Next Issue
Volume 25, March-1
Previous Issue
Volume 25, February-1
molecules-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Molecules, Volume 25, Issue 4 (February-2 2020) – 253 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The cyclic γ-linked tetraglutamic acids on the cover were isolated and characterized from the venom of 2 species of box jellyfish. Subsequently, they were detected in a diverse set of 8 other cnidarian species and not detectable in a sampling of species from 6 other phyla. This may be a preliminary sign that these compounds have a widespread and even unique distribution within the phylum Cnidaria, which may reflect an important but as yet undiscovered role for these cyclic peptides in the function of the cnidarian venom or its delivery system. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview
Allosteric GABAA Receptor Modulators—A Review on the Most Recent Heterocyclic Chemotypes and Their Synthetic Accessibility
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040999 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
GABAA receptor modulators are structurally almost as diverse as their target protein. A plethora of heterocyclic scaffolds has been described as modulating this extremely important receptor family. Some made it into clinical trials and, even on the market, some were dismissed. This [...] Read more.
GABAA receptor modulators are structurally almost as diverse as their target protein. A plethora of heterocyclic scaffolds has been described as modulating this extremely important receptor family. Some made it into clinical trials and, even on the market, some were dismissed. This review focuses on the synthetic accessibility and potential for library synthesis of GABAA receptor modulators containing at least one heterocyclic scaffold, which were disclosed within the last 10 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enabling Chemical Technologies in Medicinal Chemistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Inclusion of the Phytoalexin trans-Resveratrol in Native Cyclodextrins: A Thermal, Spectroscopic, and X-Ray Structural Study
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040998 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of complexation between the antioxidant trans-resveratrol (RSV) and underivatized cyclodextrins (CDs) using a variety of preparative methods, including physical mixing, kneading, microwave irradiation, co-evaporation, and co-precipitation techniques. Products were characterized using differential [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of complexation between the antioxidant trans-resveratrol (RSV) and underivatized cyclodextrins (CDs) using a variety of preparative methods, including physical mixing, kneading, microwave irradiation, co-evaporation, and co-precipitation techniques. Products were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), simultaneous thermogravimetric/DSC analysis (TGA/DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). With α-CD and RSV, sample amorphization was revealed by PXRD and FT-IR, but no definitive inclusion complexation was evident. Similar results were obtained in attempts to complex RSV with β-CD. However, complex formation between γ-CD and RSV was evident from observation of an endo-/exothermic effect appearing in the DSC trace of the product from kneading and was further corroborated by FT-IR and PXRD methods. The latter technique indicated complexation unequivocally as the diffraction peak profile for the product matched that for known isostructural γ-CD complexes. Single crystal X-ray analysis followed, confirming the predicted complex between γ-CD and RSV. A combination of 1H NMR and TGA data yielded the complex formula (γ-CD)3·(RSV)4·(H2O)62. However, severe disorder of the RSV molecules prevented their modeling. In contrast, our previous studies of the inclusion of RSV in methylated CDs yielded crystals with only minor guest disorder. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Direct Base-Assisted C‒H Cyclonickelation of 6-Phenyl-2,2′-bipyridine
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040997 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
The organonickel complexes [Ni(Phbpy)X] (X = Br, OAc, CN) were obtained for the first time in a direct base-assisted arene C(sp2)–H cyclometalation reaction from the rather unreactive precursor materials NiX2 and HPhbpy (6-phenyl-2,2′-bipyridine) or from the versatile precursor [Ni(HPhbpy)Br2 [...] Read more.
The organonickel complexes [Ni(Phbpy)X] (X = Br, OAc, CN) were obtained for the first time in a direct base-assisted arene C(sp2)–H cyclometalation reaction from the rather unreactive precursor materials NiX2 and HPhbpy (6-phenyl-2,2′-bipyridine) or from the versatile precursor [Ni(HPhbpy)Br2]2. Different from previously necessary C‒Br oxidative addition at Ni(0), an extended scan of reaction conditions allowed quantitative access to the title compound from Ni(II) on synthetically useful timescales through base-assisted C‒H activation in nonpolar media at elevated temperature. Optimisation of the reaction conditions (various bases, solvents, methods) identified 1:2 mixtures of acetate and carbonate as unrivalled synergetic base pairs in the optimum protocol that holds promise as a readily usable and easily tuneable access to a wide range of direct nickelation products. While for the base-assisted C‒H metalation of the noble metals Ru, Ir, Rh, or Pd, this acetate/carbonate method has been established for a few years, our study represents the leap into the world of the base metals of the 3d series. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Phytochemical Characterization and Chemotherapeutic Potential of Cinnamomum verum Extracts on the Multiplication of Protozoan Parasites In Vitro and In Vivo
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040996 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
Cinnamomum verum is a commonly used herbal plant that has several documented properties against various diseases. The existing study evaluated the inhibitory effect of acetonic extract of C. verum (AECV) and ethyl acetate extract of C. verum (EAECV) against piroplasm parasites in vitro [...] Read more.
