting functions. Tough further research needs to be done in order to improve these assessments. Full article
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Open AccessReview Regulatory miRNAs in Colorectal Carcinogenesis and Metastasis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040890
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 15 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (520 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies and is the second-leading cause of cancer-related death world-wide, which is linked to genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and oncogenic signaling activation. MicroRNAs, one of the categories of epigenetics, have been demonstrated significant roles in
[...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies and is the second-leading cause of cancer-related death world-wide, which is linked to genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and oncogenic signaling activation. MicroRNAs, one of the categories of epigenetics, have been demonstrated significant roles in carcinogenesis and progression through regulating of oncogenic signaling pathways, stem cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and metastasis. This review summarizes the roles of microRNAs in the regulating of Wnt, Ras, TGF-β, and inflammatory signaling pathways, stemness, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, for carcinogenesis and metastasis in colorectal cancer. Improving our understanding of the mechanisms of regulatory interactions of microRNAs with signaling pathways in colorectal cancer formation and progression will aid in determining the genes responsible for colorectal cancer initiation, progression, metastasis, and recurrence and, finally, in developing personalized approaches for cancer prevention and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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Open AccessReview Pathogenic or Therapeutic Extracellular Vesicles in Rheumatic Diseases: Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Vesicles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040889
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important mediators of cell-to-cell communication pathways via the transport of proteins, mRNA, miRNA and lipids. There are three main types of EVs, exosomes, microparticles and apoptotic bodies, which are classified according to their size and biogenesis. EVs are secreted
[...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important mediators of cell-to-cell communication pathways via the transport of proteins, mRNA, miRNA and lipids. There are three main types of EVs, exosomes, microparticles and apoptotic bodies, which are classified according to their size and biogenesis. EVs are secreted by all cell types and their function reproduces that of the parental cell. They are involved in many biological processes that regulate tissue homeostasis and physiopathology of diseases. In rheumatic diseases, namely osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), EVs have been isolated from synovial fluid and shown to play pathogenic roles contributing to progression of both diseases. By contrast, EVs may have therapeutic effect via the delivery of molecules that may stop disease evolution. In particular, EVs derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reproduce the main functions of the parental cells and therefore represent the ideal type of EVs for modulating the course of either disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of EVs in OA and RA focusing on their potential pathogenic effect and possible therapeutic options. Special attention is given to MSCs and MSC-derived EVs for modulating OA and RA progression with the perspective of developing innovative therapeutic strategies. Full article
Open AccessReview Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Modeling of Gaucher’s Disease: What Have We Learned?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040888
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gaucher’s disease (GD) is the most frequently inherited lysosomal storage disease, presenting both visceral and neurologic symptoms. Mutations in acid β-glucocerebrosidase disrupt the sphingolipid catabolic pathway promoting glucosylceramide (GlcCer) accumulation in lysosomes. Current treatment options are enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and substrate reduction
[...] Read more.
Gaucher’s disease (GD) is the most frequently inherited lysosomal storage disease, presenting both visceral and neurologic symptoms. Mutations in acid β-glucocerebrosidase disrupt the sphingolipid catabolic pathway promoting glucosylceramide (GlcCer) accumulation in lysosomes. Current treatment options are enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and substrate reduction therapy (SRT). However, neither of these approaches is effective in treating the neurological aspect of the disease. The use of small pharmacological compounds that act as molecular chaperones is a promising approach that is still experimental. In recent years, an association between GD and Parkinson like synucleinopathies has been discovered. Since 1992, a number of mouse models of GD have been the developed and partially reproduce phenotype of the disease. More recently, the discovery of direct reprograming has allowed the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSc) from fibroblasts obtained from GD patients. iPSc can be expanded indefinitely in vitro and differentiated to macrophages and neurons, the main relevant cell types involved in GD. In this work, we review iPSc models of GD and summarize what we have learned from this system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell Research)
Open AccessReview Circadian Rhythm Neuropeptides in Drosophila: Signals for Normal Circadian Function and Circadian Neurodegenerative Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040886
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Circadian rhythm is a ubiquitous phenomenon in many organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. During more than four decades, the intrinsic and exogenous regulations of circadian rhythm have been studied. This review summarizes the core endogenous oscillation in Drosophila and then focuses on
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Circadian rhythm is a ubiquitous phenomenon in many organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. During more than four decades, the intrinsic and exogenous regulations of circadian rhythm have been studied. This review summarizes the core endogenous oscillation in Drosophila and then focuses on the neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and hormones that mediate its outputs and integration in Drosophila and the links between several of these (pigment dispersing factor (PDF) and insulin-like peptides) and neurodegenerative disease. These signaling molecules convey important network connectivity and signaling information for normal circadian function, but PDF and insulin-like peptides can also convey signals that lead to apoptosis, enhanced neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in flies carrying circadian mutations or in a senescent state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Circadian Rhythms)
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Open AccessArticle A Systems Biology Approach Using Transcriptomic Data Reveals Genes and Pathways in Porcine Skeletal Muscle Affected by Dietary Lysine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040885
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 8 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nine crossbred finishing barrows (body weight 94.4 ± 6.7 kg) randomly assigned to three dietary treatments were used to investigate the effects of dietary lysine on muscle growth related metabolic and signaling pathways. Muscle samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi of individual
[...] Read more.
