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Special Issue "Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. David Arráez-Román

1. Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, Granada 18071, Spain
2. Research and Development of Functional Food Centre (CIDAF), Health Science Technological Park (PTS) Granada, Avda. del Conocimiento s/n, EdificioBioregión, Granada 18007, Spain
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Phone: +34-958242869
Fax: +34-958243328
Interests: bioactive phenolic compounds; metabolomics; analytical techniques; extraction processes; plant and food analysis; bioavailability
Guest Editor
Dr. Vito Verardo

Department of Agro-Food Sciences and Technologies, Alma Mater Studiorum- University of Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, I-47521, Cesena (FC), Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39-0547338117
Fax: +39-0547382348
Interests: bioactive compounds; lipids; oligosaccharides; foodomics; analytical techniques; functional food and nutraceuticals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Actual trends in food production and consumption and new eating habits are focused on the impact of food and supplement consumption on health.

In this way, recent advances in analytical platforms have contributed to advances in molecular science, including lipidomics and glycomics.

The scope of this Special Issue is to cover the progress in Glico and Lipid Science, from the state-of-the-art research in food and plants to an omic approach. Thus, we invite investigators to contribute original research articles, as well as review articles, that will stimulate the continuing efforts to understand the composition and content of lipid and sugar compounds in food or plants, including studies regarding “omic” approaches. We are particularly interested in articles describing new analytical strategies for chemical and/or clinical analysis of these bioactive compounds, and recent advances in chemometric tools.

Prof. Dr. David Arráez-Román
Dr. Vito Verardo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • functional food and nutraceutical
  • lipids
  • sugars
  • biological system
  • in vitro and in vivo studies

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle In-Depth Lipidomic Analysis of Molecular Species of Triacylglycerides, Diacylglycerides, Glycerophospholipids, and Sphingolipids of Buttermilk by GC-MS/FID, HPLC-ELSD, and UPLC-QToF-MS
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030605
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Buttermilk, a byproduct of butter manufacturing, has gained considerable attention due to its high concentration of polar lipids as phospho- and sphingolipids from the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). These polar lipids (PLs) are essential components of all cellular membranes and exert a [...] Read more.
Buttermilk, a byproduct of butter manufacturing, has gained considerable attention due to its high concentration of polar lipids as phospho- and sphingolipids from the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). These polar lipids (PLs) are essential components of all cellular membranes and exert a variety of indispensable metabolic, neurological, and intracellular signaling processes. Despite its importance, there are few research studies that report a comprehensive characterization of the lipid molecular species of MFGM that could contribute to a better understanding of their putative healthful activities. In this study, procedures such as pressurized liquid extraction of polar and nonpolar lipids and their fractionation by flash chromatography have been carried out. The obtained fractions were submitted to an exhaustive characterization from a lipidomic point of view. The characterization includes new data about the identification and quantification of triacylglycerides (TAG), diacylglycerides (DAG), and phospho- and sphingolipids using different chromatographic techniques. The fatty acid profile was comparable to that of the milk fat but with a highly diverse composition of fatty acids. Molecular species have also been determined by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QToF-MS). The TAG (16:0/16:0/6:0) and TAG (16:0/16:0/8:0) were the predominant saturated TAG species and TAG (14:0/18:1/16:0) and TAG (16:0/16:0/18:1) presented the highest content of monounsaturated TAG species. Furthermore; over 30 molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) could be identified within PL, with PC (16:0/18:1) being the most abundant species. Whereas C16:0 was found to be the preferred FA in TAGs, it was C18:1 in PLs. Several ganglioside species have also been characterized with d18:1 ceramide moiety and secondary acyl chains ranging from C20:0 to C26:1. This approach could broaden the applications of high-resolution mass spectrometry for a better understanding of the role of MFGM and its functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Evidence of a DHA Signature in the Lipidome and Metabolome of Human Hepatocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020359
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cell supplementation with bioactive molecules often causes a perturbation in the whole intracellular environment. Omics techniques can be applied for the assessment of this perturbation. In this study, the overall effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on cultured human hepatocyte lipidome and metabolome [...] Read more.