Cinnamomum verum is a commonly used herbal plant that has several documented properties against various diseases. The existing study evaluated the inhibitory effect of acetonic extract of C. verum (AECV) and ethyl acetate extract of C. verum (EAECV) against piroplasm parasites in vitro and in vivo. The drug-exposure viability assay was tested on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Qualitative phytochemical estimation revealed that AECV and EAECV containing multiple bioactive constituents namely alkaloids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and remarkable amounts of polyphenols and flavonoids. AECV and EAECV inhibited B. bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and T. equi multiplication at half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 23.1 ± 1.4, 56.6 ± 9.1, 33.4 ± 2.1, 40.3 ± 7.5, 18.8 ± 1.6 µg/mL, and 40.1 ± 8.5, 55.6 ± 1.1, 45.7 ± 1.9, 50.2 ± 6.2, and 61.5 ± 5.2 µg/mL, respectively. In the cytotoxicity assay, AECV and EAECV affected the viability of MDBK, NIH/3T3 and HFF cells with half-maximum effective concentrations (EC50) of 440 ± 10.6, 816 ± 12.7 and 914 ± 12.2 µg/mL and 376 ± 11.2, 610 ± 7.7 and 790 ± 12.4 µg/mL, respectively. The in vivo experiment showed that AECV and EAECV were effective against B. microti in mice at 150 mg/kg. These results showed that C. verum extracts are potential antipiroplasm drugs after further studies in some clinical cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Medicinal Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Potential Therapeutic Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Dihydroflavones, Flavones, and Flavonols
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041017 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
Systemic inflammation, circulating immune cell activation, and endothelial cell damage play a critical role in vascular pathogenesis. Flavonoids have shown anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of different flavonoids on the production of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL) 1β, 6, and 8, [...] Read more.
Systemic inflammation, circulating immune cell activation, and endothelial cell damage play a critical role in vascular pathogenesis. Flavonoids have shown anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of different flavonoids on the production of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL) 1β, 6, and 8, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), in peripheral blood cells. Methods: We studied the whole blood from 36 healthy donors. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated (0.5 μg/mL) whole-blood aliquots were incubated in the presence or absence of different concentrations of quercetin, rutin, naringenin, naringin, diosmetin, and diosmin for 6 h. Cultures were centrifuged and the supernatant was collected in order to measure IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 production using specific immunoassay techniques. This production was significantly inhibited by quercetin, naringenin, naringin, and diosmetin, but in no case by rutin or diosmin. Flavonoids exert different effects, maybe due to the differences between aglycons and glucosides present in their chemical structures. However, these studies suggest that quercetin, naringenin, naringin, and diosmetin could have a potential therapeutic effect in the inflammatory process of cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids and Their Disease Prevention and Treatment Potential)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Fe2SiO4-Fe7Co3 Nanocomposite Dispersed in the Mesoporous SBA-15: Application as Magnetically Separable Adsorbent
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041016 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
The mixture containing alloy and oxide with iron-based phases has shown interesting properties compared to the isolated species and the synergy between the phases has shown positive effect on dye adsorption. This paper describes the synthesis of Fe2SiO4-Fe7 [...] Read more.
The mixture containing alloy and oxide with iron-based phases has shown interesting properties compared to the isolated species and the synergy between the phases has shown positive effect on dye adsorption. This paper describes the synthesis of Fe2SiO4-Fe7Co3-based nanocomposite dispersed in Santa Barbara Amorphous (SBA)-15 and its application in dye adsorption followed by magnetic separation. Thus, it was studied the variation of reduction temperature and amount of hydrogen used in synthesis and the effect of these parameters on the physicochemical properties of the iron and cobalt based oxide/alloy mixture, as well as the methylene blue adsorption capacity. The XRD and Mössbauer results, along with the temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) profiles, confirmed the formation of Fe2SiO4-Fe7Co3-based nanocomposites. Low-angle XRD, N2 isotherms, and TEM images show the formation of the SBA-15 based mesoporous support with a high surface area (640 m2/g). Adsorption tests confirmed that the material reduced at 700 °C using 2% of H2 presented the highest adsorption capacity (49 mg/g). The nanocomposites can be easily separated from the dispersion by applying an external magnetic field. The interaction between the dye and the nanocomposite occurs mainly by π-π interactions and the mixture of the Fe2SiO4 and Fe7Co3 leads to a synergistic effect, which favor the adsorption. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
DEAD-box RNA Helicase DDX3: Functional Properties and Development of DDX3 Inhibitors as Antiviral and Anticancer Drugs
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041015 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
This short review is focused on enzymatic properties of human ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX3 and the development of antiviral and anticancer drugs targeting cellular helicases. DDX3 belongs to the DEAD-box proteins, a large family of RNA helicases that participate in all aspects of [...] Read more.
This short review is focused on enzymatic properties of human ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX3 and the development of antiviral and anticancer drugs targeting cellular helicases. DDX3 belongs to the DEAD-box proteins, a large family of RNA helicases that participate in all aspects of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis, innate immune response, viral replication, and tumorigenesis. DDX3 has a variety of functions in the life cycle of different viruses. DDX3 helicase is required to facilitate both the Rev-mediated export of unspliced/partially spliced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA from nucleus and Tat-dependent translation of viral genes. DDX3 silencing blocks the replication of HIV, HCV, and some other viruses. On the other hand, DDX displays antiviral effect against Dengue virus and hepatitis B virus through the stimulation of interferon beta production. The role of DDX3 in different types of cancer is rather controversial. DDX3 acts as an oncogene in one type of cancer, but demonstrates tumor suppressor properties in other types. The human DDX3 helicase is now considered as a new attractive target for the development of novel pharmaceutical drugs. The most interesting inhibitors of DDX3 helicase and the mechanisms of their actions as antiviral or anticancer drugs are discussed in this short review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discovery of New Antiviral Substances)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Free-standing Reduced Graphene Oxide/Carbon Nanotube Paper for Flexible Sodium-ion Battery Applications
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041014 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
We propose a flexible, binder-free and free-standing carbonaceous paper fabricated via electrostatic spray deposition using reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube (rGO/CNT) as a promising electrode material for flexible sodium-ion batteries (NIBs). The as-prepared rGO/CNT paper exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) layered structure by employing rGO [...] Read more.
