Special Issue "Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Xiaofei Zhao

Guest Editor
DGIST, 333, Techno Jungang Daero, Hyeonpung-Myeon, Dalseong-Gun, Daegu 42988, Korea
Interests: open innovation culture; organization and strategy of China; the difference between Korean firms and Chinese firms
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. KwangHo Jung
Website
Guest Editor
Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul national University, Seoul, Korea
Interests: public administration; social innovation; market failure; system failure
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Tan Yigitcanlar
Website
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. JinHyo Joseph Yun
Website
Chief Guest Editor
Soosung-gu GiSan-dong, Nokwon Apartment 102-1202, Daegu, Korea
Interests: open innovation; business model; open innovation economy; social open innovation; Schumpeterian dynamics; complexity; game theory; political economics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue includes selected studies that contribute to our understanding of how sustainability in the 2nd IT revolution, with the dynamic open innovation of firms, is possible.

Smart cities, autonomous cars, intelligent robots, block chain, and the sharing economy will be touched upon in this Special Issue.

This Special Issue seeks to collect the top theoretical and empirical studies on open innovation policy and management, the open innovation economy, open business models, open service innovation, and others from high-quality papers of SOItmC 2019.

In addition to these 47 papers, which were selected from SOItmC 2019 special sessions, 60–70 papers will be submitted to this Special Issue. We expect that 30–40 papers will be published among them.

Time schedule of this special issue:

  • Open: 1 June 2019
    Any SOItmC 2019 authors in addition to the planned papers can submit to this special issue after full paper submission to SOItmC 2019 platfrom and paying the registration fee until 31 May 2019.
  • Close: 31 December 2019
    All papers should be submitted to this special issue until 31 December 2019.

Dr. JinHyo Joseph Yun
Dr. Xiaofei Zhao
Dr. KwangHo Jung
Dr. Tan Yigitcanlar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dynamic open innovation and sustainability
  • open business model and sustainability
  • service innovation and sustainability
  • 2nd IT revolution and sustainability
  • smart city and sustainability
  • autonomous car and sustainability
  • intelligent robot and sustainability
  • block chain and sustainability
  • sharing economy and sustainability

Time schedule of this special issue:

  • Open: 1 June 2019
    Any SOItmC 2019 authors in addition to the planned papers can submit to this special issue after full paper submission to SOItmC 2019 platfrom and paying the registration fee until 31 May 2019.
  • Close: 31 December 2019
    All papers should be submitted to this special issue until 31 December 2019.

Published Papers (27 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
The Culture for Open Innovation Dynamics
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5076; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125076 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 63
Abstract
Culture, in its various forms, has always been a critical driver of innovation. This paper focuses on generating some insights into the role of “culture for open innovation dynamics”. First, because the requirement to understand culture, which can control open innovation complexity, has [...] Read more.
Culture, in its various forms, has always been a critical driver of innovation. This paper focuses on generating some insights into the role of “culture for open innovation dynamics”. First, because the requirement to understand culture, which can control open innovation complexity, has been augmented, we want to answer the following research question in this study: How can we define or organize “culture for open innovation dynamics”, which can motivate open innovation dynamics, and control open innovation complexity? Second, we propose a concept model of culture for open innovation dynamics by reviewing the literature on the culture of firms in terms of their traits, organization, static innovation, and dynamic aspects regarding their innovation in entrepreneurship, and we validate said model through an indirect social experiment using the research results of 23 Special Issue papers. Third, the concept model of culture for open innovation dynamics is explained as the interaction between three different entrepreneurship dimensions: Entrepreneurship of novice entrepreneurs, intrapreneurship of employees of an existing firm, and organizational entrepreneurship by the firm itself. According to the balance of three sub-entrepreneurship types, culture for open innovation dynamics can have different aspects, namely, entrepreneurship leading culture for open innovation dynamics, intrapreneurship leading culture for open innovation dynamics, or organizational entrepreneurship leading culture for open innovation dynamics. This paper helps organizations and entrepreneurs to better understand the role that culture plays in boosting open innovation dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Spatial Distribution of Butterflies in Accordance with Climate Change in the Korean Peninsula
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1995; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051995 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The effects of climate change are becoming apparent in the biosphere. In the 20th century, South Korea experienced a 1.5 °C temperature increase due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. If the changes continue, it is predicted that approximately 15–37% of animal and plant [...] Read more.
