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Special Issue "State of the Art and Future Perspectives in Smart and Sustainable Urban Development"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Urban and Rural Development".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 29593

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Tan Yigitcanlar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Architecture and Built Environment, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
Interests: smart technologies, communities, cities and urbanism; knowledge-based development of cities and innovation districts; sustainable and resilient cities, communities and urban ecosystems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the age of climate, disaster, and pandemic catastrophes, it is of the utmost importance to transform our cities into sustainable, resilient, robust, and livable ones. Simply, smart and sustainable urban development is critical to meet our growing needs for natural resources, industrial products, energy, food, transportation, shelter, and effective waste management, while conserving and protecting environmental quality and the natural resource base essential for future life and development.

This Special Issue will contribute to improving research and practice in smart and sustainable urban development by bringing an informed understanding of the subject to scholars, policymakers, and practitioners. This Special Issue seeks contributions—in the form of research articles, literature reviews, case reports, or short communications—offering insights into the smart and sustainable urban development by conducting in-depth conceptual debates, detailed case study descriptions, thorough empirical investigations, systematic literature reviews, or forecasting analyses. This Special Issue will be a repository of relevant information, material, and knowledge to support research, policymaking, practice, and transferability of experiences to address the urbanization and other planetary challenges.

The scope of the Special Issue—that compiles the cutting-edge work of researchers that investigate the state of the art and future perspectives in smart and sustainable urban development—includes the following broad areas, although other relevant topics will also be considered:

  • Theoretical and conceptual underpinnings and analytical and policy frameworks of smart and sustainable urban development;
  • Methodological and technical approaches for the evaluation and forecasting of smart and sustainable urban development;
  • Technological progress, developments, and trials concerning the quadruple bottom-line development of smart and sustainable cities;
  • Global best and good practice smart and sustainable urban development case investigations, demonstrations, and reports;
  • Smart and sustainable urban development planning, design, applications, and governance models to deliver desired urban outcomes;
  • Premises, pitfalls, implications, and impacts concerning the future of urbanization and smart and sustainable urban development.

Prof. Dr. Tan Yigitcanlar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

The following is a list of relevant keywords for this Special Issue, although papers on other related subjects are also welcome:

  • Smart and sustainable urban development policy, planning, design, and governance
  • Smart and sustainable urban development goals, indicators, and frameworks
  • Smart and sustainable cities, communities, districts, precincts, buildings, and homes
  • Smart and sustainable urban infrastructures, services, amenities, and systems
  • Smart and sustainable urban technologies, data, platforms, and structures
  • Climate change, natural disasters, pandemics, social inequality, and urbanization challenges
  • Post-Anthropocene, post-capitalist, post-pandemic, post-disaster, and future living
  • Artificial intelligence, blockchain, sensors, internet-of-things, and autonomous vehicles
  • Green technologies, virtual reality, augmented reality, robotics, domotics, and digital twins

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Towards Smart and Sustainable Urban Electromobility: An Editorial Commentary
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2264; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042264 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 737
Abstract
In the age of anthropogenic climate change, developing smart and sustainable transport systems is among the most popular urban policy debates [...] Full article
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Research

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Article
A Distributed Mix-Context-Based Method for Location Privacy in Road Networks
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12513; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212513 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Preserving location privacy is increasingly an essential concern in Vehicular Adhoc Networks (VANETs). Vehicles broadcast beacon messages in an open form that contains information including vehicle identity, speed, location, and other headings. An adversary may track the various locations visited by a vehicle [...] Read more.
