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Special Issue "Next Generation Electrode Material"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Gregorio F. Ortiz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Química Inorgánica e Ingeniería Química, Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Química Fina y Nanoquímica (IUNAN), Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, E-14071 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: energy storage; nanomaterials; Li- and Na-ion batteries; cathodes; anodes; Mg and hybrids batteries; electrolytes; thin films; composites; electrochemistry; chemical characterization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The fabrication of electrode materials is of great importance for many applications worldwide. This Special Issue is focused on experimental/theoretical studies that report the synthesis, properties, applications, and new aspects of electrode materials.

Electrode materials prepared by different synthesis routes have shown diverse properties in the field of energy storage and conversion. One of the most impressive syntheses of materials was the report of Ti-based nanotubes, nanowires, or nanocomposites arranged in a parallel fashion and used either as electrodes or templates. Such electrode nanoarchitecture allows for the obtaining of binder-free electrodes, increasing the capacity by several orders of magnitude. Additionally, the introduction of surface heteroatoms (e.g., nitrogen) into carbon nanomaterials can cause electron modulation to provide desirable electronic structures. The eventual in-situ or ex-situ doping/coating often lead to surface functionalization of electrodes, which leads to enhanced properties with potential applications of practical significance.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Electrode materials for energy storage and conversion;
  • Li-ion and post Li-ion batteries (Na-ion, Mg-ion, hybrids, etc.);
  • Carbon nanomaterials;
  • Synthesis of organic/inorganic materials;
  • Thin films (CVD, PVD, electro-less, etc.);
  • Electrolytes formulation (solid state, additives, etc.);
  • Electrodes from biomass;
  • Electrode/electrolyte interfaces;
  • Supercapacitors;
  • Redox-flow batteries, Li-S, Na-S;
  • Solar cells;
  • Fuel cells;
  • Catalysts;

Prof. Dr. Gregorio F. Ortiz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanostructured materials
  • renewable energy systems
  • high energy electrodes
  • redox properties
  • lithium
  • Na+/Mg2+ insertion
  • pseudocapacitance
  • coatings
  • organic/inorganic compounds

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Facile and Low-Cost SPE Modification Towards Ultra-Sensitive Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Detection in Olive Oil
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 4988; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25214988 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 470
Abstract
Despite the fact that a considerable amount of effort has been invested in the development of biosensors for the detection of pesticides, there is still a lack of a simple and low-cost platform that can reliably and sensitively detect their presence in real [...] Read more.
Despite the fact that a considerable amount of effort has been invested in the development of biosensors for the detection of pesticides, there is still a lack of a simple and low-cost platform that can reliably and sensitively detect their presence in real samples. Herein, an enzyme-based biosensor for the determination of both carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides is presented that is based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) immobilized on commercially available screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPEs) modified with carbon black (CB), as a means to enhance their conductivity. Most interestingly, two different methodologies to deposit the enzyme onto the sensor surfaces were followed; strikingly different results were obtained depending on the family of pesticides under investigation. Furthermore, and towards the uniform application of the functionalization layer onto the SPEs’ surfaces, the laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) technique was employed in conjunction with CB functionalization, which allowed a considerable improvement of the sensor’s performance. Under the optimized conditions, the fabricated sensors can effectively detect carbofuran in a linear range from 1.1 × 10−9 to 2.3 × 10−8 mol/L, with a limit of detection equal to 0.6 × 10−9 mol/L and chlorpyrifos in a linear range from 0.7 × 10−9 up to 1.4 × 10−8 mol/L and a limit of detection 0.4 × 10−9 mol/L in buffer. The developed biosensor was also interrogated with olive oil samples, and was able to detect both pesticides at concentrations below 10 ppb, which is the maximum residue limit permitted by the European Food Safety Authority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation Electrode Material)
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Analysis of the Stability of Oil-In-Water Pickering Emulsion by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122904 - 24 Jun 2020
Viewed by 493
Abstract
In this paper, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to investigate the stability of oil-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsions prepared with negatively charged silica nanoparticles in combination with a trace amount of redox switchable fluorescent molecules, ferrocene azine (FcA). Electrical impedance values of emulsions [...] Read more.