Cell supplementation with bioactive molecules often causes a perturbation in the whole intracellular environment. Omics techniques can be applied for the assessment of this perturbation. In this study, the overall effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on cultured human hepatocyte lipidome and metabolome has been investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in combination with traditional techniques. The effect of two additional bioactives sharing with DHA the lipid-lowering effect—propionic acid (PRO) and protocatechuic acid (PCA)—has also been evaluated in the context of possible synergism. NMR analysis of the cell lipid extracts showed that DHA supplementation, alone or in combination with PCA or PRO, strongly altered the cell lipid profile. The perfect discrimination between cells receiving DHA (alone or in combination) and the other cells reinforced the idea of a global rearrangement of the lipid environment induced by DHA. Notably, gas chromatography and fluorimetric analyses confirmed the strong discrimination obtained by NMR. The DHA signature was evidenced not only in the cell lipidome, but also in the metabolome. Results reported herein indicate that NMR, combined with other techniques, represents a fundamental approach to studying the effect of bioactive supplementation, particularly in the case of molecules with a broad spectrum of mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Lipid and Glycolipid Isomer Analyses Using Ultra-High Resolution Ion Mobility Spectrometry Separations
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010183
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (2192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding the biological roles and mechanisms of lipids and glycolipids is challenging due to the vast number of possible isomers that may exist. Mass spectrometry (MS) measurements are currently the dominant approach for studying and providing detailed information on lipid and glycolipid presence [...] Read more.
Understanding the biological roles and mechanisms of lipids and glycolipids is challenging due to the vast number of possible isomers that may exist. Mass spectrometry (MS) measurements are currently the dominant approach for studying and providing detailed information on lipid and glycolipid presence and changes. However, difficulties in distinguishing the many structural isomers, due to the distinct lipid acyl chain positions, double bond locations or specific glycan types, inhibit the delineation and assignment of their biological roles. Here we utilized ultra-high resolution ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separations by applying traveling waves in a serpentine multi-pass Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) platform to enhance the separation of selected lipid and glycolipid isomers. The multi-pass arrangement allowed the investigation of paths ranging from ~16 m (one pass) to ~60 m (four passes) for the distinction of lipids and glycolipids with extremely small structural differences. These ultra-high resolution SLIM IMS-MS analyses provide a foundation for exploring and better understanding isomer-specific biological activities and disease processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Bidirectional Estrogen-Like Effects of Genistein on Murine Experimental Autoimmune Ovarian Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111855
Received: 11 September 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was to investigate the bidirectional estrogen-like effects of genistein on murine experimental autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD). Female BALB/c mice were induced by immunization with a peptide from murine zona pellucida. The changes of estrous cycle, ovarian histomorphology were measured, and the [...] Read more.
This study was to investigate the bidirectional estrogen-like effects of genistein on murine experimental autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD). Female BALB/c mice were induced by immunization with a peptide from murine zona pellucida. The changes of estrous cycle, ovarian histomorphology were measured, and the levels of serum sex hormone were analyzed using radioimmunoassay. Proliferative responses of the ovary were also determined by immunohistochemistry. Administration of 25 or 45 mg/kg body weight genistein enhanced ovary development with changes in serum sex hormone levels and proliferative responses. Meanwhile, the proportions of growing and mature follicles increased and the incidence of autoimmune oophoritis decreased, which exhibited normal ovarian morphology in administration of 25 or 45 mg/kg body weight genistein, while a lower dose (5 mg/kg body weight genistein) produced the opposite effect. These findings suggest that genistein exerts bidirectional estrogen-like effects on murine experimental AOD, while a high dose (45 mg/kg body weight) of genistein may suppress AOD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Free-Form and Peptide Bound Pyrraline in the Commercial Drinks Enriched with Different Protein Hydrolysates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071053
Received: 15 March 2016 / Revised: 23 June 2016 / Accepted: 24 June 2016 / Published: 4 July 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pyrraline, a causative factor for the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is also employed as an indicator to evaluate heat damage and formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in foods. Peptide-enriched drinks (PEDs) are broadly consumed worldwide due to rapid rate [...] Read more.
