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Special Issue "Sustainability of Economy, Society, and Environment in the 4th Industrial Revolution"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. JinHyo Joseph Joseph Yun *

Techno Jungang Daero, Hyeonpung-myeon, Dalseong-Gun, Daegu, 42988, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82-53-785-4410 (010-6697-8355)
Interests: open innovation; business model; open innovation economy; social open innovation; schumpeterian dynamics; game theory; political economics; complexity
* Managing Guest Editor
Guest Editor
Dr. Zheng Liu

Business School, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, CF37 1DL, UK;Centre for Innovation and Development, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, No. 200 Xiaolingwei, Nanjing 210094, China
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +44-1443-4-83693
Interests: innovation ecosystem; open innovation; innovation strategy and policy; creative industry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue includes selected studies that contribute to our understanding of how sustainability of economy, environment, and society in the 4th industrial revolution is possible. This Special Issue attempts to answer to the requirement “How to respond to the 4th industrial revolution? Open Innovation and Cyber-Physics from Manufacturing to Service Industry, the theme of SOItmC 2018 conference”. This Special Issue seeks to collect theoretical and empirical studies on open innovation management, open innovation economy, open business models, open service innovation, open Cyber-Physics, and others. In addition to these 39 papers, which were selected from SOItmC 2018 special sessions, nearly more than 50 papers will be published in this Special Issue.

Dr. JinHyo Joseph Yun
Dr. Zheng Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  •  open innovation
  •  open business model
  •  service innovation
  •  Cyber-Physics
  •  sustainability
  •  complexity
  •  the 4th industrial revolution

Published Papers (32 papers)

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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Maturity of Project Portfolio Management and Business Alignment on PMO Efficiency
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010238
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 30 December 2018 / Published: 5 January 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this research is to analyze efficiencies of project management offices (PMOs) using the data envelopment analysis (DEA). As the post-analysis of the efficiency analysis, the causal factors affecting the efficiencies of PMOs were tested. 87 PMOs were used to analyze
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The purpose of this research is to analyze efficiencies of project management offices (PMOs) using the data envelopment analysis (DEA). As the post-analysis of the efficiency analysis, the causal factors affecting the efficiencies of PMOs were tested. 87 PMOs were used to analyze their efficiencies. In the constant returns-to-scale model, 11 PMOs were completely efficient and 76 PMOs were inefficient. In the variable returns-to-scale (VRS) model, 26 PMOs were efficient and 61 PMOs were inefficient. The efficiency analysis by the DEA has the advantage of deriving the scale efficiency for each DMU. From the result of the post-analysis, it was found that the PMO efficiency was positively influenced by the project portfolio management maturity (PPMM) and the degree of strategic alignments with the business goals. In conclusion, by improving PPMM and strengthening the strategic alignments with business goals, higher efficiency and performance of the PMO can be expected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Purchasing Counterfeits and Citizenship: Public Service Motivation Matters
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010103
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 1 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine how consumers’ public service motivation (PSM) is related to ethical consumption behaviors and how past experience of unethical behavior can reduce the impact of PSM on ethical consumer behaviors. A nationally representative sample from South
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The purpose of this study was to examine how consumers’ public service motivation (PSM) is related to ethical consumption behaviors and how past experience of unethical behavior can reduce the impact of PSM on ethical consumer behaviors. A nationally representative sample from South Korea was used to explore how PSM influences willingness to purchase fashion counterfeits and how the impact of PSM differs for those with and without past experience buying fashion counterfeits. Higher PSM was associated with less willingness to buy counterfeits. Past experience buying counterfeits was associated with greater willingness to buy counterfeits. Past experience buying counterfeits intervened between the impact of PSM and willingness to buy counterfeits such that the impact of PSM was weakened. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Technology Habitual Domain on Ambidextrous Innovation: Case Study of a Chinese High-Tech Enterprise
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4602; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124602
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
To obtain a sustainable competitive advantage in the dynamic environment, it is necessary for Chinese high-tech enterprises to focus on their technology habitual domains in formulating ambidextrous innovation strategy. This study integrates technology habitual domain, exploratory innovation and exploitative innovation within a framework
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To obtain a sustainable competitive advantage in the dynamic environment, it is necessary for Chinese high-tech enterprises to focus on their technology habitual domains in formulating ambidextrous innovation strategy. This study integrates technology habitual domain, exploratory innovation and exploitative innovation within a framework and explores the influence mechanism among them. Based on an in-depth case study on KTE, representing a high-tech enterprise in China, we have several findings. Firstly, we depict the evolution mechanism of technology habitual domain; secondly, we find that the high-tech enterprise’s technology habitual domain will cultivate and develop the firms’ dynamic capabilities; and thirdly, the expansion of technology habitual domain will promote exploitative innovation, while the transformation of technology habitual domain will promote exploratory innovation. These findings can be useful guidance for high-tech enterprises in China who are aiming to achieve ambidextrous innovation to better adapt to the turbulent environment, and thus achieving sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Architectural Design and Open Innovation Symbiosis: Insights from Research Campuses, Manufacturing Systems, and Innovation Districts
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4495; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124495
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the age of knowledge-based economies, open innovation has increasing importance. This study aimed to explore the architectural design approaches that can revitalize innovation activities in the era of knowledge-based economies. This paper investigated global case research campuses, manufacturing systems, and innovation districts
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In the age of knowledge-based economies, open innovation has increasing importance. This study aimed to explore the architectural design approaches that can revitalize innovation activities in the era of knowledge-based economies. This paper investigated global case research campuses, manufacturing systems, and innovation districts where architectural design supports innovation activities. This study developed a research framework of architectural design for innovation and applied it in the selected case studies to generate insights. First, the research campuses selected as case studies included Panopticon, DGIST Education and Research Campuses, and Apple Park. Second, the open innovation of manufacturing system architecture was analyzed through the case studies of the Ford Motor Company, Toyota Motor Corporation, and Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. Third, this paper studied the clustered open innovation architectures of Macquarie Park, One North, and Strijp-S Innovation Districts. The findings revealed how tacit knowledge motivates open innovation through the design of manufacturing systems, research campuses, and innovation districts through real examples and mathematical or concept model building. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhancing Road Network Resilience by Considering the Performance Loss and Asset Value