Preserving location privacy is increasingly an essential concern in Vehicular Adhoc Networks (VANETs). Vehicles broadcast beacon messages in an open form that contains information including vehicle identity, speed, location, and other headings. An adversary may track the various locations visited by a vehicle using sensitive information transmitted in beacons such as vehicle identity and location. By matching the vehicle identity used in beacon messages at various locations, an adversary learns the location history of a vehicle. This compromises the privacy of the vehicle driver. In existing research work, pseudonyms are used in place of the actual vehicle identity in the beacons. Pseudonyms should be changed regularly to safeguard the location privacy of vehicles. However, applying simple change in pseudonyms does not always provide location privacy. Existing schemes based on mix zones operate efficiently in higher traffic environments but fail to provide privacy in lower vehicle traffic densities. In this paper, we take the problem of location privacy in diverse vehicle traffic densities. We propose a new Crowd-based Mix Context (CMC) privacy scheme that provides location privacy as well as identity protection in various vehicle traffic densities. The pseudonym changing process utilizes context information of road such as speed, direction and the number of neighbors in transmission range for the anonymisation of vehicles, adaptively updating pseudonyms based on the number of a vehicle neighbors in the vicinity. We conduct formal modeling and specification of the proposed scheme using High-Level Petri Nets (HPLN). Simulation results validate the effectiveness of CMC in terms of location anonymisation, the probability of vehicle traceability, computation time (cost) and effect on vehicular applications. Full article
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Article
Risk, Recessions, and Resilience: Towards Sustainable Local Labor Markets through Employment Portfolio Analysis
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 7926; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147926 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 542
Abstract
This paper explores the role of local labor market dynamics on the survival of new businesses. The characteristics of the local labor market are likely to influence the survival of new businesses, the level of entrepreneurship, and the resilience of the regional economy. [...] Read more.
This paper explores the role of local labor market dynamics on the survival of new businesses. The characteristics of the local labor market are likely to influence the survival of new businesses, the level of entrepreneurship, and the resilience of the regional economy. We apply portfolio theory to evaluate employment-based and income-based measures of risk-and-return trade-offs in local labor markets on new business survival in the United States. Our results show that volatility in local labor markets has a positive impact on new business survival, especially in Metropolitan Statistical Areas. The results are robust across different timeframes, including during economic downturns, thus highlighting the contribution of new businesses in developing the resilience of the local economy, and further promoting sustainable regional economic development. Full article
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Article
Urban Morphological Feature Extraction and Multi-Dimensional Similarity Analysis Based on Deep Learning Approaches
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6859; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126859 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
The study of urban morphology contributes to the evolution of cities and sustainable development. Urban morphological feature extraction and similarity analysis represents a practical framework in many studies to interpret and introduce the current built environment to aid in proposing novel designs. In [...] Read more.
The study of urban morphology contributes to the evolution of cities and sustainable development. Urban morphological feature extraction and similarity analysis represents a practical framework in many studies to interpret and introduce the current built environment to aid in proposing novel designs. In conventional methods, morphological features are represented based on qualitative descriptions, symbolical interpretation, or manually selected indicators. However, these methods could cause subjective bias and limit the generalizability. This study proposes a hybrid data-driven approach to support quantitative morphological descriptions and multi-dimensional similarity analysis for urban design decision-making and to further morphology-related studies using information abundance via a deep-learning approach. We constructed a dataset of 3817 residential plots with geometrical and related infrastructure information. A deep convolutional neural network, GoogLeNet, was implemented with the plots’ figure–ground images, by quantifying the morphological features into 2048-dimensional feature vectors. We conducted a similarity analysis of the plots by calculating the Euclidean distance between the high-dimensional feature vectors. Then, a comparison study was performed by retrieving cases based on the plot shape and plots with buildings separately. The proposed method considers the overall characteristics of the urban morphology and social infrastructure situations for similarity analysis. This method is flexible and effective. The proposed framework indicates the feasibility and potential of integrating task-oriented information to introduce custom and adequate references via deep learning methods, which could support decision making and association studies on morphology with urban consequences. This work could serve as a basis for further typo-morphology studies and other morphology-related ecological, social, and economic studies for sustainable built environments. Full article
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Article
How to Sustain Sustainability Monitoring in Cities: Lessons from 49 Community Indicator Initiatives across 10 Latin American Countries
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 5133; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13095133 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
Since the 1990s, many countries have witnessed the emergence of organizations publishing environmental, social, and quality-of-life indicators at a city level in order to promote public awareness, democratic participation, and sustainability policies. Many such initiatives are short-lived, however, and reasons for their success [...] Read more.