The effects of climate change are becoming apparent in the biosphere. In the 20th century, South Korea experienced a 1.5 °C temperature increase due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. If the changes continue, it is predicted that approximately 15–37% of animal and plant species will be endangered after 2050. Because butterflies act as a good indicator for changes in the temperature, the distribution of butterflies can be used to determine their adaptability to climate patterns. Local meteorological data for the period 1938–2011 were used from the National Forest Research Institute of Korea. Local temperature data were additionally considered among the basic information, and the distribution patterns of butterflies were analyzed for both the southern and northern regions. Southern butterflies (with northern limit) tend to increase in number with significant correlation between the temperature and number of habitats (p < 0.000), while northern butterflies (with southern limit) show no statistical significance between the temperature and number of habitats, indicating their sensitivity to temperature change. This finding is in accordance with the conclusion that southern butterflies are more susceptible to climate change when adapting to local environments and expanding their original temperature range for survival, which leads to an increase in the numbers of their habitats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Business Model, Open Innovation, and Sustainability in Car Sharing Industry—Comparing Three Economies
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1883; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051883 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 15
Abstract
This paper discusses dynamics and differences of business models in the car-sharing industry and focuses on open innovation as the trigger of diverse business models among Uber in the U.S., DiDi Chuxing in China, and KakaoT in Korea. We seek to answer the [...] Read more.
This paper discusses dynamics and differences of business models in the car-sharing industry and focuses on open innovation as the trigger of diverse business models among Uber in the U.S., DiDi Chuxing in China, and KakaoT in Korea. We seek to answer the following two questions: What creates the differences in the business models of the car-sharing industry? Do the differences in open innovation motivate the diversity of business models among Uber, DiDi Chuxing, and KakaoT? We incorporated participatory observation, interviews, and semi-structured questionnaire methods in our study. We used two-step participatory observation and interview methods, hence carrying out observation and interviews two times by different researchers with Uber drivers in the U.S., DiDi-Chuxing drivers in Beijing, and KakaoT taxi drivers in Korea to confirm the interview and participatory observation results. First, business models of the car-sharing firms Uber, DiDi-Chuxing, and KakaoT are not fixed but rather are dynamically changing. Second, business models of car-sharing firms are the result of interaction with government regulations, the taxi industry, public transportation, and the automotive car industry. Third, open innovation strategies of car-sharing firms determine the contents and dynamics of car-sharing business models, such as the revenue business model, responsibility business model, and system business model upon interaction with four agencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Networks in Improving International Performance and Competitiveness: Perspective View of Open Innovation
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031269 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
With perspective view of open innovation, this study examines how international networks form and evolve and the empirical relationships among antecedents of international network embeddedness, international performance, and sustainable competitiveness. Data from 356 small and medium-sized exporters (SMEs) in manufacturing or technology industries [...] Read more.
With perspective view of open innovation, this study examines how international networks form and evolve and the empirical relationships among antecedents of international network embeddedness, international performance, and sustainable competitiveness. Data from 356 small and medium-sized exporters (SMEs) in manufacturing or technology industries in South Korea are analyzed by structural equation modeling. It assumes that international network embeddedness plays a mediating role in the relationship between internationalization and related variables. This analysis indicates that information management and proximity significantly affect international performance, while cultural differences do not, and that international network embeddedness mediates relationships between information management and international performance, and proximity and international performance. The results imply that greater international network embeddedness increases SMEs’ international performance—information management and proximity play a pivotal role in embedding international networks and improving international performance. SMEs must establish and intensify international networks to improve international performance and seek to overcome limitations by developing international networks with the goal of entering international markets. Nevertheless, there is relatively little research on international network formation and embeddedness, especially for SMEs. This study determines network formation principles, determinants of international networks, and roles of international network embeddedness in relationships between the determinants and international performance. Notably, this study verifies a comprehensive model of international networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Social Trust and Open Innovation in an Informal Economy: The Emergence of Shenzhen Mobile Phone Industry
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030775 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study examines how social trust facilitates firms’ collaborative efficiency in an informal economy. We extend the open innovation theory to explain the straightforward role of social trust in the Shenzhen mobile phone industry. This single case study yields two principal findings. First, [...] Read more.