We propose a flexible, binder-free and free-standing carbonaceous paper fabricated via electrostatic spray deposition using reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube (rGO/CNT) as a promising electrode material for flexible sodium-ion batteries (NIBs). The as-prepared rGO/CNT paper exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) layered structure by employing rGO as conductive frameworks to provide sodium-storage active sites and CNT as spacer to increase rGO interlayer distance and benefit the diffusion kinetics of sodium ions. Consequently, the rGO/CNT paper delivers an enhanced sodium ion storage capacity of 166.8 mAh g−1 at 50 mA g−1, retaining an average capacity of 101.4 mAh g−1 when current density sets back 100 mA g−1 after cycling at various current rates. An average capacity of 50 mAh g−1 at 200 mA g−1 was stabilized when cycling up to 300 cycles. The well-maintained electrochemical performance of free-standing rGO/CNT paper is due to the well-established hybrid 3D nanostructures, which demonstrates our carbon based material fabricated by a facile approach can be applied as one of the high-performance and low-cost electrode materials for applications in flexible energy storage devices. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Production of Methane, Hydrogen and Ethanol from Secale cereale L. Straw Pretreated with Sulfuric Acid
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041013 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 776
Abstract
The study describes sulfuric acid pretreatment of straw from Secale cereale L. (rye straw) to evaluate the effect of acid concentration and treatment time on the efficiency of biofuel production. The highest ethanol yield occurred after the enzyme treatment at a dose of [...] Read more.
The study describes sulfuric acid pretreatment of straw from Secale cereale L. (rye straw) to evaluate the effect of acid concentration and treatment time on the efficiency of biofuel production. The highest ethanol yield occurred after the enzyme treatment at a dose of 15 filter paper unit (FPU) per gram of rye straw (subjected to chemical hydrolysis with 2% sulfuric acid (SA) at 121 °C for 1 h) during 120 h. Anaerobic digestion of rye straw treated with 10% SA at 121 °C during 1 h allowed to obtain 347.42 L methane/kg volatile solids (VS). Most hydrogen was released during dark fermentation of rye straw after pretreatment of 2% SA, 121 °C, 1 h and 1% SA, 121 °C, 2 h—131.99 and 134.71 L hydrogen/kg VS, respectively. If the rye straw produced in the European Union were processed into methane, hydrogen, ethanol, the annual electricity production in 2018 could reach 9.87 TWh (terawatt-hours), 1.16 TWh, and 0.60 TWh, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass to Biofuels and Biochemicals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
High Density Supercritical Carbon Dioxide for the Extraction of Pesticide Residues in Onion with Multivariate Response Surface Methodology
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041012 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 950
Abstract
The excessive use of pesticides is a serious health problem due to their toxicity and bioaccumulation through the food chain. Due to the complexity of foods, the analysis of pesticides is challenging often giving large matrix effects and co-extracted compounds. To overcome this [...] Read more.
The excessive use of pesticides is a serious health problem due to their toxicity and bioaccumulation through the food chain. Due to the complexity of foods, the analysis of pesticides is challenging often giving large matrix effects and co-extracted compounds. To overcome this problem, a selective and “green” supercritical fluid extraction method was developed, using neat carbon dioxide as a solvent at pressures of up to 800 bars. A Box–Behnken response surface experimental design was used, with the independent variables of density (0.70−1.0 g mL−1), temperature (40−70 °C), and volume (10−40 mL) of solvent, and the dependent variable of extracted amount of pesticides. The optimum extraction condition was found at the use of 29 mL of supercritical CO2 at 0.90 g mL−1 and 53 °C (corresponding to 372 bars of pressure). It was observed that increasing the density of CO2 significantly increased the extraction recovery of endrin and 2,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane. Matrix-matched calibration curves showed satisfactory linearity (R2 ≥ 0.994), and LODs ranged from 0.2 to 2.0 ng g−1. Precision was lower than 11% and recoveries between 80%–103%. Thus, the developed method could efficiently be used for trace analysis of pesticides in complex food matrices without the use of organic solvents. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Durations of Solid-Phase Fermentation for Fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub) Leaves on the Content of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity In Vitro
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041011 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 782
Abstract
Fireweed has recently been recognized as a plant with high antioxidant potential and phenolic content. Its leaves can be fermented to prepare an infusion with ideal antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate and to determine the influence of solid-phase [...] Read more.