Since the 1990s, many countries have witnessed the emergence of organizations publishing environmental, social, and quality-of-life indicators at a city level in order to promote public awareness, democratic participation, and sustainability policies. Many such initiatives are short-lived, however, and reasons for their success and failure under-researched. Using interviews, surveys, and documental data, we explored the survival rates, obstacles, and achievements of 49 initiatives in 10 Latin American countries. Contrary to those in other world regions, most initiatives have civil society stakeholders (notably universities, media, and businesses), excluding governments. Implementing citizen perception surveys proved effective to gain public attention. Several initiatives obtained name recognition and policy influence, which are significant achievements in megacities such as Bogotá, São Paulo, and Lima, where numerous NGOs vie for attention. Frequent obstacles include a lack of finances. After a seven-year period (2014–2021), 55% of the sampled initiatives remained active, ranging from 90% in Colombia to none in other countries. Organizational continuity appeared to be associated with network membership and discontinuity with diverging obstacles, including political pressures in some countries (e.g., Mexico), data scarcity in poorer ones (e.g., Bolivia), and a lack of sustained interest in relatively richer ones (e.g., Chile). Recent increases in socio-economic inequalities are strengthening the potential of community indicators. Full article
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Article
Learning and Teaching Interdisciplinary Skills in Sustainable Urban Development—The Case of Tampere University, Finland
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031180 - 23 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Developing the economic, environmental, and social sustainability of urban environments is challenging due to the complex and interconnected nature of the context and objectives. In order to be successful in this challenging environment, professionals working in the urban development arena should have a [...] Read more.
Developing the economic, environmental, and social sustainability of urban environments is challenging due to the complex and interconnected nature of the context and objectives. In order to be successful in this challenging environment, professionals working in the urban development arena should have a holistic understanding of the different pillars of sustainable development, as well as various competencies and skills. This paper looks at sustainable urban development (SUD) from the perspective of the skills and competencies required and identifies effective pedagogic practices that could help educate future professionals. In particular, we explore interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary learning, reflective thinking, and experiential learning, which are needed for understanding various aspects of a complex phenomenon, collaborating with professionals from different fields and coming up with novel and constructive ways of solving complex problems. We first examine these through reviewing and analyzing relevant literature on education for sustainable development, with a focus on SUD. Then, we explore the application of these approaches in practice by describing and analyzing a newly introduced degree program at Tampere University, Finland. Full article
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Article
Alternative Governance Model for Historical Building Conservation in China: From Property Rights Perspective
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010203 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
With the rapid advancement of urbanisation, the adaptive reuse of heritage plays a key role in achieving sustainable development, which is widely recognised by UNESCO and International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). In the process of urban renewal, unclear property rights have [...] Read more.
With the rapid advancement of urbanisation, the adaptive reuse of heritage plays a key role in achieving sustainable development, which is widely recognised by UNESCO and International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). In the process of urban renewal, unclear property rights have seriously hindered the relocation of old houses, compensation and the adaptive reuse of historical buildings, even causing a series of social contradictions, such as violence. Moreover, forced evictions and controversy in dealing with the rights of residents, particularly the so-called ‘nail households’ have attracted public attention. However, few studies have analysed the problems and countermeasures from the perspective of unclear property rights. This study focuses on analysing the unclear property rights of historical buildings to propose an Alternative Governance Model for Historical Building Conservation in China. Founded on the Coase Theorem of externalities and property rights to examine the existing complex property ownership and rights patterns of 63 historical buildings in the famous Pingjiang Historic Block in Suzhou, China, the model provides reasonable and feasible reconstruction schemes for each situation. The operation model can also provide a symbiosis of new and old building solutions for urban renewal in developing countries, which may encounter a similar challenge of urbanisation. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Alternatives for Sustainable Stormwater Management in Small Developments of Polish Urban Catchments
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 10189; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310189 - 06 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Sustainable stormwater management approaches in accordance with the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) allow a source control to handle the quality and quantity of the runoff at local level or near the source. The most popular technologies applied in Europe are green roofs, [...] Read more.