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4188; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114188
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we focus on resilience as the ability of specific infrastructure systems at the regional scale to absorb the shocks of extreme events, such as earthquakes. The occurrence of a disaster such as an earthquake leads to a rapid decrease in
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In this study, we focus on resilience as the ability of specific infrastructure systems at the regional scale to absorb the shocks of extreme events, such as earthquakes. The occurrence of a disaster such as an earthquake leads to a rapid decrease in infrastructure performance. In the case of road networks, performance might refer to the number of drivers using the road within a certain period of time. The objective of this study is to propose a quantitative evaluation method to analyze road network performance (or performance loss) when natural disasters occur. Furthermore, we use cluster analysis and consider the performance loss and asset value in an attempt to propose a method to determine the critical path that should be prioritized for maintenance. This study aimed at analyzing hazard resilience from the network aspect through a scenario analysis depending on damage recovery after disaster occurrence. This study compared the hazard resilience speed to recover existing performance according to the scenario for damage recovery targeting the selected road network. It was found that the total increase in the utility (e.g., total travel time saved) gradually diminished as the restoration cost increased. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Predictive Analytics Approach to Improve and Sustain College Students’ Non-Cognitive Skills and Their Educational Outcome
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4012; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114012
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
The application of predictive analytics in higher education has increasingly gained acceptance and interest over the years. In this study, a predictive model is developed to map students’ non-cognitive skills against their class performance. Our predictive analytics model identified the non-cognitive skills that
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The application of predictive analytics in higher education has increasingly gained acceptance and interest over the years. In this study, a predictive model is developed to map students’ non-cognitive skills against their class performance. Our predictive analytics model identified the non-cognitive skills that predicted new students’ class performance based on the dataset collected early in the semester. Based on the predictive analytics results, tailored teaching to improve students’ non-cognitive skills was offered in a required class designed for undergraduate business students. The improvement in the average final semester grade for students in the tailored-taught classes based on our predicted analytics approach was 9%, which was higher than that of the class grade taught without the approach. The study finding also demonstrates a long-term, sustainable positive effect to the students with the predictive analytics approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Corporate Sustainability and Green Innovation in an Emerging Economy—An Empirical Study in China
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3998; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113998
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 28 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Amid increased emphasis on sustainable development, understanding the sustainability initiative and practice of companies has attracted the attention of both academia and industry. Corporate sustainability combines triple values including environmental protection, social wellbeing, and economic benefit for companies. Drawing on institutional theory and
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Amid increased emphasis on sustainable development, understanding the sustainability initiative and practice of companies has attracted the attention of both academia and industry. Corporate sustainability combines triple values including environmental protection, social wellbeing, and economic benefit for companies. Drawing on institutional theory and employing an inductive case research method, we examine companies developing their green innovation and sustainability projects in a challenging context of China. Four representative case studies and in-depth interviews were conducted to examine how these firms overcome barriers in the less developed institutional environment. To better explain corporate sustainability with green innovations, a conceptual framework has been proposed to illustrate how firms operate in a network of relationship and cooperate with their external stakeholders. Firms’ strategies to dynamically achieve the aim of corporate sustainability were identified based on a co-evolutional mechanism in the interface between institutions and organizations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Construction IT Technology Convergence Innovation on Business Performance
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3972; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113972
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the era of the fourth Industrial revolution begins, there is high demand for new information technology (IT) innovation to address the challenges of a dramatically changing industrial landscape. The construction industry, which is one the most important traditional industries in Korea, has
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As the era of the fourth Industrial revolution begins, there is high demand for new information technology (IT) innovation to address the challenges of a dramatically changing industrial landscape. The construction industry, which is one the most important traditional industries in Korea, has adopted new IT innovation in their products to meet customer demand, regulation from government, energy efficiency, security, and so on. The aim of our study is to empirically clarify the impact of technology innovation on the business performance for Korean domestic construction conglomerates. The study performs an empirical analysis with time series analysis on business performance from the perspective of client satisfaction with the services the target companies provide and the production process improvement, as well as from a financial perspective. As analysis data, statistical data from the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning; Brand Stock; Bank of Korea; and each company are utilized, and the target companies for our study are limited to 19 construction companies with an apartment brand. Multiple regression analysis is used as a fundamental analysis methodology of our study. For Time Series Analysis, the Box Jenkins Model, namely, ARIMA is utilized. According to our results, it is found that any improvement of IT convergence innovation competence such as business efficiency IT index, collaboration IT index, and strategy management IT index has a positive impact on the production process, financial performance, and customer satisfaction with the services the companies provide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Green Governance: New Perspective from Open Innovation
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3845; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113845
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 21 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental problems caused by human behaviors have become increasingly serious in recent decades, thereby driving global green governance issue to become an important research agenda. The proper governance structure design and governance mechanism arrangement can effectively coordinate the relationship between human and nature.