Nine crossbred finishing barrows (body weight 94.4 ± 6.7 kg) randomly assigned to three dietary treatments were used to investigate the effects of dietary lysine on muscle growth related metabolic and signaling pathways. Muscle samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi of individual pigs after feeding the lysine-deficient (4.30 g/kg), lysine-adequate (7.10 g/kg), or lysine-excess (9.80 g/kg) diet for five weeks, and the total RNA was extracted afterwards. Affymetrix Porcine Gene 1.0 ST Array was used to quantify the expression levels of 19,211 genes. Statistical ANOVA analysis of the microarray data showed that 674 transcripts were differentially expressed (at p ≤ 0.05 level); 60 out of 131 transcripts (at p ≤ 0.01 level) were annotated in the NetAffx database. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed that dietary lysine deficiency may lead to: (1) increased muscle protein degradation via the ubiquitination pathway as indicated by the up-regulated DNAJA1, HSP90AB1 and UBE2B mRNA; (2) reduced muscle protein synthesis via the up-regulated RND3 and ZIC1 mRNA; (3) increased serine and glycine synthesis via the up-regulated PHGDH and PSPH mRNA; and (4) increased lipid accumulation via the up-regulated ME1, SCD, and CIDEC mRNA. Dietary lysine excess may lead to: (1) decreased muscle protein degradation via the down-regulated DNAJA1, HSP90AA1, HSPH1, and UBE2D3 mRNA; and (2) reduced lipid biosynthesis via the down-regulated CFD and ME1 mRNA. Collectively, dietary lysine may function as a signaling molecule to regulate protein turnover and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of finishing pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics of Risk Factors for Disease)
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Open AccessArticle The Metalloproteinase ADAM28 Promotes Metabolic Dysfunction in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040884
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
PDF Full-text (2216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Obesity and diabetes are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The current study builds upon our previous association studies highlighting that A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 28 (ADAM28) appears to be implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans.
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Obesity and diabetes are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The current study builds upon our previous association studies highlighting that A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 28 (ADAM28) appears to be implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Our novel study characterised the expression of ADAM28 in mice with the metabolic syndrome and used molecular inhibition approaches to investigate the functional role of ADAM28 in the pathogenesis of high fat diet-induced obesity. We identified that ADAM28 mRNA and protein expression was markedly increased in the livers of mice with the metabolic syndrome. In addition, noradrenaline, the major neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, results in elevated Adam28 mRNA expression in human monocytes. Downregulation of ADAM28 with siRNA technology resulted in a lack of weight gain, promotion of insulin sensitivity/glucose tolerance and decreased liver tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in our diet-induced obesity mouse model as well as reduced blood urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase. In addition, we show that ADAM28 knock-out mice also displayed reduced body weight, elevated high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and reductions in blood urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, and aspartate aminotransferase. The results of this study provide important insights into the pathogenic role of the metalloproteinase ADAM28 in the metabolic syndrome and suggests that downregulation of ADAM28 may be a potential therapeutic strategy in the metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metalloproteins 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Therapeutic Effect of Low Doses of Acenocoumarol in the Course of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040882
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intravascular activation of coagulation is observed in acute pancreatitis and is related to the severity of this inflammation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of acenocoumarol therapy on the course of acute pancreatitis induced in male rats by pancreatic
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Intravascular activation of coagulation is observed in acute pancreatitis and is related to the severity of this inflammation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of acenocoumarol therapy on the course of acute pancreatitis induced in male rats by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion. Acenocoumarol at a dose of 50, 100, or 150 µg/kg/dose was administered intragastrically once a day, starting the first dose 24 h after the initiation of pancreatic reperfusion. Results: Histological examination showed that treatment with acenocoumarol reduces pancreatic edema, necrosis, and hemorrhages in rats with pancreatitis. Moreover, the administration of acenocoumarol decreased pancreatic inflammatory infiltration and vacuolization of pancreatic acinar cells. These findings were accompanied with a reduction in the serum activity of lipase and amylase, concentration of interleukin-1β, and plasma d-Dimer concentration. Moreover, the administration of acenocoumarol improved pancreatic blood flow and pancreatic DNA synthesis. Acenocoumarol given at a dose of 150 µg/kg/dose was the most effective in the treatment of early phase acute pancreatitis. However later, acenocoumarol given at the highest dose failed to exhibit any therapeutic effect; whereas lower doses of acenocoumarol were still effective in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Conclusion: Treatment with acenocoumarol accelerates the recovery of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pancreatic Disorders)
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Open AccessErratum Erratum: Tingting Lian, et al. Identification of Site-Specific Stroke Biomarker Candidates by Laser Capture Microdissection and Labeled Reference Peptide. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 13427–13441