In this paper, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to investigate the stability of oil-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsions prepared with negatively charged silica nanoparticles in combination with a trace amount of redox switchable fluorescent molecules, ferrocene azine (FcA). Electrical impedance values of emulsions obtained at different emulsification speeds were estimated according to the frequency response data with frequencies ranging from 1 MHz to 1 Hz. The equivalent circuit model of toluene-in-water emulsion was established by the resistor (RO/W) and capacitor (CO/W) in parallel connection. Nyquist diagrams for the emulsions prepared by toluene and water were characterized by the formation of one semi-circle. The droplet size distribution is one of the important factors that affect the stability of the emulsion, except for the volume fraction of water and oil, the size of stabilizing particles, etc. The average particle size of the emulsion droplets decreased as the emulsification speed increased, indicating the higher stability of the emulsion. It was found that the fitted impedance value RO/W of the emulsion decreased with decreasing particle size prepared at different emulsification speeds and storage time by performing real-time EIS detection techniques. The results suggested that EIS could be used to characterize the stability of a toluene-in-water emulsion stabilized by FcA modified silica nanoparticles. Moreover, based on the good electrochemical activity of the FcA molecule, the stability of the Pickering emulsion can be modulated by adding oxidant and reductant and detected by EIS in real-time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation Electrode Material)
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Open AccessArticle
Towards a High-Power [email protected] Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries through a Wet Ball Milling Process
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2494; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112494 - 27 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
Silicon-based anodes are extensively studied as an alternative to graphite for lithium ion batteries. However, silicon particles suffer larges changes in their volume (about 280%) during cycling, which lead to particles cracking and breakage of the solid electrolyte interphase. This process induces continuous [...] Read more.
Silicon-based anodes are extensively studied as an alternative to graphite for lithium ion batteries. However, silicon particles suffer larges changes in their volume (about 280%) during cycling, which lead to particles cracking and breakage of the solid electrolyte interphase. This process induces continuous irreversible electrolyte decomposition that strongly reduces the battery life. In this research work, different [email protected] anodes have been prepared through a facile and scalable ball milling synthesis and have been tested in lithium batteries. The morphology and structure of the different samples have been studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We show how the incorporation of an organic solvent in the synthesis procedure prevents particles agglomeration and leads to a suitable distribution of particles and intimate contact between them. Moreover, the importance of the microstructure of the obtained [email protected] electrodes is pointed out. The [email protected] anode resulted from the wet ball milling route, which presents capacity values of 850 mA h/g and excellent capacity retention at high current density (≈800 mA h/g at 5 A/g). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation Electrode Material)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Different Water-Based Binders for Li4Ti5O12 Electrodes
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2443; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102443 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 751
Abstract
In this study, Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) electrodes with different types of water-soluble binders are successfully coated upon aluminum foil. Electrodes containing solely sodium alginate (SA) as a binder or a mixed PVDF/carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder show the most stable [...] Read more.
In this study, Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) electrodes with different types of water-soluble binders are successfully coated upon aluminum foil. Electrodes containing solely sodium alginate (SA) as a binder or a mixed PVDF/carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder show the most stable performance in 1 M LiPF6 in EC/DMC 1:1 in half cell vs. Li, with respect to cycle stability over 100 cycles at 1 C. The electrodes processed with a mixture of PVDF/SA show considerable fading and slightly worse values for rate capability. Each one of the different binders used is eco-friendly, and the whole processing can be performed without the use of organic solvents. Further advantages covering the whole production and recycling process, as well as safety issues during operation, encourage deeper research in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation Electrode Material)
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Open AccessCommunication
All-Solid-State Lithium Ion Batteries Using Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotubes Grown from Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2121; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092121 - 01 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
All-solid-state batteries were fabricated by assembling a layer of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes grown on as anode, a thin-film of polymer as an electrolyte and separator, and a layer of composite LiFePO4 as a cathode. The synthesis of self-organized TiO2 NTs [...] Read more.