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Environmental problems caused by human behaviors have become increasingly serious in recent decades, thereby driving global green governance issue to become an important research agenda. The proper governance structure design and governance mechanism arrangement can effectively coordinate the relationship between human and nature. Literatures have provided mixed evidence of harmonious development of economy, society and environment. However, few studies have examined the balance of interests between human appeal and natural environment from the perspective of governance. Open innovation activities can effectively deal with the externalities of resources and environment and then relatively balance the economic value and green value of organizations, which is an effective green governance mode, reflecting the characteristics of the main subject composition and mechanism operation of green governance. This paper attempts to build a green governance framework for the cooperation based on sustainable development among enterprises, governments, social organizations, the public and the nature. This paper examines the synergy between human and nature by presenting a framework, including related theories of green governance, innovation subjects, innovation mechanisms and innovation mode. Each country and region could use the suggested framework to develop green governance guidelines that are suitable for the environmental carrying capacity of their own countries or regions. Enterprises could use the suggested framework to develop green development strategies to coordinate the economic values and green values. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Promoting the Development of Enterprise Niche: Case Study on China’s Organizational Ambidexterity
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3806; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103806
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 14 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper aims to take the longitudinal development history of the Lenovo Cross-border complex nested R&D organization as the research object, to explore the development rules of enterprise niche. Strategic positioning is the core issue of enterprise management, and enterprise niche is the
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This paper aims to take the longitudinal development history of the Lenovo Cross-border complex nested R&D organization as the research object, to explore the development rules of enterprise niche. Strategic positioning is the core issue of enterprise management, and enterprise niche is the core issue of strategic positioning. This study elaborates on the three stages of enterprise R&D organizational ambidexterity promoting enterprise niche evolution, discusses the process model of space development, and reveals the life cycle of enterprise niche. It reveals the deep reason for promoting enterprise niche to develop—the ambidexterity of complex nested organization. The conclusion helps to promote the successful space development of enterprise niches through Cross-border merger and acquisition, and to enhance global sustainable development for the companies from emerging markets such as China. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fuzzy AHP, DEA, and Managerial Analysis for Supplier Selection and Development; From the Perspective of Open Innovation
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3779; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103779
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Supplier management is critical for supply chain management (SCM). The aim of supplier selection is to find an order of preference among potential suppliers. However, the ranking results for supplier selection may not be important, particularly when the performances are conflicting or have
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Supplier management is critical for supply chain management (SCM). The aim of supplier selection is to find an order of preference among potential suppliers. However, the ranking results for supplier selection may not be important, particularly when the performances are conflicting or have minor differences. Different criteria may have different impacts on the ranking results, and different decision makers may place different priorities on multiple criteria. Relatively worse suppliers may still have to be used for many practical reasons. One alternative is supplier development, but it has been focused on categorizing individual suppliers for possible action plans. A new framework is proposed in this research to address supplier selection and supplier development at the same time in the publishing and printing industries. First, the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) are sequentially performed to rank and select the best supplier(s) of a publishing company. In addition to ranking suppliers, a managerial analysis is proposed to assess the impact of important criteria on supplier selection in more detail. Finally, the results of the DEA are provided for direct supplier development without supplier categorization. This research shows that the proposed framework effectively addresses supplier development as well as supplier selection in the publishing and printing industries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On Technology in Innovation Systems and Innovation-Ecosystem Perspectives: A Cross-Linking Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3744; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103744
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the role of technology as it has been framed within Innovation System (IS) and Innovation Ecosystem (IE) literature research streams. The methodological choice is a systemic review that allows to focus on theoretical proposals by
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The purpose of this paper is to clarify the role of technology as it has been framed within Innovation System (IS) and Innovation Ecosystem (IE) literature research streams. The methodological choice is a systemic review that allows to focus on theoretical proposals by scholars and the identification of the commonalities regarding the pivotal role of technology and the differences in describing innovation-based mechanisms in both literatures. Results show that the key elements are the overall idea of technology as pivotal in driving innovation, the actors affecting technology and contributing to reach innovation-based goals, and the decisional process emerging because of technology. Furthermore, emerging features on evolution through time and knowledge-transforming mechanisms favored by technology in IE show an opportunity to learn in-depth from specific insights generated in both the literatures and to delineate a more comprehensive approach to technology related to innovation in wider interconnected contexts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Food Tourism Behavior on Food Festival Visitor’s Revisit Intention
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3534; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103534
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, the effects of novelty-seeking and food involvement on food tourism behavior and the effect of food tourism behavior on intention to revisit the Jeonju Bibimbab Food Festival are studied. Additionally, the effects of attitude, anticipated emotions, perceived behavioral control, and