Sustainable stormwater management approaches in accordance with the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) allow a source control to handle the quality and quantity of the runoff at local level or near the source. The most popular technologies applied in Europe are green roofs, porous pavements, retention basins and bioswales/raingardens. In this article, two of these solutions (retention tank with reuse, and rain garden, respectively), applied to single dwelling case studies in a suburban area in the Silesia Region (Poland), are illustrated and analyzed. The selected cases consider technical and economic aspects as the most important factors for decision on the selection of onsite stormwater management approach. Both systems have been operational for approximately two years. The retention tank proved a good solution, reducing stormwater overflows and allowing local water reuse for lawn irrigation; however, investment and maintenance costs in this case are relatively higher. The raingarden proved to work efficiently in this small scale implementation and implied much lower initial investment and costs. The economic sustainability of these interventions at single dwelling scale was analyzed, showing interesting returns, with outcome depending on the degree of possible water reuse (lower water bills) and availability of fiscal or fee incentives. Introduction of financial incentive schemes will encourage homeowners and developers to implement stormwater control solutions, allowing rapid amortization of investment costs with additional benefits to the community, such as reduced environmental impact of stormwater overflows and possible economies in the construction and management of stormwater systems. Full article
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Article
Healthy Power: Reimagining Hospitals as Sustainable Energy Hubs
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8554; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208554 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
Human health is a key pillar of modern conceptions of sustainability. Humanity pays a considerable price for its dependence on fossil-fueled energy systems, which must be addressed for sustainable urban development. Public hospitals are focal points for communities and have an opportunity to [...] Read more.
Human health is a key pillar of modern conceptions of sustainability. Humanity pays a considerable price for its dependence on fossil-fueled energy systems, which must be addressed for sustainable urban development. Public hospitals are focal points for communities and have an opportunity to lead the transition to renewable energy. We have reimagined the healthcare energy ecosystem with sustainable technologies to transform hospitals into networked clean energy hubs. In this concept design, hydrogen is used to couple energy with other on-site medical resource demands, and vanadium flow battery technology is used to engage the public with energy systems. This multi-generation system would reduce harmful emissions while providing reliable services, tackling the linked issues of human and environmental health. Full article
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Article
Social Learning and Transdisciplinary Co-Production: A Social Practice Approach
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7511; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187511 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
To address the challenge of achieving social learning in support of transformative change to sustainability, this paper develops an analytical framework that applies a social practice theory (SPT) lens to illuminate the constituent elements and dynamics of social learning in the context of [...] Read more.
To address the challenge of achieving social learning in support of transformative change to sustainability, this paper develops an analytical framework that applies a social practice theory (SPT) lens to illuminate the constituent elements and dynamics of social learning in the context of transdisciplinary coproduction for sustainability transitions. Adopting an SPT approach affords a means of interpreting concrete practices at the local scale and exploring the potential for scaling them up. This framework is then applied to a real-world case at the urban neighbourhood scale in order to illustrate how social learning unfolded in a grassroots transdisciplinary coproduction process focused on climate action. We find that a social practice perspective illuminates the material and nonmaterial dimensions of the relationship between social learning and transdisciplinary coproduction. In decoupling these properties from individual human agency, the SPT perspective affords a means of tracing their emergence among social actors, generating a deeper understanding of how social learning arises and effects change, and sustainability can be reinforced. Full article
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Article
In-Between ‘Smart’ Urban Growth and ‘Sluggish’ Rural Development? Reframing Population Dynamics in Greece, 1940–2019
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6165; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156165 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
Multifaceted demographic dynamics have shaped population growth in Mediterranean Europe, reflecting a metropolitan cycle from urbanization to re-urbanization. To assess the distinctive impact of economic downturns on population dynamics, the present study illustrates the results of an exploratory analysis that assesses urban expansion [...] Read more.
Multifaceted demographic dynamics have shaped population growth in Mediterranean Europe, reflecting a metropolitan cycle from urbanization to re-urbanization. To assess the distinctive impact of economic downturns on population dynamics, the present study illustrates the results of an exploratory analysis that assesses urban expansion and rural decline at various temporal scales in Greece, a peripheral country in southeastern Europe. Statistical analysis based on multivariate exploratory techniques outlined the persistent increase of regional populations, evidencing the distinctive role of agglomeration/scale with urbanization and early suburbanization phases (1940–1980) and accessibility/amenities with late suburbanization and re-urbanization phases (1981–2019). Recession accompanied (and, in some way, consolidated) the decline of agglomeration economies, leading to counter-urbanization in some cases. As an indirect result of counter-urbanization, the population increased more rapidly in low-density coastal areas with moderate accessibility and tourism specialization. Consistently, settlement expansion has altered the persistent gap in central and peripheral locations. A polarized urban hierarchy centered on the capital city, Athens, was replaced with a more diffused growth of medium-sized cities and attractive rural locations, depicting a new development path for lagging countries in the European Union and other socioeconomic contexts worldwide. Full article
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Article
A Social Network Analysis of the Spanish Network of Smart Cities
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5219; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125219 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
This paper explores the relations of centrality and hierarchy between cities and firms implementing Smart City strategies in the context of the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (RECI). While the literature has usually focused on the global dimension of cities and firms networks, [...] Read more.