Fireweed has recently been recognized as a plant with high antioxidant potential and phenolic content. Its leaves can be fermented to prepare an infusion with ideal antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate and to determine the influence of solid-phase fermentation of different durations on the variation of polyphenols in the leaves of fireweed. Laboratory experiments were conducted in 2017–2018. The leaves of fireweed, naturally growing, were fermented for different periods of time: not fermented (control) and fermented for 24 and 48 h. The evaluation of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in leaves was performed using high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, principal component analysis was used to characterize differences in bioactive compounds between fireweed samples fermented at different durations. Solid-phase fermented leaves were characterized by higher contents of oenothein B, quercetin and benzoic acid but had lower contents of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, luteolin and chlorogenic and gallic acids. Antioxidant activity in short- (24 h) and long-term (48 h) fermentation (compared to control) gave the highest level of regression in 2017, but in 2018 the effect was observed only with short-term fermentation and control. In conclusion, solid-phase fermentation can be used to modulate biologically active compounds in fireweed leaves. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of New Vindoline Derivatives Coupled to Natural and Synthetic Pharmacophores
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041010 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
New Vinca alkaloid derivatives were synthesized to improve the biological activity of the natural alkaloid vindoline. To this end, experiments were performed to link vindoline with various structural units, such as amino acids, a 1,2,3-triazole derivative, morpholine, piperazine and N-methylpiperazine. The structure of [...] Read more.
New Vinca alkaloid derivatives were synthesized to improve the biological activity of the natural alkaloid vindoline. To this end, experiments were performed to link vindoline with various structural units, such as amino acids, a 1,2,3-triazole derivative, morpholine, piperazine and N-methylpiperazine. The structure of the new compounds was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). Several compounds exhibited in vitro antiproliferative activity against human gynecological cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the low micromolar concentration range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Chemistry Including Heteroatoms)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Reactive & Efficient: Organic Azides as Cross-Linkers in Material Sciences
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041009 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
The exceptional reactivity of the azide group makes organic azides a highly versatile family of compounds in chemistry and the material sciences. One of the most prominent reactions employing organic azides is the regioselective copper(I)-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with alkynes yielding 1,2,3-triazoles. Other [...] Read more.
The exceptional reactivity of the azide group makes organic azides a highly versatile family of compounds in chemistry and the material sciences. One of the most prominent reactions employing organic azides is the regioselective copper(I)-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with alkynes yielding 1,2,3-triazoles. Other named reactions include the Staudinger reduction, the aza-Wittig reaction, and the Curtius rearrangement. The popularity of organic azides in material sciences is mostly based on their propensity to release nitrogen by thermal activation or photolysis. On the one hand, this scission reaction is accompanied with a considerable output of energy, making them interesting as highly energetic materials. On the other hand, it produces highly reactive nitrenes that show extraordinary efficiency in polymer crosslinking, a process used to alter the physical properties of polymers and to boost efficiencies of polymer-based devices such as membrane fuel cells, organic solar cells (OSCs), light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Thermosets are also suitable application areas. In most cases, organic azides with multiple azide functions are employed which can either be small molecules or oligo- and polymers. This review focuses on nitrene-based applications of multivalent organic azides in the material and life sciences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Azides 2019)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
In Silico, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Studies of Roflumilast as a Potential Antidiarrheal and Antispasmodic agent: Inhibition of the PDE-4 Enzyme and Voltage-gated Ca++ ion Channels
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041008 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible gut inhibitory role of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor roflumilast. Increasing doses of roflumilast were tested against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice, whereas the pharmacodynamics of the same effect was determined in isolated [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible gut inhibitory role of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor roflumilast. Increasing doses of roflumilast were tested against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice, whereas the pharmacodynamics of the same effect was determined in isolated rabbit jejunum tissues. For in silico analysis, the identified PDE protein was docked with roflumilast and papaverine using the Autodock vina program from the PyRx virtual screening tool. Roflumilast protected against diarrhea significantly at 0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg doses, with 40% and 80% protection. Ex vivo findings from jejunum tissues show that roflumilast possesses an antispasmodic effect by inhibiting spontaneous contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. Roflumilast reversed carbachol (CCh, 1 µM)-mediated and potassium (K+, 80 mM)-mediated contractile responses with comparable efficacies but different potencies. The observed potency against K+ was significantly higher in comparison to CCh, similar to verapamil. Experiments were extended to further confirm the inhibitory effect on Ca++ channels. Interestingly, roflumilast deflected Ca++ concentration–response curves (CRCs) to the right with suppression of the maximum peak at both tested doses (0.001-0.003 mg/mL), similar to verapamil. The PDE-inhibitory effect was authenticated when pre-incubation of jejunum tissues with roflumilast (0.03-0.1 mg/mL) produced a leftward deflection of isoprenaline-mediated inhibitory CRCs and increased the tissue level of cAMP, similar to papaverine. This idea was further strengthened by molecular docking studies, where roflumilast exhibited a better binding affinity (-9.4 kcal/mol) with the PDE protein than the standard papaverine (-8.3 kcal/mol). In conclusion, inhibition of Ca++ channels and the PDE-4 enzyme explains the pharmacodynamics of the gut inhibitory effect of roflumilast. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Pharmacological Blockade of PPAR Isoforms Increases Conditioned Fear Responding in the Presence of Nociceptive Tone
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041007 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 700
Abstract
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors with three isoforms (PPARα, PPARβ/δ, PPARγ) and can regulate pain, anxiety, and cognition. However, their role in conditioned fear and pain-fear interactions has not yet been investigated. Here, we investigated the effects of systemically administered PPAR [...] Read more.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors with three isoforms (PPARα, PPARβ/δ, PPARγ) and can regulate pain, anxiety, and cognition. However, their role in conditioned fear and pain-fear interactions has not yet been investigated. Here, we investigated the effects of systemically administered PPAR antagonists on formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour, fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA), and conditioned fear in the presence of nociceptive tone in rats. Twenty-three and a half hours following fear conditioning to context, male Sprague-Dawley rats received an intraplantar injection of formalin and intraperitoneal administration of vehicle, PPARα (GW6471), PPARβ/δ (GSK0660) or PPARγ (GW9662) antagonists, and 30 min later were re-exposed to the conditioning arena for 15 min. The PPAR antagonists did not alter nociceptive behaviour or fear-conditioned analgesia. The PPARα and PPARβ/δ antagonists prolonged context-induced freezing in the presence of nociceptive tone without affecting its initial expression. The PPARγ antagonist potentiated freezing over the entire trial. In conclusion, pharmacological blockade of PPARα and PPARβ/δ in the presence of formalin-evoked nociceptive tone, impaired short-term, within-trial fear-extinction in rats without affecting pain response, while blockade of PPARγ potentiated conditioned fear responding. These results suggest that endogenous signalling through these three PPAR isoforms may reduce the expression of conditioned fear in the presence of nociceptive tone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Cannabinoids in Inflammation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Computational Studies of Molecular Materials for Unconventional Energy Conversion: The Challenge of Light Emission by Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041006 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
In this paper we describe the mechanism of light emission through thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF)—a process able to ideally achieve 100% quantum efficiencies upon fully harvesting the energy of triplet excitons, and thus minimizing the energy loss of common (i.e., fluorescence and [...] Read more.