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In this paper, the effects of novelty-seeking and food involvement on food tourism behavior and the effect of food tourism behavior on intention to revisit the Jeonju Bibimbab Food Festival are studied. Additionally, the effects of attitude, anticipated emotions, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms on intention to revisit through desire are identified. Three hundred and forty questionnaires are used for the study. These are analyzed with partial least squares structural equation model (PLS-SEM) using SmartPLS 2.0. The results show that two variables of novelty-seeking and food involvement have positive effects on food tourism behavior. It is also found that the effect of food involvement is higher on the food tourism behavior than that of novelty-seeking. This is because survey respondents are mostly domestic visitors, and for them, Bibimbab itself is familiar. In addition, the food tourism behavior has a significant effect on the intention to revisit the Jeonju Bibimbab festival. It implies that people who like to travel to enjoy food are also interested in the food festival. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Open Innovation Model of Coaching Interaction in Organisations for Sustainable Performance within the Life Cycle
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3516; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103516
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
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Abstract
Organizations need innovation to be competitive and sustainable on their marketplace. Sustainable performance is an important precondition for growth and development. In spite of a body of literature, non-financial factors of sustainable performance remain an open issue. Coaching has gained considerable attention in
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Organizations need innovation to be competitive and sustainable on their marketplace. Sustainable performance is an important precondition for growth and development. In spite of a body of literature, non-financial factors of sustainable performance remain an open issue. Coaching has gained considerable attention in the business world for its impact on sustainable performance. The current research investigates the use of coaching interaction to facilitate organizational sustainable growth and development in the context of Miller and Friesen’s five stage life-cycle model. The expert opinion survey is chosen as a central method of research. The questionnaire is developed on the literature review that is focused on the drivers for sustainable development throughout the life cycle, and the features of coaching that accelerate these driving forces. Fifteen experts took part in the survey conducted from November 2017 to January 2018. The results are estimated by considering the competence coefficient for each expert. The findings led to creation of an open innovation model, which displays relationships between the appropriate coaching forms and types and the organizational life cycle stages. The developed model enables choosing the optimal way of coaching delivery at any life cycle stage. This model is particularly valuable for the coaching support programs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Innovation System of the Animation Industry: Case Study of a Chinese Company
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3213; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093213
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
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Abstract
In the past 10 years, the animation industry has developed rapidly due to new technology and market expansion. Leading firms such as Disney are continuously seeking strategies to expand business towards products and service innovation, whereas Pixar and DreamWorks focus mainly on technology
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In the past 10 years, the animation industry has developed rapidly due to new technology and market expansion. Leading firms such as Disney are continuously seeking strategies to expand business towards products and service innovation, whereas Pixar and DreamWorks focus mainly on technology management. Driven by market and government policy, there is a blooming of the animation industry in China. However, most Chinese companies, in shortage of knowledge and experience, are unclear about innovation strategies. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the innovation system of China’s animation industry as a late comer. The literature is covered together with an industry review. To further explore the details, an in-depth case study into a Chinese company is conducted. This company has developed an open innovation system by interacting with industry, university and government; meanwhile, it is penetrating into the character business and service sector, seeking for sustainability. Findings indicate that a combination of internal knowledge management and open innovation is important; government plays a vital role at the early stage of forming the innovation system; innovation is a dynamic process with different configurations at each stage. Discussions are given to address the critical issues of the innovation system in the animation industry, followed by conclusions and recommendations for future research areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Platform Adoption Factors in the Internet Industry
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3185; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093185
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1021 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examines the factors influencing the choices of Internet platform services by applying the technology acceptance model. For this purpose, the analysis is conducted with 222 people who use different types of Internet platforms by utilizing structural equation modeling. The results show
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This study examines the factors influencing the choices of Internet platform services by applying the technology acceptance model. For this purpose, the analysis is conducted with 222 people who use different types of Internet platforms by utilizing structural equation modeling. The results show that perceived usefulness had positive effects on the intention to use, perceived ease of use, diversity, and security risks affected by the perceived usefulness, and the indirect influences on the intention to use. In addition, satisfaction (in relation to service quality) was found to affect both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. This research is significant because it will make it possible to predict users’ perceptions of Internet platforms, which is important for establishing relevant strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Network Structure on Performance in South Korea SMEs: The Moderating Effects of Absorptive Capacity
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3174; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093174
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
This study has analyzed how the network structure (density, centrality) affects the performance (convergence, overall) in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) with the different business exchange activities. In addition, we conducted a moderating effect of absorptive capacity (ability, motivation). Based on previous literature
[...] Read more.