Pyrraline, a causative factor for the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is also employed as an indicator to evaluate heat damage and formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in foods. Peptide-enriched drinks (PEDs) are broadly consumed worldwide due to rapid rate of absorption and perceived health effects. It can be hypothesized that PED is an important source of pyrraline, especially peptide bound pyrraline (Pep-Pyr). In this study we determined free-form pyrraline (Free-Pyr) and Pep-Pyr in drinks enriched with whey protein hydrolysate (WPH), soy protein hydrolysate (SPH) and collagen protein hydrolysate (CPH). A detection method was developed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detector coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The SPE led to excellent recovery rates ranging between 93.2% and 98.5% and a high reproducibility with relative standard deviations (RSD) of <5%. The limits of detection and quantification obtained were 30.4 and 70.3 ng/mL, respectively. Pep-Pyr was identified as the most abundant form (above 96 percent) of total pyrraline, whereas Free-Pyr was present in a small proportion (less than four percent) of total pyrraline. The results indicate that PED is an important extrinsic source of pyrraline, especially Pep-Pyr. As compared with CPH- and SPH-enriched drinks, WPH-enriched drinks contained high content of Pep-Pyr. The Pep-Pyr content is associated with the distribution of peptide lengths and the amino acid compositions of protein in PEDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Studying Lactoferrin N-Glycosylation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040870
Received: 5 February 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein found in the milk of most mammals. In addition to its well-known role of binding iron, lactoferrin carries many important biological functions, including the promotion of cell proliferation and differentiation, and as an anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-parasitic protein. [...] Read more.
Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein found in the milk of most mammals. In addition to its well-known role of binding iron, lactoferrin carries many important biological functions, including the promotion of cell proliferation and differentiation, and as an anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-parasitic protein. These functions differ among lactoferrin homologs in mammals. Although considerable attention has been given to the many functions of lactoferrin, its primary nutritional contribution is presumed to be related to its iron-binding characteristics, whereas the role of glycosylation has been neglected. Given the critical role of glycan binding in many biological processes, the glycan moieties in lactoferrin are likely to contribute significantly to the biological roles of lactoferrin. Despite the high amino acid sequence homology in different lactoferrins (up to 99%), each exhibits a unique glycosylation pattern that may be responsible for heterogeneity of the biological properties of lactoferrins. An important task for the production of biotherapeutics and medical foods containing bioactive glycoproteins is the assessment of the contributions of individual glycans to the observed bioactivities. This review examines how the study of lactoferrin glycosylation patterns can increase our understanding of lactoferrin functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview Recent Advances in Phospholipids from Colostrum, Milk and Dairy By-Products
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010173
Received: 12 December 2016 / Revised: 31 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (443 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Milk is one of the most important foods for mammals, because it is the first form of feed providing energy, nutrients and immunological factors. In the last few years, milk lipids have attracted the attention of researchers due to the presence of several [...] Read more.
Milk is one of the most important foods for mammals, because it is the first form of feed providing energy, nutrients and immunological factors. In the last few years, milk lipids have attracted the attention of researchers due to the presence of several bioactive components in the lipid fraction. The lipid fraction of milk and dairy products contains several components of nutritional significance, such as ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA, short chain fatty acids, gangliosides and phospholipids. Prospective cohort evidence has shown that phospholipids play an important role in the human diet and reinforce the possible relationship between their consumption and prevention of several chronic diseases. Because of these potential benefits of phospholipids in the human diet, this review is focused on the recent advances in phospholipids from colostrum, milk and dairy by-products. Phospholipid composition, its main determination methods and the health activities of these compounds will be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview Nutrimetabolomics: An Update on Analytical Approaches to Investigate the Role of Plant-Based Foods and Their Bioactive Compounds in Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2072; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17122072
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metabolomics is the study of low-weight molecules present in biological samples such as biofluids, tissue/cellular extracts, and culture media. Metabolomics research is increasing, and at the moment, it has several applications in the food science and nutrition fields. In the present review, we [...] Read more.