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040881
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
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Abstract
The authors wish to make a change to their published paper [1]. Since 2013, the authors have performed multiple experiments in many animals, including mice and rats, at both the Sun Yat-Sen University (Guangzhou, China) and China Medical University (Shenyang, China) [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle ρ0 Cells Feature De-Ubiquitination of SLC Transporters and Increased Levels and Fluxes of Amino Acids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040879
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2093 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Solute carrier (SLC) transporters are a diverse group of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the cellular flux and distribution of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as ubiquitination, have recently emerged as one of the major regulatory mechanisms in protein function
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Solute carrier (SLC) transporters are a diverse group of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the cellular flux and distribution of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as ubiquitination, have recently emerged as one of the major regulatory mechanisms in protein function and localization. Previously, we showed that SLC amino acid transporters were on average 6-fold de-ubiquitinated and increased amino acid levels were detected in ρ0 cells (lacking mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) compared to parental cells. Here, we elucidated the altered functionality of SLC transporters and their dynamic ubiquitination status by measuring the uptake of several isotopically labeled amino acids in both human osteosarcoma 143B.TK- and ρ0 cells. Our pulse chase analysis indicated that de-ubiquitinated amino acid transporters in ρ0 cells were accompanied by an increased transport rate, which leads to higher levels of amino acids in the cell. Finding SLC transport enhancers is an aim of the pharmaceutical industry in order to compensate for loss of function mutations in these genes. Thus, the ubiquitination status of SLC transporters could be an indicator for their functionality, but evidence for a direct connection between de-ubiquitination and transporter activity has to be further elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitin System)
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Open AccessReview EDIM-TKTL1/Apo10 Blood Test: An Innate Immune System Based Liquid Biopsy for the Early Detection, Characterization and Targeted Treatment of Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040878
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Epitope detection in monocytes (EDIM) represents a liquid biopsy exploiting the innate immune system. Activated monocytes (macrophages) phagocytose unwanted cells/cell fragments from the whole body including solid tissues. As they return to the blood, macrophages can be used for a non-invasive detection of
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Epitope detection in monocytes (EDIM) represents a liquid biopsy exploiting the innate immune system. Activated monocytes (macrophages) phagocytose unwanted cells/cell fragments from the whole body including solid tissues. As they return to the blood, macrophages can be used for a non-invasive detection of biomarkers, thereby providing high sensitivity and specificity, because the intracellular presence of biomarkers is due to an innate immune response. Flow cytometry analysis of blood enables the detection of macrophages and phagocytosed intracellular biomarkers. In order to establish a pan-cancer test, biomarkers for two fundamental biophysical mechanisms have been exploited. The DNaseX/Apo10 protein epitope is a characteristic of tumor cells with abnormal apoptosis and proliferation. Transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) is a marker for an anaerobic glucose metabolism (Warburg effect), which is concomitant with invasive growth/metastasis and resistant to radical and apoptosis inducing therapies. The detection of Apo10 and TKTL1 in blood macrophages allowed a sensitive (95.8%) and specific (97.3%) detection of prostate, breast and oral squamous cell carcinomas. Since TKTL1 represents a drugable target, the EDIM based detection of TKTL1 enables a targeted cancer therapy using the vitamin derivatives oxythiamine or benfo-oxythiamine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Biopsy for Clinical Application)
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Open AccessReview Regulation of Ubiquitin Enzymes in the TGF-β Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040877
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 15 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (873 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
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The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway has a tumor suppressor role in normal and premalignant cells but promotes oncogenesis in advanced cancer cells. Components of the pathway are tightly controlled by ubiquitin modifying enzymes and aberrations in these enzymes are frequently observed to
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The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway has a tumor suppressor role in normal and premalignant cells but promotes oncogenesis in advanced cancer cells. Components of the pathway are tightly controlled by ubiquitin modifying enzymes and aberrations in these enzymes are frequently observed to dysregulate the pathway causing diseases such as bone disorders, cancer and metastasis. These enzymes and their counterparts are increasingly being tested as druggable targets, and thus a deeper understanding of the enzymes is required. This review summarizes the roles of specific ubiquitin modifying enzymes in the TGF-β pathway and how they are regulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitin System)