This paper explores the relations of centrality and hierarchy between cities and firms implementing Smart City strategies in the context of the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (RECI). While the literature has usually focused on the global dimension of cities and firms networks, exploring a national case offers interesting insights about the presence of multinational firms in these contexts and the role played by medium-sized cities in their market expansion. The analysis is based on a two-mode network of cities and firms participating in Smart City projects with the usual measures of betweenness, in-degree and closeness, as well as computing the Gini index for each of them to assess the levels of inequality. We then explore whether the structural advantages of participating in these networks have a leveling effect or rather reinforce existing hierarchies of cities. Second, we explore how firms are intertwined in Smart City projects and whether medium-sized local firms have a relevant presence. Our findings suggest these networks become a regional gateway for multinational firms to expand their presence in Smart City national markets, rather than empowering medium-sized cities and small national firms. Full article
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Article
New Town Development and Sustainable Transition under Urban Entrepreneurialism in China
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5179; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125179 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
New towns are a major form of urban growth in China. In recent years, increasing numbers of large new town projects have been planned and built in and around existing cities. These new town projects have frequently been employed by city governments as [...] Read more.
New towns are a major form of urban growth in China. In recent years, increasing numbers of large new town projects have been planned and built in and around existing cities. These new town projects have frequently been employed by city governments as central elements of pro-growth strategies, based on ideas of urban entrepreneurialism, which seek to promote economic growth, project a dynamic city image, and increase urban competitiveness. This article studies how the pro-growth, urban entrepreneurial approach affects the planning and development of Chinese megacities. A conceptual framework focusing on land-leasing revenue and new town development strategies is employed to explore the linkages between urban growth mechanisms and urban outcomes. Empirical material from four cities in the Pearl River Delta—Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan, and Zhuhai—is presented. The analysis indicates that new town developments in these cities have different levels of dependency on spatial expansion and land revenue, and emphasize different issues of sustainable development in their plans. Cities with a lower dependency on physical and economic growth are be more likely to emphasize the quality of the built environment and address issues of sustainable urban development more closely when planning and implementing new town projects. Full article
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Review

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Review
Towards a More-than-Human Approach to Smart and Sustainable Urban Development: Designing for Multispecies Justice
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020948 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
The term ‘sustainability’ has become an overused umbrella term that encompasses a range of climate actions and environmental infrastructure investments; however, there is still an urgent need for transformative reform work. Scholars of urban studies have made compelling cases for a more-than-human conceptualisation [...] Read more.
The term ‘sustainability’ has become an overused umbrella term that encompasses a range of climate actions and environmental infrastructure investments; however, there is still an urgent need for transformative reform work. Scholars of urban studies have made compelling cases for a more-than-human conceptualisation of urban and environmental planning and also share a common interest in translating theory into practical approaches and implications that recognise (i) our ecological entanglements with planetary systems and (ii) the urgent need for multispecies justice in the reconceptualisation of genuinely sustainable cities. More-than-human sensibility draws on a range of disciplines and encompasses conventional and non-conventional research methods and design approaches. In this article, we offer a horizon scan type of review of key posthuman and more-than-human literature sources at the intersection of urban studies and environmental humanities. The aim of this review is to (i) contribute to the emerging discourse that is starting to operationalise a more-than-human approach to smart and sustainable urban development, and; (ii) to articulate a nascent framework for more-than-human spatial planning policy and practice. Full article
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Review
Social Inclusion Indicators for Building Citizen-Centric Smart Cities: A Systematic Literature Review
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010376 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2617
Abstract
Despite the rhetoric of “citizen-first,” which has been tokenized in recent years by the smart city administrations, what it means has long been unclear to many, including the public at large. Put simply, this rhetoric concerns the mindset of the members of a [...] Read more.