All-solid-state batteries were fabricated by assembling a layer of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes grown on as anode, a thin-film of polymer as an electrolyte and separator, and a layer of composite LiFePO4 as a cathode. The synthesis of self-organized TiO2 NTs from Ti-6Al-4V alloy was carried out via one-step electrochemical anodization in a fluoride ethylene glycol containing electrolytes. The electrodeposition of the polymer electrolyte onto anatase TiO2 NTs was performed by cyclic voltammetry. The anodized Ti-6Al-4V alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the anodized Ti-6Al-4V alloys were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry techniques. The full-cell shows a high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of 96.8% with a capacity retention of 97.4% after 50 cycles and delivers a stable discharge capacity of 63 μAh cm−2 μm−1 (119 mAh g−1) at a kinetic rate of C/10. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation Electrode Material)
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Open AccessArticle
Recognition of V3+/V4+/V5+ Multielectron Reactions in Na3V(PO4)2: A Potential High Energy Density Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25041000 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Na3V(PO4)2 was reported recently as a novel cathode material with high theoretical energy density for Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). However, whether V3+/V4+/V5+ multielectron reactions can be realized during the charging process is still an [...] Read more.
Na3V(PO4)2 was reported recently as a novel cathode material with high theoretical energy density for Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). However, whether V3+/V4+/V5+ multielectron reactions can be realized during the charging process is still an open question. In this work, Na3V(PO4)2 is synthesized by using a solid-state method. Its atomic composition and crystal structure are verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron diffraction (ND) joint refinement. The electrochemical performance of Na3V(PO4)2 is evaluated in two different voltage windows, namely 2.5–3.8 and 2.5–4.3 V. 51V solid-state NMR (ssNMR) results disclose the presence of V5+ in Na2−xV(PO4)2 when charging Na3V(PO4)2 to 4.3 V, confirming Na3V(PO4)2 is a potential high energy density cathode through realization of V3+/V4+/V5+ multielectron reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation Electrode Material)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Sustainable and Environmentally Friendly Na and Mg Aqueous Hybrid Batteries Using Na and K Birnessites
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040924 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
Sodium and magnesium batteries with intercalation electrodes are currently alternatives of great interest to lithium in stationary applications, such as distribution networks or renewable energies. Hydrated laminar oxides such as birnessites are an attractive cathode material for these batteries. Sodium and potassium birnessite [...] Read more.
Sodium and magnesium batteries with intercalation electrodes are currently alternatives of great interest to lithium in stationary applications, such as distribution networks or renewable energies. Hydrated laminar oxides such as birnessites are an attractive cathode material for these batteries. Sodium and potassium birnessite samples have been synthesized by thermal and hydrothermal oxidation methods. Hybrid electrochemical cells have been built using potassium birnessite in aqueous sodium electrolyte, when starting in discharge and with a capacity slightly higher than 70 mA h g−1. Hydrothermal synthesis generally shows slightly poorer electrochemical behavior than their thermal counterparts in both sodium and potassium batteries. The study on hybrid electrolytes has resulted in the successful galvanostatic cycling of both sodium birnessite and potassium birnessite in aqueous magnesium electrolyte, with maximum capacities of 85 and 50 mA h g−1, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation Electrode Material)
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Open AccessCommunication
Thermal Decomposition Study on Li2O2 for Li2NiO2 Synthesis as a Sacrificing Positive Additive of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4624; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244624 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
Herein, thermal decomposition experiments of lithium peroxide (Li2O2) were performed to prepare a precursor (Li2O) for sacrificing cathode material, Li2NiO2. The Li2O2 was prepared by a hydrometallurgical reaction between LiOH·H [...] Read more.
Herein, thermal decomposition experiments of lithium peroxide (Li2O2) were performed to prepare a precursor (Li2O) for sacrificing cathode material, Li2NiO2. The Li2O2 was prepared by a hydrometallurgical reaction between LiOH·H2O and H2O2. The overall reaction during annealing was found to involve the following three steps: (1) dehydration of LiOH·H2O, (2) decomposition of Li2O2, and (3) pyrolysis of the remaining anhydrous LiOH. This stepwise reaction was elucidated by thermal gravimetric and quantitative X-ray diffraction analyses. Furthermore, over-lithiated lithium nickel oxide (Li2NiO2) using our lithium precursor was synthesized, which exhibited a larger yield of 90.9% and higher irreversible capacity of 261 to 265 mAh g−1 than the sample prepared by commercially purchased Li2O (45.6% and 177 to 185 mAh g−1, respectively) due to optimal powder preparation conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation Electrode Material)
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