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Open AccessArticle The Peculiar Glycolytic Pathway in Hyperthermophylic Archaea: Understanding Its Whims by Experimentation In Silico
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040876
Received: 12 March 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mathematical models are key to systems biology where they typically describe the topology and dynamics of biological networks, listing biochemical entities and their relationships with one another. Some (hyper)thermophilic Archaea contain an enzyme, called non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPN), which catalyzes the direct oxidation
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Mathematical models are key to systems biology where they typically describe the topology and dynamics of biological networks, listing biochemical entities and their relationships with one another. Some (hyper)thermophilic Archaea contain an enzyme, called non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPN), which catalyzes the direct oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 3-phosphoglycerate omitting adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) formation by substrate-level-phosphorylation via phosphoglycerate kinase. In this study we formulate three hypotheses that could explain functionally why GAPN exists in these Archaea, and then construct and use mathematical models to test these three hypotheses. We used kinetic parameters of enzymes of Sulfolobus solfataricus (S. solfataricus) which is a thermo-acidophilic archaeon that grows optimally between 60 and 90 °C and between pH 2 and 4. For comparison, we used a model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), an organism that can live at moderate temperatures. We find that both the first hypothesis, i.e., that the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plus phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) route (the alternative to GAPN) is thermodynamically too much uphill and the third hypothesis, i.e., that GAPDH plus PGK are required to carry the flux in the gluconeogenic direction, are correct. The second hypothesis, i.e., that the GAPDH plus PGK route delivers less than the 1 ATP per pyruvate that is delivered by the GAPN route, is only correct when GAPDH reaction has a high rate and 1,3-bis-phosphoglycerate (BPG) spontaneously degrades to 3PG at a high rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Modelling of Enzymatic Reaction Mechanisms)
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Open AccessArticle Aneurysm-Specific miR-221 and miR-146a Participates in Human Thoracic and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040875
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Altered microRNA expression is implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to determine microRNA signatures in thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) compared with control non-aneurysmal aortic specimens. We evaluated the expression of fifteen selected microRNA in human TAA and
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Altered microRNA expression is implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to determine microRNA signatures in thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) compared with control non-aneurysmal aortic specimens. We evaluated the expression of fifteen selected microRNA in human TAA and AAA operative specimens compared to controls. We observed significant upregulation of miR-221 and downregulation of miR-1 and -133 in TAA specimens. In contrast, upregulation of miR-146a and downregulation of miR-145 and -331-3p were found only for AAA specimens. Upregulation of miR-126 and -486-5p and downregulation of miR-30c-2*, -155, and -204 were observed in specimens of TAAs and AAAs. The data reveal microRNA expression signatures unique to aneurysm location and common to both thoracic and abdominal pathologies. Thus, changes in miR-1, -29a, -133a, and -221 are involved in TAAs and miR-145, -146, and -331-3p impact AAAs. This work validates prior studies on microRNA expression in aneurysmal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessReview On the Edge of Research and Technological Application: A Critical Review of Electromethanogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040874
Received: 16 February 2017 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (3732 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
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The conversion of electrical current into methane (electromethanogenesis) by microbes represents one of the most promising applications of bioelectrochemical systems (BES). Electromethanogenesis provides a novel approach to waste treatment, carbon dioxide fixation and renewable energy storage into a chemically stable compound, such as
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The conversion of electrical current into methane (electromethanogenesis) by microbes represents one of the most promising applications of bioelectrochemical systems (BES). Electromethanogenesis provides a novel approach to waste treatment, carbon dioxide fixation and renewable energy storage into a chemically stable compound, such as methane. This has become an important area of research since it was first described, attracting different research groups worldwide. Basics of the process such as microorganisms involved and main reactions are now much better understood, and recent advances in BES configuration and electrode materials in lab-scale enhance the interest in this technology. However, there are still some gaps that need to be filled to move towards its application. Side reactions or scaling-up issues are clearly among the main challenges that need to be overcome to its further development. This review summarizes the recent advances made in the field of electromethanogenesis to address the main future challenges and opportunities of this novel process. In addition, the present fundamental knowledge is critically reviewed and some insights are provided to identify potential niche applications and help researchers to overcome current technological boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioelectrochemical Systems)
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Open AccessReview Circadian Clock, Cell Division, and Cancer: From Molecules to Organism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040873