Metabolomics is the study of low-weight molecules present in biological samples such as biofluids, tissue/cellular extracts, and culture media. Metabolomics research is increasing, and at the moment, it has several applications in the food science and nutrition fields. In the present review, we provide an update about the most frequently used methodologies and metabolomic platforms in these areas. Also, we discuss different metabolomic strategies regarding the discovery of new bioactive compounds (BACs) in plant-based foods. Furthermore, we review the existing literature related to the use of metabolomics to investigate the potential protective role of BACs in the prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic diseases, namely cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Metabolomics, a Powerful Tool for Agricultural Research
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111871
Received: 4 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metabolomics, which is based mainly on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas-chromatography (GC) or liquid-chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) analytical technologies to systematically acquire the qualitative and quantitative information of low-molecular-mass endogenous metabolites, provides a direct snapshot of the physiological condition in [...] Read more.
Metabolomics, which is based mainly on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas-chromatography (GC) or liquid-chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) analytical technologies to systematically acquire the qualitative and quantitative information of low-molecular-mass endogenous metabolites, provides a direct snapshot of the physiological condition in biological samples. As complements to transcriptomics and proteomics, it has played pivotal roles in agricultural and food science research. In this review, we discuss the capacities of NMR, GC/LC-MS in the acquisition of plant metabolome, and address the potential promise and diverse applications of metabolomics, particularly lipidomics, to investigate the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana, a primary plant model for agricultural research, to environmental stressors including heat, freezing, drought, and salinity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview Unsaturated Lipids Change in Olive Tree Drupe and Seed during Fruit Development and in Response to Cold-Stress and Acclimation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111889
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The olive tree is a plant of economic value for the oil of its drupe. It is a cultigen complex composed of genotypes with differences in cold-hardiness. About 90% of the oil is stored in oil bodies (OBs) in the drupe during the [...] Read more.
The olive tree is a plant of economic value for the oil of its drupe. It is a cultigen complex composed of genotypes with differences in cold-hardiness. About 90% of the oil is stored in oil bodies (OBs) in the drupe during the oleogenic phase. Phenols and lipids contribute to oil quality, but the unsaturated fatty acid (FA) fraction is emerging as the most important for quality, because of the very high content in oleic acid, the presence of ω6-linoleic acid and ω3-linolenic acid, and the very low saturated FA content. Another 10% of oil is produced by the seed. Differences in unsaturated FA-enriched lipids exist among seed coat, endosperm, and embryo. Olive oil quality is also affected by the environmental conditions during fruit growth and genotype peculiarities. Production of linoleic and α-linolenic acids, fruit growth, fruit and leaf responses to low temperatures, including cuticle formation, and cold-acclimation are related processes. The levels of unsaturated FAs are changed by FA-desaturase (FAD) activities, involving the functioning of chloroplasts and endoplasmic reticulum. Cold induces lipid changes during drupe and seed development, affecting FADs, but its effect is related to the genotype capability to acclimate to the cold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview Lipidomics—Reshaping the Analysis and Perception of Type 2 Diabetes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111841
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle as well as changed nutritional behavior, today’s societies are challenged by the rapid propagation of metabolic disorders. A common feature of diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), is the dysregulation of lipid metabolism. [...] Read more.
As a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle as well as changed nutritional behavior, today’s societies are challenged by the rapid propagation of metabolic disorders. A common feature of diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), is the dysregulation of lipid metabolism. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these diseases is hampered by the complexity of lipid metabolic pathways on a cellular level. Furthermore, overall lipid homeostasis in higher eukaryotic organisms needs to be maintained by a highly regulated interplay between tissues, such as adipose tissue, liver and muscle. Unraveling pathological mechanisms underlying metabolic disorders therefore requires a diversified approach, integrating basic cellular research with clinical research, ultimately relying on the analytical power of mass spectrometry-based techniques. Here, we discuss recent progress in the development of lipidomics approaches to resolve the pathological mechanisms of metabolic diseases and to identify suitable biomarkers for clinical application. Due to its growing impact worldwide, we focus on T2D to highlight the key role of lipidomics in our current understanding of this disease, discuss remaining questions and suggest future strategies to address them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition)
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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