This study has analyzed how the network structure (density, centrality) affects the performance (convergence, overall) in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) with the different business exchange activities. In addition, we conducted a moderating effect of absorptive capacity (ability, motivation). Based on previous literature about the network and absorptive capacity, research hypotheses were developed and tested using a sample of 226 SMEs in South Korea. The results show that network density and centrality have a positive effect on perceived convergence and overall performance. These results are consistent with previous network studies relating to structural characteristics. To raise total performances in firms with different business exchange activities, they need to enhance density and centrality. For example, firms with different business exchange activities and high levels of density and centrality are able to easily obtain various types of information from other members of 7000 firms in Korea. Through this, they can improve performance. We also conducted the moderated regression analysis. The results show that employee ability has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between centrality and the overall performance while employee motivation has a negative moderating effect. The implications and directions for future study along with limitations are presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Factors Affecting Pricing in Patent Licensing Contracts in the Biopharmaceutical Industry
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3143; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093143
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper analyzes factors affecting pricing in patent licensing contracts in the biopharmaceutical industry based on a dataset that includes royalty-related data such as running royalty rate, up-front payment, milestones, and deal value. Data on drug candidates for 11 drug classes is obtained
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This paper analyzes factors affecting pricing in patent licensing contracts in the biopharmaceutical industry based on a dataset that includes royalty-related data such as running royalty rate, up-front payment, milestones, and deal value. Data on drug candidates for 11 drug classes is obtained for regression analysis between royalty-related data and multiple input descriptors such as market factors, licensor factors, and licensee factor in order to derive the formula for predicting royalty-related estimates such as royalty rate, up-front payment, milestones, and deal value. Data is gathered from multiple sources including MedTrack and is processed through merging and cleaning. We found that the three most important factors in pricing in patent licensing in the biopharmaceutical industry are CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate), PDELR (Previous Deal Experience of Licensor), and AR (Attrition Rate). We found that factors in the formula used to estimate the license fee are totally different by drug class. We found that the three most important factors in the frequency in the formula used to estimate the license fee are PDELR, RnDLR (R&D Costs of Licensor), and PDELE (Previous Deal Experience of Licensee). This study suggests a method of estimating the proper royalty rate, up-front payment, milestones, and deal value of the drug candidates of 11 drug classes by using easily obtained input data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Community-led Governance in Innovation Diffusion: The Case of RFID Waste Pricing System in the Republic of Korea
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3125; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093125
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
This study explores the role of community-led governance in innovation adoption by drawing determinants of RFID waste pricing system adoption. The Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Korea adopted an individual-incentive based RFID waste pricing system for apartment complexes in 2013 in
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This study explores the role of community-led governance in innovation adoption by drawing determinants of RFID waste pricing system adoption. The Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Korea adopted an individual-incentive based RFID waste pricing system for apartment complexes in 2013 in an effort to reduce food waste. After invention and wide usage during World War Two, RFID has received lots of intention especially in public policy field. This innovative system using RFID machines and RFID tag-embedded cards showed effectiveness in waste reduction. Residents of each apartment complex decide whether and when to adopt the RFID system. Based on innovation diffusion theory, we would like to draw which determinant factors most affect RFID pricing system adoption. Although innovation diffusion is dependent on community level, many previous studies surveyed individuals and asked them about organizational adoption. We use non-perceptional data representing the characteristics of the level of apartment complex. This study, relying on ecological variables collected from 2018 apartment complexes across 25 autonomous districts located in Seoul City, explores significant factors related to the process of the RFID adoption. According to the empirical results, there were two important determinants: how much information the government provided, and how the apartment complex residents have opportunity to gather opinion and decide the RFID pricing system adoption. We emphasize the importance of community-led governance in adopting an innovative environmental system and how community-led governance contributes to sustainable innovation adoption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Characteristics of SMEs Preferring Cooperative Research and Development Support from the Government: The Case of Korea
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3048; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093048
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
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Abstract
To find ways to make the government’s cooperative research and development (R&D) support policy for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) more effective, we analyzed the characteristics of SMEs that prefer such support. Through decision tree and discriminant analysis of 3300 Korean SMEs, we
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To find ways to make the government’s cooperative research and development (R&D) support policy for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) more effective, we analyzed the characteristics of SMEs that prefer such support. Through decision tree and discriminant analysis of 3300 Korean SMEs, we derived rules to distinguish between groups that prefer cooperative R&D support and those that do not. Based on the results, the important influencing factors were found to be the time required for R&D planning, prior experience in cooperation, the availability of equipment, the ratio of self-procured R&D funding, the attempts at R&D and the firm’s level of performance. The results suggested that if the policy objective is to encourage more active involvement of SMEs in cooperative R&D support programs, it is desirable to attract SMEs with less cooperative experience and not to give too much weight to past achievements when selecting beneficiaries. Furthermore, we believe that policies offering supports in the R&D planning stage and the joint utilization of equipment could be solutions to reduce the practical difficulties experienced by SMEs related to cooperative R&D. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Machine Learning Approach to the Residential Relocation Distance of Households in the Seoul Metropolitan Region