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (854 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
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As a response to environmental changes driven by the Earth’s axial rotation, most organisms evolved an internal biological timer—the so called circadian clock—which regulates physiology and behavior in a rhythmic fashion. Emerging evidence suggests an intimate interplay between the circadian clock and another
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As a response to environmental changes driven by the Earth’s axial rotation, most organisms evolved an internal biological timer—the so called circadian clock—which regulates physiology and behavior in a rhythmic fashion. Emerging evidence suggests an intimate interplay between the circadian clock and another fundamental rhythmic process, the cell cycle. However, the precise mechanisms of this connection are not fully understood. Disruption of circadian rhythms has a profound impact on cell division and cancer development and, vice versa, malignant transformation causes disturbances of the circadian clock. Conventional knowledge attributes tumor suppressor properties to the circadian clock. However, this implication might be context-dependent, since, under certain conditions, the clock can also promote tumorigenesis. Therefore, a better understanding of the molecular links regulating the physiological balance between the two cycles will have potential significance for the treatment of cancer and associated disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Circadian Rhythms)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Anti-Senescence Effect of Metformin on Mouse Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (mOECs) May Be Associated with Increased Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels—An Ex Vivo Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040872
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metformin, the popular anti-diabetic drug was shown to exert multiple biological effects. The most recent metformin gained attention as an agent that mobilizes endogenous progenitor cells and enhances regenerative potential of organisms, for example by promoting neurogenesis. In the present study, we examined
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Metformin, the popular anti-diabetic drug was shown to exert multiple biological effects. The most recent metformin gained attention as an agent that mobilizes endogenous progenitor cells and enhances regenerative potential of organisms, for example by promoting neurogenesis. In the present study, we examined the role of metformin on mouse olfactory ensheathing cells (mOECs) derived from animals receiving metformin for eight weeks at a concentration equal to 2.8 mg/day. The mOECs expanded ex vivo were characterized in terms of their cellular phenotype, morphology, proliferative activity, viability and accumulation of oxidative stress factors. Moreover, we determined the mRNA and protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), distinguishing the secretion of BDNF by mOECs in cultures and circulating serum levels of BDNF. The mOECs used in the experiment were glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) positive and exhibited both astrocyte-like and non-myelin Schwann cell-like morphologies. Our results revealed that the proliferation of OECs derived from mice treated with metformin was lowered, when compared to control group. Simultaneously, we noted increased cell viability, reduced expression of markers associated with cellular senescence and a decreased amount of reactive oxygen species. We observed increased mRNA expression of BDNF and its down-stream genes. Obtained results indicate that metformin may exert antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and senolytic action on OECs expanded ex vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor)
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Open AccessReview Roles of Copper-Binding Proteins in Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040871
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Copper ions are needed in several steps of cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms, and involved copper-binding proteins, are mainly elusive. Since most copper ions in the body (in and outside cells) are protein-bound, it is important to investigate what copper-binding proteins participate
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Copper ions are needed in several steps of cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms, and involved copper-binding proteins, are mainly elusive. Since most copper ions in the body (in and outside cells) are protein-bound, it is important to investigate what copper-binding proteins participate and, for these, how they are loaded with copper by copper transport proteins. Mechanistic information for how some copper-binding proteins, such as extracellular lysyl oxidase (LOX), play roles in cancer have been elucidated but there is still much to learn from a biophysical molecular viewpoint. Here we provide a summary of copper-binding proteins and discuss ones reported to have roles in cancer. We specifically focus on how copper-binding proteins such as mediator of cell motility 1 (MEMO1), LOX, LOX-like proteins, and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) modulate breast cancer from molecular and clinical aspects. Because of the importance of copper for invasion/migration processes, which are key components of cancer metastasis, further insights into the actions of copper-binding proteins may provide new targets to combat cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Metabolism in Animals II)
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Open AccessReview Studying Lactoferrin N-Glycosylation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040870
Received: 5 February 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein found in the milk of most mammals. In addition to its well-known role of binding iron, lactoferrin carries many important biological functions, including the promotion of cell proliferation and differentiation, and as an anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-parasitic protein.