Despite the rhetoric of “citizen-first,” which has been tokenized in recent years by the smart city administrations, what it means has long been unclear to many, including the public at large. Put simply, this rhetoric concerns the mindset of the members of a local community and places them at the heart of the smart city initiatives. In order to bring further clarity to this issue under the current neoliberal urbanism, this study aimed to identify the key indicators of citizen-centric smart cities from the perspective of participative governance practices and citizens’ responsibilities. To achieve this aim, this study involved a systematic literature review of the social inclusion indicators for building citizen-centric smart cities. The social inclusion indicators that were formed were verified by practitioners to suit the local contexts of an emerging and developing country, in this case, Malaysia. The findings of the review revealed that: (a) the acceptance of social inclusion indicators was mainly limited to the realm of democratic developed countries, leaders’ understanding of citizenship, the delegation of decision-making power in governance practices, the participative culture of societies, and individual citizens’ self-discipline; (b) the social inclusion indicators may not be welcomed in emerging and developing countries; (c) in the long term, these indicators would shed light on the rise of self-organizing cities that will gain popularity in potential city developments, be it in developed or developing countries. Full article
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Review
A Framework for Stormwater Quality Modelling under the Effects of Climate Change to Enhance Reuse
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10463; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410463 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
Water scarcity, which is exacerbated by climate change, is a major challenge to ensure human well-being. Therefore, it is equally important to protect conventional water resources from degradation and at the same time to identify cost-effective alternatives with a low carbon footprint. In [...] Read more.
Water scarcity, which is exacerbated by climate change, is a major challenge to ensure human well-being. Therefore, it is equally important to protect conventional water resources from degradation and at the same time to identify cost-effective alternatives with a low carbon footprint. In this regard, stormwater plays a key role as it is a largely under-utilised resource for both, potable and non-potable use. However, stormwater carries substantial loads of pollutants to receiving waters such as rivers. Unfortunately, the lack of comprehensive stormwater quality modelling strategies, which account for the effects of climate change, constrains the formulation of effective measures to improve the quality of stormwater. Currently, there is a significant knowledge gap in the merging of stormwater quality modelling and climate modelling. This paper critically reviews current stormwater quality modelling approaches (quantity and quality) and the role of climate modelling outputs in stormwater quality modelling. This is followed by the presentation of a robust framework to integrate the impacts of climate change with stormwater quality models. Full article
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Other

Case Report
Sustainable Urban Development for Older Australians: Understanding the Formation of Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities in the Greater Brisbane Region
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9853; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179853 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
As most older Australians prefer to age-in-place, providing sustainable and age-friendly communities poses a significant challenge to urban policymakers. The naturally occurring retirement communities (NORCs) have organically emerged as a collaborative model of care to support older adults to age-in-place, but neither academic [...] Read more.
As most older Australians prefer to age-in-place, providing sustainable and age-friendly communities poses a significant challenge to urban policymakers. The naturally occurring retirement communities (NORCs) have organically emerged as a collaborative model of care to support older adults to age-in-place, but neither academic research nor government policies recognise this housing option for older Australians. This paper aims to analyse the distributions and temporal patterns of NORCs in the Greater Brisbane Region, Australia, to understand the formation and development of NORCs. The geovisualisation method was employed to identify the distribution changes of NORCs between 2006 and 2016. The Global Moran’s I and Local Moran’s I measures were utilised to analyse the spatial correlation and the clusters of NORCs. The results show that NORCs increased significantly from 2006 to 2016, and their distribution was mainly clustered or co-located along the coastline and Brisbane River areas. The evolvement of NORCs reflected the change of aggregation pattern of older population between 2006 and 2016. Understanding the distribution trend of NORCs informs government policy and decisions in addressing issues of service delivery and community cooperation, and eventually leads to sustainable urban development and successful ageing in place for older Australians. Full article
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Case Report
Understanding and Acceptance of Smart City Policies: Practitioners’ Perspectives on the Malaysian Smart City Framework
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9559; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179559 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Whilst a plethora of research exists on the smart cities and project performance evaluations, only few studies have focused on the smart city policy evaluation from the perspective of its acceptance by practitioners. This paper aims to generate insights by evaluating the smart [...] Read more.