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10092996
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of a machine learning approach to the description of residential mobility patterns of households in the Seoul metropolitan region (SMR). The spatial range and temporal scope of the empirical study were set to 2015 to review
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This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of a machine learning approach to the description of residential mobility patterns of households in the Seoul metropolitan region (SMR). The spatial range and temporal scope of the empirical study were set to 2015 to review the most recent residential mobility patterns in the SMR. The analysis data used in this study included the Internal Migration Statistics microdata provided by the Microdata Integrated Service of Statistics Korea. We analysed the residential relocation distance of households in the SMR using machine learning techniques, such as ordinary least squares regression and decision tree regression. The results of this study showed that a decision tree model can be more advantageous than ordinary least squares regression in terms of explanatory power and estimation of moving distance. A large number of residential movements are mainly related to the accessibility to employment markets and some household characteristics. The shortest movements occur when households with two or more members move into densely populated districts. In contrast, job-based residential movements are relatively farther. Furthermore, we derived knowledge on residential relocation distance, which can provide significant information for the urban management of metropolitan residential districts and the construction of reasonable housing policies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Measuring the Inclusive Growth of China’s Coastal Regions
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2863; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082863
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
Inclusive growth captures the need to alleviate the problems of global income disparity and poverty, particularly in Asia. The study’s goal is to construct an indicator system that measures the inclusive growth of 11 coastal provinces and cities in China from five aspects,
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Inclusive growth captures the need to alleviate the problems of global income disparity and poverty, particularly in Asia. The study’s goal is to construct an indicator system that measures the inclusive growth of 11 coastal provinces and cities in China from five aspects, namely, survival, capacity, development, freedom, and opportunity, examining the area from 2000 to 2015. The system is based on Bossel’s basic orientor indicator framework. Dynamic changes in overall levels in the five fields are investigated and spatial differences calculated using the Gini coefficient. Among the provinces, Guangxi shows the strongest survival conditions, giving it an advantage over other regions. Shanghai has the highest level of capacity and freedom. Guangdong has the strongest development momentum, but this appears to be weakening. Finally, Shandong shows many more social opportunities. The study suggests that inclusive growth in the area has increased as a result of the area’s rapid development, but the growth rates remain low. The level of inclusive growth shows a large gap across the regions. Gini coefficient differences show that the eastern coastal areas have strong development trends, whereas the northern and southern coastal areas show weaker ones. We also offer suggestions on how to promote inclusive growth in these regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Regional Innovation Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems: The Case of Lagging European Regions
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2862; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082862
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
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Abstract
This article proposes an agent-based model to support the development of self-sustaining regional innovation systems (RIS). The model is the base of a computational laboratory, CARIS (Complex Adaptive Regional Innovation System), which aims at evaluating the self-sustainability of RIS and at investigating what
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This article proposes an agent-based model to support the development of self-sustaining regional innovation systems (RIS). The model is the base of a computational laboratory, CARIS (Complex Adaptive Regional Innovation System), which aims at evaluating the self-sustainability of RIS and at investigating what are the resources, competencies and mechanisms able to trigger powerful innovation and economic growth processes. Such a topic is particularly interesting for the so-called lagging regions, which, notwithstanding noticeable policy interventions, have been unable to significantly improve their innovation performances. Results of this study show that the exploration capacity, the propensity to cooperation, and the endowed competencies of actors belonging to a region could be considered as key aspects in affecting the regional innovation performance. This means that policy-makers should (i) incentivize investments in research and development activities both at the public and private levels; (ii) support public-private partnerships; (iii) enhance national and regional university systems; and (iv) increase the number of researchers employed both in the public and private sectors. In the next future, the CARIS laboratory could be adopted as policy support instrument to evaluate how much effective are current innovation policies and what are the most effective ones to reassess the current patterns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structural Relationship and Influence between Open Innovation Capacities and Performances
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2787; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082787
Received: 24 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
Previous studies related to open innovation have presented piecewise implications in relation to various knowledge management capacities. The study published by Lichtenthaler and Lichtenthaler in 2009 presented a model that combines the various open innovation capacities of firms in view of a mix
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Previous studies related to open innovation have presented piecewise implications in relation to various knowledge management capacities. The study published by Lichtenthaler and Lichtenthaler in 2009 presented a model that combines the various open innovation capacities of firms in view of a mix of knowledge management, dynamic capability and absorptive capacity. Despite these efforts, there have been few empirical studies on the relationships among capacities, or between capacities and performance from an integrated perspective. Therefore, this study seeks to clarify the relationships among knowledge capacities and between knowledge capacities, technological innovation and financial performance at the firm level. Our findings are that the transformative, connective, inventive and absorptive capacities both directly and indirectly affects technological innovation performance; and innovative and desorptive capacities are the key factors connecting technological innovation to financial performance. This study provides managerial implications for the balanced development of the various knowledge capacities and the improvement of technological innovation and financial performance for firm knowledge managers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle How Social Entrepreneurs Affect Performance of Social Enterprises in Korea: The Mediating Effect of Innovativeness