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Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein found in the milk of most mammals. In addition to its well-known role of binding iron, lactoferrin carries many important biological functions, including the promotion of cell proliferation and differentiation, and as an anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-parasitic protein. These functions differ among lactoferrin homologs in mammals. Although considerable attention has been given to the many functions of lactoferrin, its primary nutritional contribution is presumed to be related to its iron-binding characteristics, whereas the role of glycosylation has been neglected. Given the critical role of glycan binding in many biological processes, the glycan moieties in lactoferrin are likely to contribute significantly to the biological roles of lactoferrin. Despite the high amino acid sequence homology in different lactoferrins (up to 99%), each exhibits a unique glycosylation pattern that may be responsible for heterogeneity of the biological properties of lactoferrins. An important task for the production of biotherapeutics and medical foods containing bioactive glycoproteins is the assessment of the contributions of individual glycans to the observed bioactivities. This review examines how the study of lactoferrin glycosylation patterns can increase our understanding of lactoferrin functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview Hepatitis E Virus Genotypes and Evolution: Emergence of Camel Hepatitis E Variants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040869
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (1456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
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Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis globally. Zoonotic HEV is an important cause of chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. The rapid identification of novel HEV variants and accumulating sequence information has prompted significant changes in taxonomy of the
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Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis globally. Zoonotic HEV is an important cause of chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. The rapid identification of novel HEV variants and accumulating sequence information has prompted significant changes in taxonomy of the family Hepeviridae. This family includes two genera: Orthohepevirus, which infects terrestrial vertebrates, and Piscihepevirus, which infects fish. Within Orthohepevirus, there are four species, A–D, with widely differing host range. Orthohepevirus A contains the HEV variants infecting humans and its significance continues to expand with new clinical information. We now recognize eight genotypes within Orthohepevirus A: HEV1 and HEV2, restricted to humans; HEV3, which circulates among humans, swine, rabbits, deer and mongooses; HEV4, which circulates between humans and swine; HEV5 and HEV6, which are found in wild boars; and HEV7 and HEV8, which were recently identified in dromedary and Bactrian camels, respectively. HEV7 is an example of a novel genotype that was found to have significance to human health shortly after discovery. In this review, we summarize recent developments in HEV molecular taxonomy, epidemiology and evolution and describe the discovery of novel camel HEV genotypes as an illustrative example of the changes in this field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle One Year Follow-Up Risk Assessment in SKH-1 Mice and Wounds Treated with an Argon Plasma Jet
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040868
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (9402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
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Multiple evidence in animal models and in humans suggest a beneficial role of cold physical plasma in wound treatment. Yet, risk assessment studies are important to further foster therapeutic advancement and acceptance of cold plasma in clinics. Accordingly, we investigated the longterm side
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Multiple evidence in animal models and in humans suggest a beneficial role of cold physical plasma in wound treatment. Yet, risk assessment studies are important to further foster therapeutic advancement and acceptance of cold plasma in clinics. Accordingly, we investigated the longterm side effects of repetitive plasma treatment over 14 consecutive days in a rodent full-thickness ear wound model. Subsequently, animals were housed for 350 days and sacrificed thereafter. In blood, systemic changes of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α were absent. Similarly, tumor marker levels of α-fetoprotein and calcitonin remained unchanged. Using quantitative PCR, the expression levels of several cytokines and tumor markers in liver, lung, and skin were found to be similar in the control and treatment group as well. Likewise, histological and immunohistochemical analysis failed to detect abnormal morphological changes and the presence of tumor markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen, α-fetoprotein, or the neighbor of Punc 11. Absence of neoplastic lesions was confirmed by non-invasive imaging methods such as anatomical magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of cold plasma in wound healing come without apparent side effects including tumor formation or chronic inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Repair and Regeneration) Printed Edition available
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