In this paper we describe the mechanism of light emission through thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF)—a process able to ideally achieve 100% quantum efficiencies upon fully harvesting the energy of triplet excitons, and thus minimizing the energy loss of common (i.e., fluorescence and phosphorescence) luminescence processes. If successful, this technology could be exploited for the manufacture of more efficient organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) made of only light elements for multiple daily applications, thus contributing to the rise of a sustainable electronic industry and energy savings worldwide. Computational and theoretical studies have fostered the design of these all-organic molecular emitters by disclosing helpful structure–property relationships and/or analyzing the physical origin of this mechanism. However, as the field advances further, some limitations have also appeared, particularly affecting TD-DFT calculations, which have prompted the use of a variety of methods at the molecular scale in recent years. Herein we try to provide a guide for beginners, after summarizing the current state-of-the-art of the most employed theoretical methods focusing on the singlet–triplet energy difference, with the additional aim of motivating complementary studies revealing the stronger and weaker aspects of computational modelling for this cutting-edge technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage Technologies)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Study on Cecropin B2 Production via Construct Bearing Intein Oligopeptide Cleavage Variants
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041005 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 689
Abstract
In this study, genetic engineering was applied to the overexpression of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) cecropin B2 (cecB2). pTWIN1 vector with a chitin-binding domain (CBD) and an auto-cleavage Ssp DnaB intein (INT) was coupled to the cecB2 to form a fusion protein construct [...] Read more.
In this study, genetic engineering was applied to the overexpression of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) cecropin B2 (cecB2). pTWIN1 vector with a chitin-binding domain (CBD) and an auto-cleavage Ssp DnaB intein (INT) was coupled to the cecB2 to form a fusion protein construct and expressed via Escherichia coli ER2566. The cecB2 was obtained via the INT cleavage reaction, which was highly related to its adjacent amino acids. Three oligopeptide cleavage variants (OCVs), i.e., GRA, CRA, and SRA, were used as the inserts located at the C-terminus of the INT to facilitate the cleavage reaction. SRA showed the most efficient performance in accelerating the INT self-cleavage reaction. In addition, in order to treat the INT as a biocatalyst, a first-order rate equation was applied to fit the INT cleavage reaction. A possible inference was proposed for the INT cleavage promotion with varied OCVs using a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The production and purification via the CBD-INT-SRA-cecB2 fusion protein resulted in a cecB2 yield of 58.7 mg/L with antimicrobial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Peptides—From Therapy to Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Potential Use of Marine Seaweeds as Prebiotics: A Review
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041004 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
Human gut microbiota plays an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases. Various dietary factors, including complex carbohydrates, such as polysaccharides, provide abundant nutrients and substrates for microbial metabolism in the gut, affecting the members and their functionality. Nowadays, the main [...] Read more.
Human gut microbiota plays an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases. Various dietary factors, including complex carbohydrates, such as polysaccharides, provide abundant nutrients and substrates for microbial metabolism in the gut, affecting the members and their functionality. Nowadays, the main sources of complex carbohydrates destined for human consumption are terrestrial plants. However, fresh water is an increasingly scarce commodity and world agricultural productivity is in a persistent decline, thus demanding the exploration of other sources of complex carbohydrates. As an interesting option, marine seaweeds show rapid growth and do not require arable land, fresh water or fertilizers. The present review offers an objective perspective of the current knowledge surrounding the impacts of seaweeds and their derived polysaccharides on the human microbiome and the profound need for more in-depth investigations into this topic. Animal experiments and in vitro colonic-simulating trials investigating the effects of seaweed ingestion on human gut microbiota are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Technology in Nutrition Analysis) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview
Perceptions and Misconceptions in Molecular Recognition: Key Factors in Self-Assembling Multivalent (SAMul) Ligands/Polyanions Selectivity
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041003 - 24 Feb 2020
Viewed by 660
Abstract
Biology is dominated by polyanions (cell membranes, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides just to name a few), and achieving selective recognition between biological polyanions and synthetic systems currently constitutes a major challenge in many biomedical applications, nanovectors-assisted gene delivery being a prime example. This [...] Read more.