This study examines how social trust facilitates firms’ collaborative efficiency in an informal economy. We extend the open innovation theory to explain the straightforward role of social trust in the Shenzhen mobile phone industry. This single case study yields two principal findings. First, social trust fosters the efficient integration of value chains for mobile phone development. Four types of informal entrepreneurs with high social trust built on homogenous sanctioned ethnic groups (i.e., Fujian, Hunan, Chaoshan, and Wenzhou) collaboratively conform to the chip vendors, independent design houses, integrators, manufacturers and channel retailers in the Shenzhen mobile phone industry. These four groups of informal entrepreneurs achieve ethnic legitimacy by organizing the value chains with mobile feature phones built on Shenzhen mobile phone modes. Second, social trust among the four sanctioned ethnic groups is a critical determinant for shortening the time-to-market of new products and catalyzes product specialization to effectively respond to market needs in the Shenzhen mobile phone industry. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for research on social trust and open innovation in informal institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Influencing Usability of Rehabilitation Robotic Devices for Lower Limbs
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020598 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in the number of elderly people in South Korea; this has led to rising costs and concerns on the quality of physical therapy treatment involving rehabilitation robotic devices. Therefore, the government has asked academia [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in the number of elderly people in South Korea; this has led to rising costs and concerns on the quality of physical therapy treatment involving rehabilitation robotic devices. Therefore, the government has asked academia to expand its research scope to evaluate the usability of these devices. Hence, this study aimed to identify the major factors influencing the usability of a rehabilitation robotic device for lower limbs and the reasons for involving several diverse user groups for a more comprehensive evaluation. To measure usability as perceived by three primary user groups of user experience (UX) professionals, rehab professionals, and lay people, this study collected 196 survey. The results of an EFA showed that among three general quality factors and five device specific factors, visual pertinence, use confidence, and safety were the critical factors influencing usability, and the results of ANOVA offered that there was discrepancy in the influential factors, namely visual pertinence, transferring, and holding the body. These findings indicate that the necessity of employing a posture-centered approach and multiple user groups in assessing the usability of rehabilitation devices. Given these findings, it is suggested that the industry and design community should move toward implementing a more explorative perspective to enable a more human-centered and posture-concerned approach to provide better usability to the diverse users of medical devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
How Does Technology Startups Increase Innovative Performance? The Study of Technology Startups on Innovation Focusing on Employment Change in Korea
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020551 - 11 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
As the fourth industrial revolution has been emerging, there are concerns of labor forces being replaced by technology, recent interest on the work-life balance, and the quality of employment has received attention. This study investigates the role of technology startups on employment and [...] Read more.
As the fourth industrial revolution has been emerging, there are concerns of labor forces being replaced by technology, recent interest on the work-life balance, and the quality of employment has received attention. This study investigates the role of technology startups on employment and innovative performance. Using empirical data from workplace panel data provided by the Korea Labor Institute, this study reveals that technology startups impact the employment quality and innovative performance by the action of technological innovation. The results highlight the quality of employment as a driver for innovative performance in technology startups. The results of this study will provide practical implications for enhancing technology entrepreneurship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Managerial Dimension of Open Data Success: Focusing on the Open Data Initiatives in Korean Local Governments
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6758; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236758 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Open government data (open data) initiatives have been at the forefront of the strategy to make more transparent, responsive, and accountable government, and thereby lead to open innovation across the public and private sector. Governments around the world often understand that open data [...] Read more.
Open government data (open data) initiatives have been at the forefront of the strategy to make more transparent, responsive, and accountable government, and thereby lead to open innovation across the public and private sector. Governments around the world often understand that open data is disclosing their data to the public as much as possible and that open data success is the result of a data and technology-related endeavor rather than the result of organizational, institutional, and environmental attributes. According to the resource-based theory, however, managerial capability to mobilize tangible and intangible resources and deploy them in adequate places or processes under the leadership of capable leaders during the information technology (IT) project is a core factor leading to organizational performance such as open data success. In this vein, this study aims to analyze managerial factors as drivers and challenges of open data success from the resource-based theory. Findings illustrate that managerial factors are the driving forces that often boost or hinder open data success when institutional, socio-economic, and demographic factors are controlled. Discussion illustrates theoretical and practical implications for the managerial factors as drivers and challenges of open data success in terms of the comparison between technological determinism and the socio-technical perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficiency Analysis of Zinc Refining Companies
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6528; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226528 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Most global zinc firms consist of multiple refineries with various production capacities. However, it is known that efficiency and Bonus Zn are mostly dependent on a firm’s production capacity. Thus, it is important to examine whether there is knowledge transfer of efficiencies and [...] Read more.