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2643; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082643
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
Schumpeter argued that entrepreneurship brings about creative destruction in capitalist economies. South Korea enacted the Social Enterprise Promotion Act in 2007 to promote corporate social enterprise. However, despite government support, social enterprises in Korea are not successful, especially in social and economic performance,
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Schumpeter argued that entrepreneurship brings about creative destruction in capitalist economies. South Korea enacted the Social Enterprise Promotion Act in 2007 to promote corporate social enterprise. However, despite government support, social enterprises in Korea are not successful, especially in social and economic performance, which is defined as the social and economic value that social enterprises should pursue. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 100 social entrepreneurs, and the structural equation model was used as the research method. The results of the analysis are as follows. Openness and innovativeness have a positive direct impact on economic as well as social performance. In addition, openness and innovativeness play a mediating role not only in social performance, but also in economic performance. This paper suggests theoretical and policy implications based on the above analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle ESG and Corporate Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence from China’s Listed Power Generation Companies
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2607; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082607
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Nowadays, listed companies around the world are shifting from short-term goals of maximizing profits to long-term sustainable environmental, social, and governance (ESG) goals. People have come to realize that ESG has become an important source of the corporate risk and may affect the
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Nowadays, listed companies around the world are shifting from short-term goals of maximizing profits to long-term sustainable environmental, social, and governance (ESG) goals. People have come to realize that ESG has become an important source of the corporate risk and may affect the company’s financial performance and profitability. Recent research shows that good ESG performance could improve the financial performance in some countries. Yet, the question of “how does ESG affect financial performance” has not been thoroughly discussed and studied in China. In this article, we study China’s listed power generation groups to explore the relationship between ESG performance and financial indicators in the energy power market based on the panel regression model. The results show that good ESG performance can indeed improve financial performance, which has significant meanings for investors, company management, decisionmakers, and industry regulators. Full article
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Open AccessArticle How Intellectual Property Management Capability and Network Strategy Affect Open Technological Innovation in the Korean New Information Communications Technology Industry
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2600; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082600
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper analyses factors in open innovation activity in the Korean new information and communications technology (ICT) industry, with a focus on cooperation network strategy and intellectual property (IP) management capability, by applying multiple regression models with data collected from 300 companies within
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This paper analyses factors in open innovation activity in the Korean new information and communications technology (ICT) industry, with a focus on cooperation network strategy and intellectual property (IP) management capability, by applying multiple regression models with data collected from 300 companies within the industry. The results of this analysis suggested that the intensity and variation of a company’s technological cooperation with a new ICT company has a statistically meaningful impact on its innovation. In particular, the impact depended on the type of cooperation network. Though IP management capability was also shown to have an important influence on a new ICT company’s innovation, the impact of specific actions for IP management varied by the specific type of innovation results. This study suggests that new ICT companies need to construct technological innovation networks using multiple external sources and enhance their IP management capability in order to increase their technological innovation performance. The factors influencing technological innovation are elements of open innovation, indicating the open technological innovativeness of the new ICT Industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Open Innovation on Technology Value and Technology Transfer: A Comparative Analysis of the Automotive, Robotics, and Aviation Industries of Korea
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2459; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072459
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
With the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the Korean industrial environment has been rapidly changing. As a result, several industries are facing different innovation conditions, including: the automotive industry, which is a traditional manufacturing industry in Korea; the aerospace industry, which has
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With the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the Korean industrial environment has been rapidly changing. As a result, several industries are facing different innovation conditions, including: the automotive industry, which is a traditional manufacturing industry in Korea; the aerospace industry, which has been vertically integrated, and has been led by a single large company—Korea Aerospace Industries—since Korea went through an economic crisis in the 1990s; and the robotics industry, which is currently emerging. This study used parameters related to patents originating from the automobile, robotics, and aerospace fields. The patents subjected to analysis were those registered in Korea from 2001 to 2014, and included those that were applied for, jointly applied for, or registered by Korean companies. This study analyzed the differences caused by the effect of open innovation in the three industries. According to our results, first, the three industries experienced different effects of open innovation. Second, when large companies controlled a given industry, open innovation either worked a little or did not work at all. According to this research result, the Korean robotics industry, which has a weak dominance of large companies, experienced a strong effect of open innovation, in that joint patent applications led to economic gains from the patents and an increase in technology transfer and technology value. The aerospace industry of Korea, which has the highest dominance of large companies, experienced a slight effect of open innovation, as the effect of joint patent application only improved the technology value. Finally, the automotive industry of Korea had an intermediate level of open innovation, between the aerospace and robotics sectors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Is Narcissism Sustainable in CEO Leadership of State-Owned Enterprises?