Biology is dominated by polyanions (cell membranes, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides just to name a few), and achieving selective recognition between biological polyanions and synthetic systems currently constitutes a major challenge in many biomedical applications, nanovectors-assisted gene delivery being a prime example. This review work summarizes some of our recent efforts in this field; in particular, by using a combined experimental/computation approach, we investigated in detail some critical aspects in self-assembled nanomicelles and two major polyanions—DNA and heparin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers in Biomedicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Novel Chaperones RrGroEL and RrGroES for Activity and Stability Enhancement of Nitrilase in Escherichia coli and Rhodococcus ruber
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041002 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 844
Abstract
For large-scale bioproduction, thermal stability is a crucial property for most industrial enzymes. A new method to improve both the thermal stability and activity of enzymes is of great significance. In this work, the novel chaperones RrGroEL and RrGroES from Rhodococcus [...] Read more.
For large-scale bioproduction, thermal stability is a crucial property for most industrial enzymes. A new method to improve both the thermal stability and activity of enzymes is of great significance. In this work, the novel chaperones RrGroEL and RrGroES from Rhodococcus ruber, a nontypical actinomycete with high organic solvent tolerance, were evaluated and applied for thermal stability and activity enhancement of a model enzyme, nitrilase. Two expression strategies, namely, fusion expression and co-expression, were compared in two different hosts, E. coli and R. ruber. In the E. coli host, fusion expression of nitrilase with either RrGroES or RrGroEL significantly enhanced nitrilase thermal stability (4.8-fold and 10.6-fold, respectively) but at the expense of enzyme activity (32–47% reduction). The co-expression strategy was applied in R. ruber via either a plasmid-only or genome-plus-plasmid method. Through integration of the nitrilase gene into the R. ruber genome at the site of nitrile hydratase (NHase) gene via CRISPR/Cas9 technology and overexpression of RrGroES or RrGroEL with a plasmid, the engineered strains R. ruber TH3 dNHase::RrNit (pNV18.1-Pami-RrNit-Pami-RrGroES) and TH3 dNHase::RrNit (pNV18.1-Pami-RrNit-Pami-RrGroEL) were constructed and showed remarkably enhanced nitrilase activity and thermal stability. In particular, the RrGroEL and nitrilase co-expressing mutant showed the best performance, with nitrilase activity and thermal stability 1.3- and 8.4-fold greater than that of the control TH3 (pNV18.1-Pami-RrNit), respectively. These findings are of great value for production of diverse chemicals using free bacterial cells as biocatalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitrilases and Nitrile Hydratases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Mg, Fe(II), and Al Doping on CH4: Adsorption and Diffusion on the Surface of Na-Kaolinite (001) by Molecular Simulations
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041001 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 579
Abstract
Because kaolinite includes a large range of defect elements, the effects of Mg, Fe(II), and Al doping on the CH4 adsorption and diffusion on the surface of Na-kaolinite (001) were investigated by molecular simulations. The simulation results illustrate that ion doping can [...] Read more.
Because kaolinite includes a large range of defect elements, the effects of Mg, Fe(II), and Al doping on the CH4 adsorption and diffusion on the surface of Na-kaolinite (001) were investigated by molecular simulations. The simulation results illustrate that ion doping can significantly reduce the amount of CH4 adsorbed by kaolinite, but the type of doped ions has little effect on the amount of adsorption. The specific surface area of kaolinite and the interaction energy between CH4 and the kaolinite’s surface are two key factors that can determine CH4 adsorption capacity. The first peak value of the radial distribution functions (RDFs) between CH4 and the pure kaolinite is larger than that between Mg-, Fe(II)-, and Al-doped kaolinite, which indicates that ion doping can reduce the strength of the interactions between CH4 and the kaolinite’s surface. Besides hydrogen and oxygen atoms, interlayer sodium ions are also strong adsorption sites for CH4 and lead to a weakened interaction between CH4 and the kaolinite’s surface, as well as a decrease in CH4 adsorption. Contrary to the adsorption results, ion doping facilitates the diffusion of CH4, which is beneficial for actual shale gas extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computational and Theoretical Chemistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Recognition of V3+/V4+/V5+ Multielectron Reactions in Na3V(PO4)2: A Potential High Energy Density Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041000 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
Na3V(PO4)2 was reported recently as a novel cathode material with high theoretical energy density for Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). However, whether V3+/V4+/V5+ multielectron reactions can be realized during the charging process is still an [...] Read more.
Na3V(PO4)2 was reported recently as a novel cathode material with high theoretical energy density for Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). However, whether V3+/V4+/V5+ multielectron reactions can be realized during the charging process is still an open question. In this work, Na3V(PO4)2 is synthesized by using a solid-state method. Its atomic composition and crystal structure are verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron diffraction (ND) joint refinement. The electrochemical performance of Na3V(PO4)2 is evaluated in two different voltage windows, namely 2.5–3.8 and 2.5–4.3 V. 51V solid-state NMR (ssNMR) results disclose the presence of V5+ in Na2−xV(PO4)2 when charging Na3V(PO4)2 to 4.3 V, confirming Na3V(PO4)2 is a potential high energy density cathode through realization of V3+/V4+/V5+ multielectron reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation Electrode Material)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Thermomechanical Pretreatment on the Structure and Properties of Lignin-Rich Plant Biomass
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040995 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
The cooperative thermomechanical properties of plant-derived polymers have been studied insufficiently, although this feedstock has a very high potential. In the present paper, we analyzed the changes in the structure and physicochemical properties of lignin-rich biomass induced by thermomechanical pretreatment. Low-temperature treatment allows [...] Read more.