Most global zinc firms consist of multiple refineries with various production capacities. However, it is known that efficiency and Bonus Zn are mostly dependent on a firm’s production capacity. Thus, it is important to examine whether there is knowledge transfer of efficiencies and Bonus Zn among refineries within the same company, even if their production capacities are quite different. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to measure efficiency scores of forty-two zinc refineries. To examine whether there is a knowledge transfer about efficiency and Bonus Zn within a firm, a propensity score model is newly applied. Additionally, a regression model is utilized to identify whether this propagation is more effective if refineries are in the same country. It is found that about 86% of the refineries are inefficient, which indicates that there is much room for refineries to improve their performance. From the result, it is identified that the knowledge of efficiency and Bonus Zn is transferred within the company. This transfer is particularly influential when both refineries are located in the same country. We also find that firm’s revenue can be maximized when efficiency is high and the production capacity and/or Bonus Zn are significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Bridging the Gap in the Technology Commercialization Process: Using a Three-Stage Technology–Product–Market Model
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6267; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226267 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study proposes a new “three-stage technology–product–market” model to analyze the technology commercialization process. This model revises the technology acceptance model to more accurately consider the market potential of new technologies from a consumer perspective. This approach can be used to supplement developers’ [...] Read more.
This study proposes a new “three-stage technology–product–market” model to analyze the technology commercialization process. This model revises the technology acceptance model to more accurately consider the market potential of new technologies from a consumer perspective. This approach can be used to supplement developers’ own evaluations of technology. To test the model empirically, an online survey of 350 end users was conducted regarding their intention to purchase the “Wireless USB,” which uses “Zing” technology and was developed by the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute. The data was used to test the model using a structural equations approach. We indirectly confirmed the existence of gaps in the technology commercialization process by verifying the mediating effects of the productization stage. Results suggest that end users may not purchase a product, even if they perceive the technology to be innovative; the product purchase intention is significantly influenced by its perceived value. Therefore, developers must understand the concept of technology value for productization in order to refine a technology according to market demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Tourism in the Open Innovation Realm: A Bibliometric Analysis
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 6114; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11216114 - 03 Nov 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
This study evaluates bibliometric analysis of sustainable tourism in the open innovation realm, depicts emerging themes, and offers critical discussion for theory development and further research. Through the use of bibliometrix, this paper investigates the amount of studies conducted in this area and [...] Read more.
This study evaluates bibliometric analysis of sustainable tourism in the open innovation realm, depicts emerging themes, and offers critical discussion for theory development and further research. Through the use of bibliometrix, this paper investigates the amount of studies conducted in this area and verifies if such studies have represented a contribution to the evolving research in the field of sustainable tourism. Specifically, the paper identifies whether and to what extent scholars have explored these interconnections and maps to get to a conceptual structure of the field under investigation. The results identify the development status and the leading trends in terms of impact, main journals, papers, topics, authors, and countries. The analysis and the graphical presentations are crucial, as they can help both researchers and practitioners to better understand the state of the art of sustainable tourism in the experiential and digital era. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Trendsetting, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Receptivity, and Future Orientation among the Young Generation of Chinese College Students: Trendsetters Critically Matter
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5853; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205853 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Current Chinese college students will become future consumers and fashion leaders. We examined, relying on a survey of 572 Chinese college students, which college students are trendsetters and followers. MANOVA results found four different innovation groups from trendsetters, to early adopters, to late [...] Read more.
Current Chinese college students will become future consumers and fashion leaders. We examined, relying on a survey of 572 Chinese college students, which college students are trendsetters and followers. MANOVA results found four different innovation groups from trendsetters, to early adopters, to late adopters, and to reluctant adopters. ANOVA and regression results also found significant differences in cultural receptivity, cultural awareness, and future orientation between trendsetters and followers. The regression with the quadratic forms illustrated that the impact of trendsetting is not linear and becomes much larger for trendsetters but is almost none for the three follower groups. The piecewise regression revealed that the slope of the followers is flat, implying no relationship between the followers and cultural receptivity, awareness, and future orientation. However, the slope of the trendsetters is steep, implying a strong positive relationship between trendsetters and cultural attitudes such as cultural receptivity, cultural awareness, and future orientation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Holes in the Multi-Sided Market: A Market Allocation Structure Analysis of China’s Car-Hailing Platform in the Context of Open Innovation
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5813; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205813 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Car-hailing platform governance is an emerging topic of research and practice. The governance of the data-driven platform economy is challenging the research paradigm of competition regulation in the context of open innovation. This research is trying to reveal the market allocation structure of [...] Read more.
