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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 871;

Roles of Copper-Binding Proteins in Breast Cancer

Department Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Reinhard Dallinger
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Metabolism in Animals II)
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Copper ions are needed in several steps of cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms, and involved copper-binding proteins, are mainly elusive. Since most copper ions in the body (in and outside cells) are protein-bound, it is important to investigate what copper-binding proteins participate and, for these, how they are loaded with copper by copper transport proteins. Mechanistic information for how some copper-binding proteins, such as extracellular lysyl oxidase (LOX), play roles in cancer have been elucidated but there is still much to learn from a biophysical molecular viewpoint. Here we provide a summary of copper-binding proteins and discuss ones reported to have roles in cancer. We specifically focus on how copper-binding proteins such as mediator of cell motility 1 (MEMO1), LOX, LOX-like proteins, and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) modulate breast cancer from molecular and clinical aspects. Because of the importance of copper for invasion/migration processes, which are key components of cancer metastasis, further insights into the actions of copper-binding proteins may provide new targets to combat cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper-binding protein; copper transport; lysyl oxidase; SPARC; MEMO1; ATOX1; cancer; breast cancer; metastasis copper-binding protein; copper transport; lysyl oxidase; SPARC; MEMO1; ATOX1; cancer; breast cancer; metastasis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Blockhuys, S.; Wittung-Stafshede, P. Roles of Copper-Binding Proteins in Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 871.

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