Whilst a plethora of research exists on the smart cities and project performance evaluations, only few studies have focused on the smart city policy evaluation from the perspective of its acceptance by practitioners. This paper aims to generate insights by evaluating the smart city policy through a developing country case study—i.e., Malaysia. This study employed a questionnaire survey method for data collection and analyzed the data by using Fuzzy Delphi analysis. A group of 40 practitioners was gathered in a focus group discussion through purposive sampling. The main objectives of this survey were to identify the understanding and acceptance levels of the seven smart city domains and respective strategies that are outlined in the Malaysian Smart City Framework. The results disclosed that the practitioners possessed divergent levels of understanding and acceptance in terms of smart city domains. The study participant practitioners accepted all understanding and acceptance objectives of smart economy, living, people, and governance domains (expert agreement 75–92% and threshold d value 0.123–0.188), but rejected all objectives for both smart environment and digital infrastructure domains (expert agreement 55–74% and threshold d value 0.150–0.212). Along with this, acceptance of smart mobility was also rejected (expert agreement 56% and threshold d value 0.245). The findings reveal that considering all opinions expressing dissensus is essential when building more inclusive smart city strategies. This study contributes to the smart city discourse as being one of the first in capturing professional practitioners’ understanding and acceptance on a national level smart city policy by applying the Delphi method in the smart city context. Most importantly, the study informs urban policymakers on how to capture the voices and perspectives of the general public on national and local smart city strategy and initiatives. Full article
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Case Report
Strategizing Smart, Sustainable, and Knowledge-Based Development of Cities: Insights from Florianópolis, Brazil
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 8859; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12218859 - 25 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Unarguably, smart, sustainable, and knowledge-based development is critical for securing a livable future for our rapidly urbanizing world. The aim of this study is to generate insights into determining effective and efficient strategies to increase sustainability and innovation capabilities of cities to achieve [...] Read more.
Unarguably, smart, sustainable, and knowledge-based development is critical for securing a livable future for our rapidly urbanizing world. The aim of this study is to generate insights into determining effective and efficient strategies to increase sustainability and innovation capabilities of cities to achieve long-term desired urban outcomes. This paper places the city of Florianópolis (Brazil) under the smart, sustainable, and knowledge-based urban development microscope. The methodological approach of the study involves a qualitative analysis through surveys (100 submitted forms, 55 responses received) and interviews (12) with key experts and stakeholders from Florianópolis. The findings of the study reveal that Florianópolis’ innovation ecosystem has high potential to thrive, but the city still has structural issues to deal with first, related to the gap between the potential to grow, and acknowledgement from key actors of the city to support the overall territory development considering the complex dimensions. This issue suggests amplifying the ecosystem’s vision, including different sectors and, especially, addressing innovation for the common good. The insights generated from the investigation of Florianópolis’ case are also invaluable to other cities’ planning for strategizing their transformation, and seeking smart, sustainable, and knowledge-based development pathways. Full article
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Viewpoint
The Sustainability of Artificial Intelligence: An Urbanistic Viewpoint from the Lens of Smart and Sustainable Cities
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8548; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208548 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 5277
Abstract
The popularity and application of artificial intelligence (AI) are increasing rapidly all around the world—where, in simple terms, AI is a technology which mimics the behaviors commonly associated with human intelligence. Today, various AI applications are being used in areas ranging from marketing [...] Read more.
The popularity and application of artificial intelligence (AI) are increasing rapidly all around the world—where, in simple terms, AI is a technology which mimics the behaviors commonly associated with human intelligence. Today, various AI applications are being used in areas ranging from marketing to banking and finance, from agriculture to healthcare and security, from space exploration to robotics and transport, and from chatbots to artificial creativity and manufacturing. More recently, AI applications have also started to become an integral part of many urban services. Urban artificial intelligences manage the transport systems of cities, run restaurants and shops where every day urbanity is expressed, repair urban infrastructure, and govern multiple urban domains such as traffic, air quality monitoring, garbage collection, and energy. In the age of uncertainty and complexity that is upon us, the increasing adoption of AI is expected to continue, and so its impact on the sustainability of our cities. This viewpoint explores and questions the sustainability of AI from the lens of smart and sustainable cities, and generates insights into emerging urban artificial intelligences and the potential symbiosis between AI and a smart and sustainable urbanism. In terms of methodology, this viewpoint deploys a thorough review of the current status of AI and smart and sustainable cities literature, research, developments, trends, and applications. In so doing, it contributes to existing academic debates in the fields of smart and sustainable cities and AI. In addition, by shedding light on the uptake of AI in cities, the viewpoint seeks to help urban policymakers, planners, and citizens make informed decisions about a sustainable adoption of AI. Full article
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