Car-hailing platform governance is an emerging topic of research and practice. The governance of the data-driven platform economy is challenging the research paradigm of competition regulation in the context of open innovation. This research is trying to reveal the market allocation structure of China’s online car-hailing industry from the perspective of personal data allocation by the study of Application Programming Interface (API) of sample platforms. On the basis of the networked nature of personal data allocation via APIs, this research constructs a mathematical model of the edge weight of data resource connections between platforms. Furthermore, this research optimises the structural hole analysis of complex networks to discuss the state of personal data resource allocation in China’s car-hailing industry. Results reveal that there are obvious structural holes within the sample network. When compared with related indicators, we found that accessing personal data resources is an essential component of the sample network competition capability and sustainable innovation. Social media platforms and online payment platforms more greatly impact car-hailing platform competition than other types of platforms within the multi-sided market context. This research offers a research perspective of personal data allocation for further study of competition, regulation and sustainable innovation of data-driven platform economies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Enablers of Strategic Orientation for Technology-Driven Business Innovation Ecosystems
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5779; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205779 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The present study explores the impacts of corporate strategic orientation on innovation ecosystems through the perspective of systems thinking. Multiple-cases method was adopted to analyze three representative companies of different industries. In terms of academic contribution, the results of this study verify an [...] Read more.
The present study explores the impacts of corporate strategic orientation on innovation ecosystems through the perspective of systems thinking. Multiple-cases method was adopted to analyze three representative companies of different industries. In terms of academic contribution, the results of this study verify an innovation ecosystem model in a generalized manner, and find that market orientation, interaction orientation, and entrepreneurial orientation generate a positively reinforcing effect on the paths of the innovation ecosystem model in all phases, thus, diversifying the available literature of innovative ecosystems. In terms of practical contribution, this study presents a dynamic context of the development of new business, and describes the links between innovative activities and the market. Enterprises can refer to the proposed framework as well as strategic architecture in this study to effectively transform innovative activities into market performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Influencing Matching of Ride-Hailing Service Using Machine Learning Method
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5615; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205615 - 12 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
It is common to call a taxi by taxi-apps in Korea and it was believed that an app-taxi service would provide customers with more convenience. However, customers’ requests can often be denied, as taxi drivers can decide whether to take calls from customers [...] Read more.
It is common to call a taxi by taxi-apps in Korea and it was believed that an app-taxi service would provide customers with more convenience. However, customers’ requests can often be denied, as taxi drivers can decide whether to take calls from customers or not. Therefore, studies on factors that determine whether taxi drivers refuse or accept calls from customers are needed. This study investigated why taxi drivers might refuse calls from customers and factors that influence the success of matching within the service. This study used origin-destination data in Seoul and Daejeon obtained from T-map Taxis, which was analyzed via a decision tree using machine learning. Cross-validation was also performed. Results showed that distance, socio-economic features, and land uses affected matching success rate. Furthermore, distance was the most important factor in both Seoul and Daejeon. The matching success rate in Seoul was lowest for trips shorter than the average at midnight. In Daejeon, the rate was lowest when the calls were made for trips either shorter or longer than the average distance. This study showed that the matching success for ride-hailing services can be differentiated particularly by the distance of the requested trip depending on the size of the city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Platform Growth Model: The Four Stages of Growth Model
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5562; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205562 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
As the platform business becomes more important, it is crucial to make adequate decisions and choices for strategies, considering influence factors in relation to the platform for each growth model. This study researched how to build a platform business in the IT industry [...] Read more.
As the platform business becomes more important, it is crucial to make adequate decisions and choices for strategies, considering influence factors in relation to the platform for each growth model. This study researched how to build a platform business in the IT industry from the perspective of a dynamic approach to understand how the platform growth model successfully enables business entities to enter the market and to continue expansion. Through 21 case studies, this research formulated the four stages of platform growth model: entry, growth, expansion and maturity, providing a conceptual framework to build a platform growth model ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Sustainable Development of Land-Lost Peasants’ Citizenization: A Case Study of Dongbang Town, China
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5560; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205560 - 09 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Urbanization can be categorized as “spontaneous” and “compulsory” according to its mode of occurrence. In the latter case, the local government acquires the agricultural land and then promotes the transformation of the land-lost peasants to urban residents by enforcing various policy combinations. Based [...] Read more.