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072425
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
The state sector has been an important part of many economies. This study measures the narcissism of the chief executive officers (CEOs) of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) unobtrusively, and examines the effect of narcissism on the performance and accounting earnings management of firms. This
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The state sector has been an important part of many economies. This study measures the narcissism of the chief executive officers (CEOs) of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) unobtrusively, and examines the effect of narcissism on the performance and accounting earnings management of firms. This study shows that the narcissism of CEOs positively affects the performance of SOEs, and that the positive effect is a result of real management decisions rather than accounting earnings management. It also shows that CEO narcissism does not affect the earnings management of SOEs. However, this relation changes as the tenure of the CEO gets longer. As tenure gets longer, a CEO’s narcissism negatively affects the performance of a SOE, and a CEO with high narcissism is likely to be involved in earnings management to make up for weak performance. This study suggests that narcissism is not a sustainable leadership style. It also suggests that the personal characteristics of executives in public corporations are important in determining the performance of firms. While a longer tenure ensures that a CEO will pursue his/her strategy steadily, the leadership of a narcissistic CEO becomes negative and ineffective as their tenure gets longer. Considering the importance of SOEs in the economy, this is an important policy implication, as the appointment of a CEO and length of tenure are likely to be determined by the government. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Role of International Entrepreneurial Orientation in Successful Internationalization from the Network Capability Perspective
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061709
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
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Abstract
Purpose/Research Question: In general, networks have played a role in improving innovation, and early-stage companies adopt an entrepreneurial orientation to secure competitiveness. In other words, the companies would like to penetrate global markets due to the CEO’s international entrepreneurial orientation. In addition, by
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Purpose/Research Question: In general, networks have played a role in improving innovation, and early-stage companies adopt an entrepreneurial orientation to secure competitiveness. In other words, the companies would like to penetrate global markets due to the CEO’s international entrepreneurial orientation. In addition, by utilizing their networks, the companies would like to improve their international performance. Relatively few studies have been devoted to investigating the empirical relationships between entrepreneurial orientation, networks, and international performance. In particular, technology-based firms are one of the best samples. Therefore, this study aims to explore the characteristics of the firms and then investigate comprehensively and empirically the relationships between international entrepreneurial orientation, networks, and international performance, based on data from technology-based firms in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study analyzes data from technology-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) using structural equation modeling (SEM). It assumes that networks will play a moderating role in the relationships between international entrepreneurial orientation and international performance. We carried out the survey after conducting interviews with CEOs of SMEs. Findings/Results: International entrepreneurial orientation has a significant effect on international performance. Moreover, the stronger the networks that SMEs have with other stakeholders such as universities, industries, and technoparks, the higher their international performance. With stronger networks, tech-based SMEs have easier access to useful technologies and hence better international performance. Research Limitations/Implications: There are some limitations to this study. First of all, the study relied heavily on quantitative methods, such as surveys. This approach is inadequate for considering individuals’ in-depth opinions. Therefore, future research utilizing both qualitative and quantitative measures needs to be carried out. Second, this study has some academic limitations. In fact, this study considered restricted factors regarding innovation and networks; thus it is necessary to evaluate other variables such as environmental factors (e.g., regulations or support policies) that might be significantly associated with networks and innovation hereafter. Finally, due to the fact that this study was focused on SMEs, it is difficult to generalize the above results. However, this study implies that stronger network ties improve international performance, thus SMEs must establish and reinforce networks to improve the performance. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Systematic Literature Review for Better Understanding of Lean Driven Sustainability
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2544; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072544
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
Global trends and factors, such as the increased level of globalization, climate change, resource scarcity, and awareness of social and environmental responsibilities, as well as fiercer competition and lower profit margins in all industries, force organizations to act to retain, regain, or sustain
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Global trends and factors, such as the increased level of globalization, climate change, resource scarcity, and awareness of social and environmental responsibilities, as well as fiercer competition and lower profit margins in all industries, force organizations to act to retain, regain, or sustain their competitive advantages for long-term survival. These trends and factors are historically known to bring about innovations that drive the evolution of industries. Sustainability is considered to be such an innovation to achieve fiscally sound, environmentally conscious, and socially progressive organizations and supply chains. This study reviewed 477 past articles published in five major databases from 1990 to 2018. The purpose of the study was to assess the current state-of-the art in the subject of lean-driven sustainability. Based on the exhaustive descriptive and contextual analysis, synergies, divergences, and the extent of two-way permeability of lean and sustainability concepts from the perspective of intra- and inter-organizational operations were identified along with future research opportunities. Fundamental strengths and weaknesses of both concepts, existing strong synergies and untapped potential, along with their key contributors, the potential-use cases of lean tools to derive sustainable solutions are highlighted in this review. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report Critical Success Factors of a Design Startup Business
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 2981; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10092981
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
Recent trends of new venture startups have paved the way for the expansion of the design industry and opened new windows of opportunity for the traditionally small and non-specialized design business. In this environment, design startups are rapidly growing in modern society, and
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Recent trends of new venture startups have paved the way for the expansion of the design industry and opened new windows of opportunity for the traditionally small and non-specialized design business. In this environment, design startups are rapidly growing in modern society, and thus meeting the needs of consumers through the development of innovative products, processes, and services. This study aims to determine the critical success factors affecting design startups. To this end, the concept and success variables of startup businesses were studied based on previous research, and then key success factors of design startups were identified. A total of 24 experts, from 12 design-based small venture startups and 12 technology-based small and medium startups, were surveyed regarding their priorities related to these factors, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results suggest that idea commercialization is the most important success factor as an innovation criterion among the four success criteria of design startups. Hence, entrepreneurial conditions, such as goal-orientation and entrepreneurs’ competence, are important success factors for design startups. Full article
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