The cooperative thermomechanical properties of plant-derived polymers have been studied insufficiently, although this feedstock has a very high potential. In the present paper, we analyzed the changes in the structure and physicochemical properties of lignin-rich biomass induced by thermomechanical pretreatment. Low-temperature treatment allows one to retain the original supramolecular structure of the cell walls, while an appreciably high disintegration degree is reached. This increases the reactivity of the material in the subsequent heterogeneous reactions. Mechanical pretreatment at medium temperatures (10 °C), when almost all cell wall polymers except for low-molecular-weight lignin are in the glassy state, enhances the mobility of cell wall polymers and causes sufficient cellulose disordering, while the specific surface area is not significantly increased. High-temperature pretreatment of reed biomass is accompanied by pore formation and lignin release from the cell wall structure, which opens up new prospects for using this biomass as a matrix to produce core–shell-structured sorbents of heavy metals. The energy consumed by mechanochemical equipment for the activation of reed biomass was determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Conversion of Biomass and Waste to Chemicals and Fuels)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Effects of Eriodictyol-7-O-β-d-glucuronide and 5,7-Dihydroxy-4-chromene Isolated from Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum in FcεRI-Mediated Human Basophilic KU812F Cell Activation
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040994 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 643
Abstract
Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (CZL) has been used in Eastern medicine for the treatment of various diseases, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, cough, the common cold, pharyngitis, bladder-related disorders, gastroenteric disorders, and hypertension. In the present study, we isolated two strong antiallergic compounds from [...] Read more.
Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (CZL) has been used in Eastern medicine for the treatment of various diseases, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, cough, the common cold, pharyngitis, bladder-related disorders, gastroenteric disorders, and hypertension. In the present study, we isolated two strong antiallergic compounds from CZL, namely, eriodictyol-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (EDG) and 5,7-dihydroxy-4-chromene (DC), and investigated their antiallergic effects in FcεRI-mediated human basophilic KU812F cells. EDG and DC downregulated the protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of FcεRI on the cell surface. Moreover, Western blotting analysis showed that EDG and DC inhibited the expression of protein tyrosine kinases such as Syk and Lyn, and extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2. These results suggested that EDG and DC, antiallergic constituents of CZL, are potential therapeutic candidates for protection against and for the treatment of allergic disorders. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Interplay between Polymorphism and Isostructurality in the 2-Fur- and 2-Thenaldehyde Semi- and Thiosemicarbazones
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040993 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 610
Abstract
The four compounds, namely: 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (1); 5-nitro-2-thiophene thiosemicarbazone (2); 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone (3); and 5-nitro-2-thiophene semicarbazone (4) were synthesized and crystallized. The three new crystal structures of 1, 2, and 4 were determined [...] Read more.
The four compounds, namely: 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (1); 5-nitro-2-thiophene thiosemicarbazone (2); 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone (3); and 5-nitro-2-thiophene semicarbazone (4) were synthesized and crystallized. The three new crystal structures of 1, 2, and 4 were determined and compared to three already known crystal structures of 3. Additionally, two new polymorphic forms of 1 solvate were synthesized and studied. The influence of the exchange of 2-thiophene to 2-furaldehyde as well as thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone on the self-assembly of supramolecular nets was elucidated and discussed in terms of the formed synthons and assemblies accompanied by Full Interaction Maps analysis. Changes in the strength of IR oscillators caused by the molecular and crystal packing effects are described and explained in terms of changes of electron density. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Vitamin C Enhances the Antibacterial Activity of Honey against Planktonic and Biofilm-Embedded Bacteria
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040992 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1466
Abstract
Multifactorial antibacterial action is an important feature of honey; however, its bactericidal efficacy against biofilm-embedded bacteria is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of vitamin C (Vit C) on the antibacterial activity of natural honeys against planktonic as [...] Read more.
Multifactorial antibacterial action is an important feature of honey; however, its bactericidal efficacy against biofilm-embedded bacteria is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of vitamin C (Vit C) on the antibacterial activity of natural honeys against planktonic as well as biofilm-embedded bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial activity of four honey samples supplemented with Vit C was expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). At sub-MICs, Vit C significantly increased the antibacterial activity of the tested honeys against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in planktonic cultures. However, after supplementation, honeydew honey, the most active honey, was ineffective against Staphylococcus aureus. On the other hand, when 100% honeydew honey was supplemented with Vit C (100 mg/g of honey) in a multispecies wound biofilm model, complete eradication of almost all bacterial isolates, including S. aureus, was observed. Furthermore, a mixture of honey and Vit C was partially effective against Enterococcus faecalis, whereas honey alone exhibited no antibacterial activity against this bacterium. Vit C counteracted hydrogen peroxide in honey solution and, thus, eliminated the major antibacterial compound present in honey. It is likely that a combination of honey with Vit C may trigger the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in bacterial cells, but the exact cellular mechanisms warrant further investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiofilm Efficacy of Natural and Natural-Based Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Isothiazolinone Biocides: Chemistry, Biological, and Toxicity Profiles
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040991 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1353
Abstract
The importance of isothiazole and of compounds containing the isothiazole nucleus has been growing over the last few years. Isothiazolinones are used in cosmetic and as chemical additives for occupational and industrial usage due to their bacteriostatic and fungiostatic activity. Despite their effectiveness [...] Read more.