Urbanization can be categorized as “spontaneous” and “compulsory” according to its mode of occurrence. In the latter case, the local government acquires the agricultural land and then promotes the transformation of the land-lost peasants to urban residents by enforcing various policy combinations. Based on an empirical case analysis of compulsory urbanization in China, this study proposes that the material assistance and guarantee mechanism provided by the local government is of great significance in the process of rapid conversion of land-lost peasants to citizens. However, the local government needs to continue adopting various policy measures to support the land-lost peasants in order to further adapt to urban life and develop their identities as urban citizens. The local government should also maintain the balance between “compulsive” and “spontaneous” policy styles in the midst of urbanization, and transform the concept of urbanization from “economy-oriented” to “people-oriented”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
How Social Entrepreneurs’ Value Orientation Affects the Performance of Social Enterprises in Korea: The Mediating Effect of Social Entrepreneurship
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5341; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195341 - 27 Sep 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Efforts have been made to improve the performance of social enterprises through many studies on social entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurship. However, previous studies have conceptualized social entrepreneurship based on researches on commercial entrepreneurs. In addition, the scale used in the analysis of social [...] Read more.
Efforts have been made to improve the performance of social enterprises through many studies on social entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurship. However, previous studies have conceptualized social entrepreneurship based on researches on commercial entrepreneurs. In addition, the scale used in the analysis of social entrepreneurship focuses primarily on behavioral aspects. Although the social and economic values pursued by social enterprises are important virtues for social entrepreneurs, research on the value orientation of social entrepreneurship is insufficient. The essence of a social enterprise is creating social value based on financial sustainability, so the concept of blended value has been recently emphasized. This study analyzed the relationships among blended value orientation, social entrepreneurship, and the performance of social enterprises. The results indicate that the blended value orientation of social entrepreneurs influenced social entrepreneurship and performance; social entrepreneurship fully mediated blended value orientation and performance. These findings suggest that it is important to focus on the blended value orientation of social entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurship in the promotion and policies of social enterprises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
From the Host to the Home Country, the International Upgradation of EMNEs in Sustainability Industries—The Case of a Chinese PV Company
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5269; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195269 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
With the internationalization of firms from emerging-markets, the upgradation along the global value chain of emerging-market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) has attracted the attention of academics and industries. However, the role of upgradation of EMNEs in a host country to the transition of EMNEs [...] Read more.
With the internationalization of firms from emerging-markets, the upgradation along the global value chain of emerging-market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) has attracted the attention of academics and industries. However, the role of upgradation of EMNEs in a host country to the transition of EMNEs in the home country is ignored. This study explored how EMNEs from emerging-markets could upgrade their operations in their home countries driven by the transformation of subsidiaries in host countries. An in-depth analysis of Company S was conducted to elaborate on the resources and trigger time a firm needs to transform the function of a subsidiary in the host country, and the upgradation of the firm in the home country during the internationalization process. Research on the internationalization of Company S suggested that with the complementary capabilities and markets as the fundamental basic resources, the industrial crisis triggers the firm’s upgrading in the host country. In addition, the intrafirm (internal) market mechanism makes it possible to sustain the upgrading process without conflicts between subsidiaries. Moreover, synergies will develop through interactions with subsidiaries, owing to complementary capabilities and the internal market. The synergetic development promotes the transition of firms in the home country and emphasizes the complementarity of the manufacturing and engineering service. Finally, this study demonstrates the two-stage international upgrading process, in which the international upgrading of firms in the home country is driven by the development and transition of the subsidiary in the host country, which provides contributions to the internationalization upgrading strategy and process of firms from emerging-markets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Innovation Capability on Business Performance: A Focus on IT and Business Service Companies
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5246; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195246 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
With the introduction of a wide variety of new technologies during the fourth industrial revolution, companies in Korea have attempted to enhance their innovation activities, which include investment in new technology adoption, technical and non-technical innovation factors, and Research & Development (R&D) activity, [...] Read more.
With the introduction of a wide variety of new technologies during the fourth industrial revolution, companies in Korea have attempted to enhance their innovation activities, which include investment in new technology adoption, technical and non-technical innovation factors, and Research & Development (R&D) activity, to ensure the development and growth of their business performance and sustainability. In particular, IT and business services, two important industries in Korea, have been impacted by the development of new technology and have sought to adopt new technologies as soon as possible to survive in a rapidly changing business environment. The aim of our study is to empirically explore the effect of innovation activities on the performance of Korean IT and business service companies. To achieve this aim, we examine the innovation activities and business performance of 160 companies (80 large companies and 80 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)) in the IT and business service industries in Korea from 2009 to 2017. This study empirically analyzes panel data using fixed effect and random effect models with Hausman tests. According to our results, an improvement in product innovation has a positive impact on business performance (i.e., revenue and labor productivity) in both large companies and SMEs, as does R&D investment, research resources, and company age. However, an improvement in process innovation only has a positive impact on the business performance of large companies, and R&D cooperation only has a positive impact on the business performance of SMEs. As a result, both large companies and SMEs should concentrate on technological innovations to improve their sustainability and thus ensure their success in the long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Ambidexterity in External Knowledge Search Strategies and Innovation Performance: Mediating Role of Balanced Innovation and Moderating Role of Absorptive Capacity
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5111; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185111 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
The importance of external knowledge acquisition for innovation by firms is well established. In particular, there has been an increasing focus on the two distinct modes of firms’ external search strategies, which have a differential effect on their learning and innovation: search breadth [...] Read more.
The importance of external knowledge acquisition for innovation by firms is well established. In particular, there has been an increasing focus on the two distinct modes of firms’ external search strategies, which have a differential effect on their learning and innovation: search breadth and depth. By applying organizational ambidexterity lens, we hypothesize that pursuing high levels of both external search strategies is beneficial to achieve a balance between exploitative and explorative innovation, which, in turn, has a positive impact on the firm’s innovation performance. We also hypothesize that, even among the firms that maintain high levels of both search strategies, firms with higher absorptive capacity better achieve a balance between both modes of innovation, thereby producing higher performance. The findings on a multi-industry sample of Koran manufacturing firms confirm our hypotheses and imply that it is essential for firms to develop capabilities for different modes of external search activities in conjunction with internal absorptive capacity for superior innovation performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Open Innovation and Serial Entrepreneurs
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5055; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185055 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 25
Abstract
With the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the role of entrepreneurs has become more crucial than ever. As a result, an open innovation model is suggested here that can promote serial entrepreneurs by answering the following question: “How does the serial entrepreneur [...] Read more.
With the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the role of entrepreneurs has become more crucial than ever. As a result, an open innovation model is suggested here that can promote serial entrepreneurs by answering the following question: “How does the serial entrepreneur in open innovation conditions continuously identify business opportunities?” This question is answered through an in-depth case study of Medison from 1985 to 2016, as Medison is not only a representative Korean medical device company, but is also a representative example of serial entrepreneurship in Korea. First, we examined the diverse open innovation channels, such as spin-offs, venture investment, and joint venture, used by Medison before it was merged with Samsung. Second, we examined the open innovation serial entrepreneurs of Medison and then analyzed the direct serial entrepreneurs of Medison. Fourth, we built a causal loop model of Medison open innovation with emergence and complexity combined. Finally, a sustainable open innovation strategy and an approach to sustainable serial entrepreneurship was formulated. The foundation of this research is as follows. First, an open innovation strategy can be a strong motivator for serial entrepreneurs. Second, a balance between emergence and complexity is required to trigger sustainable serial entrepreneurs of open innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Technology Innovation Path Recognition: An Evaluation of Patent Risk of International Trade
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5002; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185002 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Patent protection is a critical aspect of sustainable technology innovation, which is currently facing the challenge of patent risk. This study aimed to help enterprises prevent and avoid patent risk in a global view of technology innovation, and to propose a systematic evaluation [...] Read more.
Patent protection is a critical aspect of sustainable technology innovation, which is currently facing the challenge of patent risk. This study aimed to help enterprises prevent and avoid patent risk in a global view of technology innovation, and to propose a systematic evaluation model for patent risk. By combining the entropy method with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), this study constructed an analytic hierarchy model of patent risk. Some indexes in the model were selected based on the summary of prior literature, and other indexes were selected according to experts’ communication, which helped us to generalize the patent risk as comprehensively as possible. The AHP evaluation results determined the weight and relative materiality for each risk factor, which were contained in a criteria layer and a sub-criteria layer. The entropy method integrated the evaluation weights of different experts’ opinions. By dividing the risk factors into three categories, namely “high”, “medium”, or “low”, according to the priority degree, the risk priority ranking was obtained. Suggestions are discussed regarding support for enterprises in dealing with patent risk that may occur during international trade or other commercial activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of a Firm’s Capability and Dyadic Relationship of the Knowledge Base on Ambidextrous Innovation in Biopharmaceutical M&As
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 4920; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11184920 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
In recent years, technological mergers and acquisitions (M&As) have become important strategic tools for enterprises to access and utilize new external knowledge. In particular, in the biopharmaceutical industry, M&A activities are actively being progressed due to an increase in new drug development costs, [...] Read more.
In recent years, technological mergers and acquisitions (M&As) have become important strategic tools for enterprises to access and utilize new external knowledge. In particular, in the biopharmaceutical industry, M&A activities are actively being progressed due to an increase in new drug development costs, a decrease in R&D productivity, and the patent expiration of blockbuster drugs. However, there is a lack of research on the integrated view of (1) the acquirer’s capability and (2) the dyadic relationship of the knowledge base between the acquirer and target on the innovation performance of the acquirer. Furthermore, there are few empirical studies on the impact of these factors on ambidextrous innovation; that is, exploitative and explorative innovation. Therefore, with this integrated view in mind, this study analyzed the effect of each factor on the exploitative and exploratory innovation performance of the acquirer. A negative binomial regression was conducted using patent data to measure the innovation outcome of the acquirer after M&A. The findings suggest that (1) the acquisition experience of the acquirer and (2) the technological commonness between the acquirer and the target both had a significant impact on the exploitation and exploration innovation performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Board Power Hierarchy, Corporate Mission, and Green Performance
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 4826; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11184826 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Green governance is the only way to build a community for humankind with a shared future. Existing research has concentrated more on the macro level rather than the micro level of green governance—the power hierarchy of the governance subjects and its influence on [...] Read more.
Green governance is the only way to build a community for humankind with a shared future. Existing research has concentrated more on the macro level rather than the micro level of green governance—the power hierarchy of the governance subjects and its influence on decision-making and the implementation of green governance. The board of directors is the main green governance body, and the consciousness and conducts of the green governance of board members are determined by corporate mission. As a result, we explored the mechanism of the impact of board power hierarchy on green governance performance through the influence of green governance conduct. To interpret this mechanism, we introduced relational contract theory and conducted an empirical analysis. The results show that board power hierarchy negatively affects green governance conduct. Corporate mission restrains the board power hierarchy’s negative influence on green governance conduct, showing that board power structure has a significantly positive effect on green governance performance through the mediator of green governance conduct. Therefore, the positive role of corporate mission is identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Collective Intelligence: An Emerging World in Open Innovation
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4495; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164495 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
Responding to the lack of empirical research on the effect of collective intelligence on open innovation in the fourth industrial revolution, we examined the relationship between collective intelligence and open innovation. Collective intelligence or crowd innovation not only produces creative ideas or inventions, [...] Read more.
Responding to the lack of empirical research on the effect of collective intelligence on open innovation in the fourth industrial revolution, we examined the relationship between collective intelligence and open innovation. Collective intelligence or crowd innovation not only produces creative ideas or inventions, but also moderates any firm to innovate inside-out, outside-in, or in a coupled manner. We asked the following research questions: Does collective intelligence (or crowd innovation) motivate open innovation? Is there any difference in the effect of collective intelligence on open innovation by industry? These research questions led to the following three hypotheses: (1) Collective intelligence increases the performance of a firm, (2) collective intelligence will moderate the effect of open innovation, and (3) differences exist between the automotive industry and the pharmaceutical industry in these two effects. To empirically examine these three hypotheses, we analyzed the registered patents of these two industries from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. These automotive and pharmaceutical patents were registered in the B60 category and the A61K category of the Korea Patent office, respectively. Collective intelligence was measured by co-invention. We found differences in the effects of collective intelligence on open innovation between the two industries. In the automotive industry, collective intelligence not only directly increased the performance, but also indirectly moderated the open innovation effect. However, this was not the case for the pharmaceutical industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
How Do Mobility Direction and Human Assets of Mobile Engineers Affect Joint Knowledge Creation after M&As?
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4417; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164417 - 15 Aug 2019
Abstract
We focused on mobile engineers, a distinctive employee group that may have unique reactions to mergers and acquisitions (M&As). Mobile engineers, employees that move from one firm to another, were previously recognized as an undesirable loss by most knowledge-intensive organizations. However, in this [...] Read more.
We focused on mobile engineers, a distinctive employee group that may have unique reactions to mergers and acquisitions (M&As). Mobile engineers, employees that move from one firm to another, were previously recognized as an undesirable loss by most knowledge-intensive organizations. However, in this study, we show that they may return to their former organizations as effective knowledge creators when their previous and new organizations unite through M&As. We specifically investigated how their mobility direction, relational assets, and intellectual assets affect the amount of knowledge that is jointly created through inter-personal collaborations following the M&A. Using the data of 410 mobile engineers in high-technology M&As during 2000–2004 in the United States, we found that the mobility direction from acquiring firms to targets prior to M&A has a positive impact on joint knowledge creation. We also found that such mobility direction positively moderates the relationship between human assets of mobile engineers and their joint knowledge creation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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