The importance of isothiazole and of compounds containing the isothiazole nucleus has been growing over the last few years. Isothiazolinones are used in cosmetic and as chemical additives for occupational and industrial usage due to their bacteriostatic and fungiostatic activity. Despite their effectiveness as biocides, isothiazolinones are strong sensitizers, producing skin irritations and allergies and may pose ecotoxicological hazards. Therefore, their use is restricted by EU legislation. Considering the relevance and importance of isothiazolinone biocides, the present review describes the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding their synthesis, antibacterial components, toxicity (including structure–activity–toxicity relationships) outlines, and (photo)chemical stability. Due to the increasing prevalence and impact of isothiazolinones in consumer’s health, analytical methods for the identification and determination of this type of biocides were also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiocides Chemistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Arylketones Catalyzed by Enantiopure Ruthenium(II)/Pybox Complexes Containing Achiral Phosphonite and Phosphinite Ligands
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040990 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 626
Abstract
A family of complexes of the formula trans-[RuCl2(L)(R-pybox)] (R-pybox = (S,S)-iPr-pybox, (R,R)-Ph-pybox, L = monodentate phosphonite, PPh(OR)2, and phosphinite, L = PPh2(OR), ligands) were screened in [...] Read more.
A family of complexes of the formula trans-[RuCl2(L)(R-pybox)] (R-pybox = (S,S)-iPr-pybox, (R,R)-Ph-pybox, L = monodentate phosphonite, PPh(OR)2, and phosphinite, L = PPh2(OR), ligands) were screened in the catalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone, observing a strong influence of the nature of both the R-pybox substituents and the L ligand in the process. The best results were obtained with complex trans-[RuCl2{PPh2(OEt)}{(R,R)-Ph-pybox}] (2c), which provided high conversion and enantioselectivity (up to 96% enantiomeric excess, e.e.) for the reduction of a variety of aromatic ketones, affording the (S)-benzylalcohols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Asymmetric Synthesis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Therapeutic Effects of Cold-Pressed Perilla Oil Mainly Consisting of Linolenic acid, Oleic Acid and Linoleic Acid on UV-Induced Photoaging in NHDF Cells and SKH-1 Hairless Mice
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040989 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 963
Abstract
Positive physiological benefits of several plant oils on the UV-induced photoaging have been reported in some cell lines and model mice, but perilla oil collected from the seeds of Perilla frutescens L. has not been investigated in this context. To study the therapeutic [...] Read more.
Positive physiological benefits of several plant oils on the UV-induced photoaging have been reported in some cell lines and model mice, but perilla oil collected from the seeds of Perilla frutescens L. has not been investigated in this context. To study the therapeutic effects of cold-pressed perilla oil (CPO) on UV-induced photoaging in vitro and in vivo, UV-induced cellular damage and cutaneous photoaging were assessed in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) and HR-1 hairless mice. CPO contained five major fatty acids including linolenic acid (64.11%), oleic acid (16.34%), linoleic acid (11.87%), palmitic acid (5.06%), and stearic acid (2.48%). UV-induced reductions in NHDF cell viability, ROS production, SOD activity, and G2/M cell cycle arrest were remarkably improved in UV + CPO treated NHDF cells as compared with UV + Vehicle treated controls. Also, UV-induced increases in MMP-1 protein and galactosidase levels were remarkably suppressed by CPO. In UV-radiated hairless mice, topical application of CPO inhibited an increase in wrinkle formation, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema value, hydration and melanin index on dorsal skin of UVB-irradiated hairless mice. CPO was observed to similarly suppress UV-induced increases in epidermal thickness, mast cell numbers, and galactosidase and MMP-3 mRNA levels. These results suggest CPO has therapeutic potential in terms of protecting against skin photoaging by regulating skin morphology, histopathology and oxidative status. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Laser-Plasma Spectroscopy of Hydroxyl with Applications
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040988 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
This article discusses laser-induced laboratory-air plasma measurements and analysis of hydroxyl (OH) ultraviolet spectra. The computations of the OH spectra utilize line strength data that were developed previously and that are now communicated for the first time. The line strengths have been utilized [...] Read more.
This article discusses laser-induced laboratory-air plasma measurements and analysis of hydroxyl (OH) ultraviolet spectra. The computations of the OH spectra utilize line strength data that were developed previously and that are now communicated for the first time. The line strengths have been utilized extensively in interpretation of recorded molecular emission spectra and have been well-tested in laser-induced fluorescence applications for the purpose of temperature inferences from recorded data. Moreover, new experiments with Q-switched laser pulses illustrate occurrence of molecular recombination spectra for time delays of the order of several dozen of microseconds after plasma initiation. The OH signals occur due to the natural humidity in laboratory air. Centrifugal stretching of the Franck-Condon factors and r-centroids are included in the process of determining the line strengths that are communicated as a Supplementary File. Laser spectroscopy applications of detailed OH computations include laser-induced plasma and combustion analyses, to name but two applications. This work also includes literature references that address various diagnosis applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Molecular Spectroscopy)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop