Special Issue "Second IT Revolution and Dynamic Open Innovation: From Smart City, Autonomous Car, Intelligent Robot, and Block Chain to Sharing Economy"

A special issue of Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity (ISSN 2199-8531).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Yuri Sadoi
Website
Guest Editor
Meijo University, 1 Chome-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tenpaku Ward, Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture 468-0073, Japan
Interests: management; economic policy; innovation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will publish some selected papers from the annual conference of SOItmC 2019. Suitable topics include but are not limited to:

  • Dynamic open innovation;
  • Business models;
  • Schumpeterian economics;
  • Smart cities;
  • Autonomous cars;
  • Intelligent robots;
  • Block chains;
  • Sharing economy;
  • 2nd IT Revolution or 4th Industrial Revolution;
  • Complexity.

Time schedule of this special issue:

  • Open: 1 June 2019

Any SOItmC 2019 authors in addition to the planned papers can submit to this special issue after full paper submission to SOItmC 2019 platfrom and paying the registration fee until 31 May 2019.

  • Close: 31 December 2019

All papers should be submitted to this special issue until 31 December 2019.

The Article Processing Charges (APC) of the 10 keynote speech papers will be supported by SOItmC. The authors of these papers should include an acknowledgement section following the example below:

Acknowledgement: This paper was presented as a keynote speech of SOItmC 2019, and the publishing fee was supported by SOItmC.

Papers which were selected for the Special Issue of SOItmC 2019 in JOItmC will be recommended for the Best Paper Award of SOItmC 2019.

Prof. Dr. JinHyo Joseph Yun
Prof. Yuri Sadoi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (36 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Multimarket Competition on Innovation Strategy: Evidence from the Korean Mobile Game Industry
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6010014 - 21 Feb 2020
Abstract
Multimarket contact (MMC) refers to the situation in which more than two firms simultaneously compete with each other in multiple products and/or geographical markets. Most studies on MMC have explored how the market overlap creates “mutual forbearance”, which lessens the intensity of rivalry. [...] Read more.
Multimarket contact (MMC) refers to the situation in which more than two firms simultaneously compete with each other in multiple products and/or geographical markets. Most studies on MMC have explored how the market overlap creates “mutual forbearance”, which lessens the intensity of rivalry. While prior studies have mainly focused on how reduced rivalry from MMC influences market-related decisions, only a few have paid attention to its impact on innovation activities. The purpose of this research is to explore how multimarket competition influences different stages of innovation. Specifically, we focus on three stages of innovation: Content development, commercialization, and protection of IPs (Intellectual Property). This study is conducted as an exploratory case research based on the in-depth analysis of two leading Korean Mobile game companies. Based on our findings, we explain how mutual forbearance and observability of the rival’s competitive action influence the choice of strategic decisions across different stages of innovation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Business Model Framework to Characterize Digital Multisided Platforms
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6010010 - 02 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Businesses grounded upon multisided platforms (MSPs) are found in a growing number of industries, thanks to the recent developments in Internet and digital technologies. Digital MSPs enable multiple interactions among users of different sides through information and communication technologies. The understanding of the [...] Read more.
Businesses grounded upon multisided platforms (MSPs) are found in a growing number of industries, thanks to the recent developments in Internet and digital technologies. Digital MSPs enable multiple interactions among users of different sides through information and communication technologies. The understanding of the characteristics and constituents of MSPs is fragmented along different literature streams. Moreover, very few empirical studies have been carried out to date. In order to fill this gap, this paper presents a three-level framework that describes a digital MSP. The proposed framework is based on literature analysis and multiple case study. On the one hand, the framework can be used to describe MSP as it provides an operationalization of the concept through the identification of specific dimensions, variables and items; on the other hand, it can be used as an assessment tool by practitioners, as exemplified by the three empirical applications presented in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Typology and Unified Model of the Sharing Economy in Open Innovation Dynamics
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5040102 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The sharing economy is emerging as one of the hottest issues of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The ownership paradigm was dominant during the First and Second Industrial Revolutions, so the formation of the sharing economy was almost non-existent, but it has grown to [...] Read more.
The sharing economy is emerging as one of the hottest issues of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The ownership paradigm was dominant during the First and Second Industrial Revolutions, so the formation of the sharing economy was almost non-existent, but it has grown to 5% of the global GDP during the Third Industrial Revolution as the sharing paradigm became prominent. It is expected that the scale of the sharing economy will reach up to 50% of the global economy by 2025 as the online to offline convergence (O2O) phenomenon (GE, 2012). The sharing economy is generally considered complex, diverse, and simply chaotic territory due to its various meanings or types despite its importance. In short, there is a great need to do more research to develop a unified model of the sharing economy. Our study defines sharing economy as “an activity where economic agents share economic objects together to create values”. The KCERN Sharing Economy Cube Model presented in the study is a unified model where the subjects of sharing—supply, market platform, demand, etc.—share the objects of sharing—information, materials, relations, etc.—in order to engage in economic activities, both for profit and nonprofit, to create values. The model reflects all these activities and encompasses all the other definitions of the sharing economy. This study aims to systematically draw a roadmap for the national sharing economy in the ongoing Fourth Industrial Revolution era based on the integrative sharing platform economy model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Smart City 4.0 from the Perspective of Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5040092 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The purpose of a Smart City is to solve its inherent problems while simultaneously reducing its expenditure and improving its quality of life. Through the 4th Industrial Revolution technology, the advantages of Smart City are estimated to overcome the city’s expenses with city [...] Read more.
The purpose of a Smart City is to solve its inherent problems while simultaneously reducing its expenditure and improving its quality of life. Through the 4th Industrial Revolution technology, the advantages of Smart City are estimated to overcome the city’s expenses with city platformization. While a city traditionally is the subject of creation and not consumption, a Smart City currently is the key industry in generating more than 60% of its GDP in value creation from a production viewpoint. Moreover, with the expansion of online-offline convergence, cities can grow without limitation on its size, where connectivity and innovation determine the inclination of the city’s benefit-cost curve. As a city platform is responsible for connectivity, its value drastically increases through the 4th Industrial Revolution’s O2O (online to offline convergence) platform. When a city reflects on its own as a Digital Twin in the Cloud and when complete information becomes accessible through citizen’s participation through smartphones (Edge), Self-organization takes place, an ideal linkage between the city and citizens. Cities go through the self-organizing process of complex adaptive systems like the human brain. This research proposes a future model of a “Self-organizing City,” and suggests implementing the Smart City model based on the Smart City Tech-Socio Model in implementing strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Security Certification System between Blockchain Based Terminal and Internet of Things Device: Implication for Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5040087 - 17 Oct 2019
Abstract
As the number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices increases, services expand and illegal hacking and infringement methods become more sophisticated, an effective solution for blockchain technology is required as a fundamental solution to security threats. In this paper, we develop the security [...] Read more.
As the number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices increases, services expand and illegal hacking and infringement methods become more sophisticated, an effective solution for blockchain technology is required as a fundamental solution to security threats. In this paper, we develop the security module of an IoT device based on blockchain technology that blocks hacking and information infringement and forms a multi-security blockchain system between the IoT device and the user device and we develop a user application. We contribute to addressing the security threats faced by IoT application services by developing a new method. In particular, we present some schemes for the development of a multi-security certification system based on blockchain for IoT security. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Customer Happiness and Open Innovation in the Esthetics Education for the Elderly Generation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5040086 - 16 Oct 2019
Abstract
In Korean society, where aging is rapidly progressing, the happiness of the elderly is no longer an economic issue. An esthetics program has the effect of improving depression or low self-esteem to increase psychological and physical satisfaction, which is a good way to [...] Read more.
In Korean society, where aging is rapidly progressing, the happiness of the elderly is no longer an economic issue. An esthetics program has the effect of improving depression or low self-esteem to increase psychological and physical satisfaction, which is a good way to raise the happiness index of the elderly. However, there is a lack of esthetics education or esthetics programs in Korea to train estheticians to serve elderly people. This study confirmed the possibility of open innovation through esthetics education to increase the happiness index of the elderly. As a research method, a self-administered questionnaire was used to survey 572 estheticians and analyzed statistically. In this study, Korean estheticians were very positive about the need for the development of professional care programs for the elderly, and it was found that they are willing to care for the elderly. Developing a variety of esthetic programs through the training of professional manpower for the elderly in the future will contribute to enhancing the happiness index of elderly Korean people. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards a City-Based Cultural Ecosystem Service Innovation Framework as Improved Public-Private-Partnership Model—A Case Study of Kaohsiung Dome
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5040085 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper explains the concept of a city-based cultural ecosystem service, and how innovations and systematic operations management can help an international city to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model. Previous studies suggest that most of the PPP [...] Read more.
This paper explains the concept of a city-based cultural ecosystem service, and how innovations and systematic operations management can help an international city to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model. Previous studies suggest that most of the PPP models focus on the operation and analysis of PPP construction projects, limited attention of the subsequent operations and management for PPP facilities. This paper thus proposed an integrated PPP management framework with the principles of Cultural Ecosystem Service (CES) and open innovation to support better operations management of PPP projects. While the management of modern PPP projects will inevitably encounter the challenges of cross-disciplinary management and service innovation in the period of operations management, Cultural Ecosystem Service Innovation (CESI) framework is useful to support the practice and continuous improvement. A real-world case of Kaohsiung Dome in Taiwan has been benchmarked and analyzed with empirical data. With in-depth expert interviews, the paper demonstrates the use of CESI framework to support business strategy and operations management for sustainable system development and shared values. Management implications were addressed to promote multiple positive feedbacks with the government, enterprises, and the general public and jointly strive to support the development of a benchmarked city. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Study on the Difference in Corporate Performance and Employment Outcomes According to the Results of Equity-Based Crowdfunding Investment
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5040083 - 12 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to identify the difference in firm performance and employment growth between successful and failed capital procurement through equity-based crowdfunding. We conduct an empirical analysis using entire crowdfunding projects that attempted to raise capital through equity-based crowdfunding in [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to identify the difference in firm performance and employment growth between successful and failed capital procurement through equity-based crowdfunding. We conduct an empirical analysis using entire crowdfunding projects that attempted to raise capital through equity-based crowdfunding in South Korea in 2016. We summarize our findings as follows. Descriptive statistics show that the survival rate, sales growth rate, profitability growth, absolute employment growth, and employment growth rate of companies with successful crowdfunding are higher than those of companies with failed crowdfunding. However, from the difference analysis, we do not find a significant difference in the survival rate, sales growth rate, and profitability growth between companies with crowdfunding success and companies with crowdfunding failure. We find that the absolute employment growth and employment growth rate are significantly higher for companies that succeeded in crowdfunding projects compared to companies that did not. In this study, we find that the characteristics of these firms that are conducting or verifying new projects through equity-based crowdfunding financing are similar to those of prior studies results confirming the short-term effects of entrepreneurial activities or new business activities on economic performance and employment growth. In particular, it is very meaningful to confirm that the direct effect of employment growth is also found in start-up firms that raise capital through equity-based crowdfunding. By investigating the difference in firm performance and employment outcomes according to the results of equity-based crowdfunding investment, this study provides useful insights to investors for their efforts to validate participation in crowdfunding. Also, our study raises important policy implications for regulators in their efforts to resolve unemployment and the lack of capital problem for startups and new businesses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lean Smart Manufacturing in Taiwan—Focusing on the Bicycle Industry
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5040079 - 05 Oct 2019
Abstract
Industry 4.0, started in Germany in 2011, was fervently promoted by various advanced countries and followed by the introduction of “smart manufacturing”. As an innovative strategy of the manufacturing industry “smart manufacturing” has attracted considerable attention in the field of academics and practice. [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0, started in Germany in 2011, was fervently promoted by various advanced countries and followed by the introduction of “smart manufacturing”. As an innovative strategy of the manufacturing industry “smart manufacturing” has attracted considerable attention in the field of academics and practice. However, the issues of huge investment and differentiation of individual enterprises have created a big gap between policy promotion and production at the site of actual industrial manufacturing and resulted in limited progress in smart manufacturing. In view of the situation, the authors have previously developed in relation to the practice of individual companies in the industry a practical structure of “Lean Smart Manufacturing: a conceptual framework and solution based co-creative platform” combining Lean Production with smart manufacturing to achieve customer value. In addition to filling the gap between government policy and industry in Industry 4.0, the practical structure suggests the possibility of balancing differentiation and open innovation. Taiwan’s bicycle industry is one of Taiwan’s most internationally competitive industries. GIANT, the leading manufacturer of bicycles in Taiwan, has been actively promoting TPS since 2000. With the development of Industry 4.0, GIANT has been working on the application of Industry 4.0 related technologies in order to further enhance customer value. In the application of the practical structure of “Lean Smart Manufacturing”, there are few cases of corporate practice. This study focuses on the A-Team which is constructed by the bicycle industry in Taiwan and GIANT for empirical research, to see how GIANT implement the “Lean Smart Manufacturing” and construct the co-creative platform, to balance differentiation and open innovation, then strengthen its competitiveness. The research results show that although this case is still in the development stage, it has the basic form of “Lean Smart Manufacturing: a conceptual framework and solution based co-creative platform”. This case, as we advocate the use of differentiated advantages of “Lean Smart Manufacturing”, pragmatically from the establishment of the smart factory platform on the physical system, gradually extended to the strategic co-creative platform of the cyber system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Identification of Opportunities for Innovations through Collecting Problems from Citizens
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5040076 - 26 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Customer engagement in different phases of creation of new products and services is argued to be a significant success factor by some scholars and practitioners, and unnecessary—by others. The paper analyses the findings of a pilot study, conducted with the intention to see [...] Read more.
Customer engagement in different phases of creation of new products and services is argued to be a significant success factor by some scholars and practitioners, and unnecessary—by others. The paper analyses the findings of a pilot study, conducted with the intention to see whether ordinary citizens from different countries could highlight problems which really could bring forth ideas for innovative products or services. The data were collected via electronic survey with the further qualitative content analyses of the problems that, to the respondents’ minds, are worth solving. The expert group analysis of the ideas which derived from the problems was conducted to decide the feasibility of the approach, whose efficiency was concluded not to be high. Reliability and consistency of the experts’ assessments were tested using statistical software SPSS 20 based on the correlation analysis of five criteria—usefulness, social impact, customer base, frequency of use, and novelty. The research revealed 16 groups of problems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Affecting the Outbound Open Innovation Strategies in Pharmaceutical Industry: Focus on Out-Licensing Deal
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5040073 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The pharmaceutical industry is a high-technology industry that requires a combination of in-depth knowledge from various fields. It is characterized by high cost, high risk and a long-term perspective due to the high level of regulation. In addition, it is known that research [...] Read more.
The pharmaceutical industry is a high-technology industry that requires a combination of in-depth knowledge from various fields. It is characterized by high cost, high risk and a long-term perspective due to the high level of regulation. In addition, it is known that research and development (R&D) productivity is deteriorating in the industry. Under these conditions, the importance of open innovation strategies has been emphasized. Under an open innovation system, it is essential for firms to develop several dynamic capabilities to effectively manage their resources both internally and externally. Using a systematic framework of dynamic capabilities suggested by previous studies, this study focuses on the determinants affecting firms’ desorptive capacities, which are measured as the number of out-licensing deals, as an indicator for the performance of their outbound innovation. For the analysis, negative binomial regression is employed and inventive capacity and connective capacity are selected as the determinants of the licensors’ desorptive capacity. The results of regression analysis reveal that inventive capacity does not have a significant effect on desorptive capacity and that only connective capacity has a significant positive effect on desorptive capacity. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Building Networks to Harness Innovation Synergies: Towards an Open Systems Approach to Sustainable Development
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030070 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Open innovation has become a popular approach, especially since 2003, as people began purposively managing, evolving and harnessing knowledge flows across organizational boundaries but through increasing connections with systemic knowledge nodes relevant to the innovation process. The creation and appropriation of such knowledge [...] Read more.
Open innovation has become a popular approach, especially since 2003, as people began purposively managing, evolving and harnessing knowledge flows across organizational boundaries but through increasing connections with systemic knowledge nodes relevant to the innovation process. The creation and appropriation of such knowledge has evolved rapidly with digitalization and the proliferation of broadband networks. Individuals, firms and organizations now connect and coordinate to support innovations openly across innovation systems. This paper proposes an open systems model with institutional underpinnings to not only quicken knowledge flows and expand the networks to a wider range of socioeconomic agents, but also for their inclusive participation in shaping the processes of achieving sustainable development through environmental greening and egalitarian balancing of society. In doing so, using examples, the paper focuses on developments since Schumpeter’s ground-breaking exposition of innovation to explain how individuals, firms, farms and organizations can participate actively in open innovation networks to connect productively with the critical knowledge nodes in society. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Class Model for Improving Creative Collaboration Based on the Online Learning System (Moodle) in Korea
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030067 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study aims to develop a Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle)-based online learning system and derive a class model to enhance learners’ creative collaboration capabilities. The research method for this is first to analyze the functional elements of the online learning system [...] Read more.
This study aims to develop a Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle)-based online learning system and derive a class model to enhance learners’ creative collaboration capabilities. The research method for this is first to analyze the functional elements of the online learning system to enhance creative collaboration among the functions of the Moodle online learning system. Second, a class model is derived to enhance creative collaboration by applying the constructivist teaching–learning principle. Third, we conduct a verification of the effectiveness of the Moodle-based class model that was developed to enhance creative collaboration. The results of the study show that, among the functions of the Moodle online learning system, forms, real-time conferencing, reciprocal evaluation, Wiki, and blogs have the ability to enhance creative collaboration. Second, the class model for promoting creative collaboration based on a mood-based online learning system consists of self-reflections, learner-driven learning, professional learning, practical task, and the role of the processor. Third, after verifying the application effect of the Moodle-based class model for university students, a significant effect is found in the creative collaboration of university students. The results of this study suggest that: First, the Moodle online learning system should be utilized to provide learners with a variety of online learning opportunities to promote creative collaboration. Second, the teaching–learning operation manual needs to be developed later in order for the class model to be effectively implemented at the classroom site to promote creative collaboration based on the Moodle online learning system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How to Improve Performance and Diversity of Government-Funded Research Institute Ecosystem? Focus on Result Sharing and Feedback Policy
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030066 - 05 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Despite its importance to the performance outcome of an organization, there are very few studies on how feedback mechanism impacts ecosystems of government-funded research institutes (GIs). This study focuses on the effect of the feedback mechanism on the average performance and diversity of [...] Read more.
Despite its importance to the performance outcome of an organization, there are very few studies on how feedback mechanism impacts ecosystems of government-funded research institutes (GIs). This study focuses on the effect of the feedback mechanism on the average performance and diversity of a GI ecosystem. Feedback mechanisms consisted of feedback strategy and degree of result sharing. An agent-based model that embeds a genetic algorithm to replicate a real GI ecosystem was used. It was found that relational patterns between average performance and degree of result sharing varied by type of feedback policy. In contrast, convergence time, which refers to the average period of settling the stable state in the perspective of ecosystem diversity, depends on the ratio of result openness rather than the type of feedback policy. This study suggests two plans to improve the GI assessment system by changing the degree of result sharing and feedback type. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on Technology Development Performance and Technology Commercialization Performance According to the Technology Development Capability of SMEs Focusing on a Comparative Analysis of Technology Business Groups
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030065 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Recently, a lot of small- and mid-sized companies have emerged through continuous technological development and start-up successes despite insufficient scales and resources compared to medium companies or conglomerates in fierce market competition. Technological development capability, which is required to acquire, select, or utilize [...] Read more.
Recently, a lot of small- and mid-sized companies have emerged through continuous technological development and start-up successes despite insufficient scales and resources compared to medium companies or conglomerates in fierce market competition. Technological development capability, which is required to acquire, select, or utilize source technology for company competitiveness, becomes the competitive edge and key capability to gain distinctiveness. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to investigate the influential factors on performance by suggesting technological development results and technology commercialization as the outcome of technological development capability and to identify the capability required for successful technological development performance and technology commercialization for companies through previous academic research. Moreover, the study aimed to investigate performance differences according to technology business groups by dividing the groups into high-technology companies, medium-technology companies, and low-technology companies. As a result of the analysis, among the indicators constituting technological development capability, manpower in technological development and technological development-specialized research centers had a positive influence on the product competitiveness of technological development performance. Also, technological development expenses and technology skill levels were verified to have positive impacts on the technology competitiveness of technological development performance. As for technology commercialization performance, the more manpower that is in research and development, the higher the sales amounts by technological development; also, the higher the technology skill levels, the higher the export amounts by technological development. Moreover, technology business groups had differences in performance. This research has significance in focusing on the influence of the technological development capability of companies on technological development performance and technology commercialization performance. Future research is expected to draw new variations different from the analysis results from existing studies by setting variations, investigating complementary relationships among variations in detail, and utilizing statistical techniques that can control mutual relationships among variations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Developing an Evaluation Framework for Selecting Optimal Medical Devices
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030064 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The objective of this study is to summarize the current general evaluation process that stakeholders use to evaluate single or multiple medical devices to select the optimal medical device. This study constructed a novel evaluation framework to select the optimal medical device by [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to summarize the current general evaluation process that stakeholders use to evaluate single or multiple medical devices to select the optimal medical device. This study constructed a novel evaluation framework to select the optimal medical device by overcoming the limitations of assessments that were previously confined to the medical device cycle and the purpose of the specific assessment. It also presents a general framework for incorporating usability evaluations into the frame to reflect the objectives and characteristics of key stakeholders in the medical device industry. In addition, the results of medical device evaluation are further analyzed using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Unlisted Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises’ Business Strategies on Future Performance and Growth Sustainability
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030060 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study aims to identify, from among business strategies presented in Miles and Snow (1978, 2003), those that increase the future performance or growth sustainability of unlisted small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Korea. (This study applied the scope of SMEs based on [...] Read more.
This study aims to identify, from among business strategies presented in Miles and Snow (1978, 2003), those that increase the future performance or growth sustainability of unlisted small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Korea. (This study applied the scope of SMEs based on Article 2 of the Enforcement Decree of the Tax Exemption Restriction Act in Korea. The Korean tax law sets the scope of SMEs based on independence criteria set by the scale of sales, assets, and affiliation, and subordination. For example, the size standard of a manufacturing industry can be regarded as a small business if the average sales amount is less than 150 billion won or the total amount of assets is less than 500 billion won for three years.) In addition, it analyzes measured variables of business strategy for factors influencing unlisted SMEs’ future performance and growth potential. The objective is to determine a business strategy for unlisted SMEs, which are small, financially challenged, and have shorter lifespans and faster growth rates. The results highlight that investment in research and development (R&D) for new products influences both future performance and growth sustainability. R&D is an important intangible resource of the firm, which increases future risk due to high future uncertainty, but it is also an important factor to increase future performance or value based on resource-based theory. In the accounting field, research and development expenditure also provided evidence of future excess return or performance. This study is meaningful because it identifies the role of research and development in increasing future growth sustainability in SMEs, thus emphasizing change and innovation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Supplier, Tailor, and Facilitator: Typology of Platform Business Models
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030057 - 18 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The platform business model is widely used because it is capable of various open innovation deliverables. However, it has a high probability of failure, caused by a variety of value streams that follow the two-sided market theory (each side has a distinct group [...] Read more.
The platform business model is widely used because it is capable of various open innovation deliverables. However, it has a high probability of failure, caused by a variety of value streams that follow the two-sided market theory (each side has a distinct group of users). Therefore, extensive research on value streams and the attributes of platform business is essential to reduce platform business failure and ensure sustainable growth. By analyzing 21 case studies and conducting 30 in-depth interviews, this study proposes three types of Internet platform business strategies which can serve as a frame of reference to examine the impact of different value streams and open innovation on platform businesses. This study highlights a typology that sheds light on the heterogeneous meaning that corporates associated with creating new platform businesses adhere to and seeks to improve understanding of fundamental differences in platform business creation processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Digital Innovation Adoption and Its Economic Impact Focused on Path Analysis at National Level
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030056 - 16 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Purpose: The advancement of technologies and their adoption affects the socio-economic growth of nations. This research is focused on how this innovation adoption path is linked to economic growth of nations since the previous IT revolution has been combined with existing industries and [...] Read more.
Purpose: The advancement of technologies and their adoption affects the socio-economic growth of nations. This research is focused on how this innovation adoption path is linked to economic growth of nations since the previous IT revolution has been combined with existing industries and adding values in terms of applying intelligence through adopting digital technologies. Approach/Design/Methodology: There are two different approaches—process approach and factor approach—in innovation adoption research. Innovation diffusion research, which is one of the process approaches, is related to adoption, diffusion, and impact theories, but there are limitations in explaining the perspective of a nation other than individual and organization on the basis of previous literatures. Therefore, we build the integrative model to verify innovative growth path of nations by applying Diffusion of Innovation Theory (DoI) and Technology (T)-Organization (O)-Environment (E) framework, which can explain factors of affecting innovation. We evaluate eight hypotheses with data collected from 137 to 212 nations using international information index by credible organizations: World Economic Forum (WEF), World Bank, United Nations (UN), and International Communications Union (ITU), based on the integrative model we proposed. The path analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is performed, and the result shows that the path from technological innovation capabilities (T), human capital (O), and environment (E) is related directly to economic impact, except for the path from human capital to value chain breadth directly and indirectly. The indirect path through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) access, use, and value chain helps to understand the full impact of digital innovation. Practical implications: By verifying this relationship, we expect to give suggestions in policy perspective and in building strategy towards innovative growth of countries. Our results show that technological innovation capabilities take time to show impact in terms of economic growth than the other factors, which are human capital, and political and regulatory environment of country. The nurture of human capital directly affects to the economic growth of nations relative to other T and E factors. The political and regulatory environment support stable ICT usage, which gives impact to the economic growth of nations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Digital Maturity and Corporate Performance: The Case of the Baltic States
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030054 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Enterprise digitalization is a way for companies to make their processes more efficient, to enhance their marketing strategies, and improve their competitive moat within the global competitive landscape. To see how fast Baltic companies are adapting to digitalization trend and, therefore, how good [...] Read more.
Enterprise digitalization is a way for companies to make their processes more efficient, to enhance their marketing strategies, and improve their competitive moat within the global competitive landscape. To see how fast Baltic companies are adapting to digitalization trend and, therefore, how good they are at keeping or improving their competitive advantage, we have developed a digital maturity assessment methodology, which was applied to the listed enterprises in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. This methodology allowed us to detect certain digital maturity trends, such as the significant growth of the attention paid towards concepts related to ‘process automation’. Further, it was clear that many companies are concerned with online business, which can be well-seen from the analyzed annual reports. Additionally, we have compared the level and dynamics of the company’s digital maturity to its financial and market performance. We have concluded that, although there is a positive relationship between several financial indicators (e.g., sales growth), it is too early to see the positive effect of digital maturity on a company’s stock performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intangible Resources and Internationalization for the Innovation Performance of Chinese High-Tech Firms
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030052 - 06 Aug 2019
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between three intangible resources and the innovation performance of Chinese high-tech firms, and the moderating effect of internationalization on these relationships. We implement a hierarchical multiple regression analysis using data for 274 Chinese [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between three intangible resources and the innovation performance of Chinese high-tech firms, and the moderating effect of internationalization on these relationships. We implement a hierarchical multiple regression analysis using data for 274 Chinese high-tech firms. The results show that all three intangible resources, measured by top management team diversity, research and development intensity, and government subsidies, positively influence Chinese high-tech firm innovation performance. We find the relationships between these intangible resources and the innovation performance of Chinese high-tech firms are significantly positively moderated by internationalization. These findings have important implications, as follows. First, they provide evidence of the strategic value of intangible resources and their effects on innovation performance. Second, our results show that increasing internationalization alone does not guarantee performance improvement. Firms should consider their internal and external environments and the complex relationships among factors when they make decisions about internationalization investments. Prior research does not provide an explanation for how internationalization affects performance, because it primarily focuses on the direct relationship between internationalization and performance. This study overcomes this limitation by examining the indirect effect of internationalization on performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Transition of Samsung Electronics through Its M&A with Harman International
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030051 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The automobile industry is experiencing unprecedented change. Despite its century-old history based mostly in the art of mechanics, increased development of technology and heightened awareness of environmental issues has pushed traditional automobile manufacturers to completely re-examine their strategies. It has also newly invited [...] Read more.
The automobile industry is experiencing unprecedented change. Despite its century-old history based mostly in the art of mechanics, increased development of technology and heightened awareness of environmental issues has pushed traditional automobile manufacturers to completely re-examine their strategies. It has also newly invited nontraditional players such as electronic and IT tycoons namely, Samsung, Google, and Apple into the game. The advent of electric cars with cutting edge technology requires active participation and collaboration from diverse industries requiring cross-over joint ventures and M&As. In this light, the recent acquisition of Harman Incorporated for eight billion dollars by Samsung Electronics in 2016 is a significant event that signals great change. As the electronics tycoon expands its boundaries preparing to become an important player in the automobile industry, this study examines how Samsung increases and integrates its knowledge base and innovation capability through the M&A deal with Harman in attempts to enhance its competitiveness in the rapidly evolving automotive market. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Incessant Conceptual/Industrial Transformation of Automobiles
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030050 - 30 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In order to comprehend the prospect of a future automobile industry, the development path of the automobile industry is reviewed. It is found that the industry has experienced an incessant conceptual transformation, dominant design, emission control, fuel efficiency, product integrity, modularization, and hybridization. [...] Read more.
In order to comprehend the prospect of a future automobile industry, the development path of the automobile industry is reviewed. It is found that the industry has experienced an incessant conceptual transformation, dominant design, emission control, fuel efficiency, product integrity, modularization, and hybridization. An industrial transformation is also identified, comprised of inter-firm competition, inter-industry competition, and inter-industry collaboration. It is concluded that in the coming age of self-driving, global partnering including IT companies will forge a new path for industrial development. Additionally, the pattern of innovation will involve business model creation rather than simple product/process innovations, such as the PC industry experienced after its stand-alone innovation had been accomplished. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainability and Continuous Improvement of Organization: Review of Process-Oriented Performance Indicators
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030049 - 26 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Nowadays, organizations are trying to have, not only a competitive advantage in the market, but also in sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process of measuring organizations’ sustainability using process-oriented indicators. The research seeks to address the following [...] Read more.
Nowadays, organizations are trying to have, not only a competitive advantage in the market, but also in sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process of measuring organizations’ sustainability using process-oriented indicators. The research seeks to address the following research question: How are process-oriented indicators linked to an organization’s strategy in the context of sustainable development? This research is based on reviewing the literature on organizational performance analysis in the context of sustainable development. The literature review highlights the main elements of organizational performance analysis and linkages to the overall business strategy. There are many ways of how to conduct an in depth assessment of an organization’s performance regarding sustainability. The research shows the elements that are integrated in the process and the organization’s performance analysis. These elements are—objectives, metrics, data measures, indicators and key performance indicators (KPIs). The research shows that growing organizations with a strategic focus on sustainability integrate these elements in the process analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Innovation Ecosystem from the Perspective of Sustainability: Towards a Conceptual Framework
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030048 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
With technology advancement, industrial revolution 4.0, businesses nowadays are in competition in terms of product, service and business model innovation. Meanwhile, the emergent socio-ecological crisis is making it increasingly important to identify the impact of business on environment and the society. To date, [...] Read more.
With technology advancement, industrial revolution 4.0, businesses nowadays are in competition in terms of product, service and business model innovation. Meanwhile, the emergent socio-ecological crisis is making it increasingly important to identify the impact of business on environment and the society. To date, much literature has explored how sustainability might be achieved through firms’ internal research and development, and supply chain collaboration. However, issues such as how different stakeholders including customers, partners, government, and universities can be involved, forming innovation ecosystem in a sustainable way is under-explored. This paper aims to provide connection between innovation and sustainability, through literature review and exploratory case studies. A conceptual framework is generated starting from firm/intra-firm level, to supply chain/inter-firm level, and towards ecosystem level. With emerging themes of innovation from sustainability perspective proposed, the framework can be enriched and validated through future empirical studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developing an Improved Risk-Adjusted Net Present Value Technology Valuation Model for the Biopharmaceutical Industry
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030045 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The financial valuation of a drug that is still under development is required for various purposes. The risk-adjusted net present value (r-NPV) method, which recently emerged in the biotech industry, uses the development attrition rate as a discount factor to reflect risk during [...] Read more.
The financial valuation of a drug that is still under development is required for various purposes. The risk-adjusted net present value (r-NPV) method, which recently emerged in the biotech industry, uses the development attrition rate as a discount factor to reflect risk during each development phase. The r-NPV method was developed to overcome the disadvantages of the prevailing discounted cash flow and real options methods and considers drug type, as well as the stage of development in its approach. Using this method, the current study examines technology values in the biopharmaceutical industry and matches the clinical development periods and success rates of these new drugs by analyzing datasets from ClinicalTrials.gov and MedTrack DB. It thus provides support for an empirical valuation model for experts in the field. Notably, there is limited research on the attrition rate and development period of new substance drugs and the research results are not consistently presented. In addition to new substance drugs, further research is necessary to deepen understanding of the attrition rate and development period of biologically-based drugs because of their inherent physical and developmental differences. Similarly, research on performance specifics within drug class models would enable refinement of the model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Universities in the National Innovation Systems: Emerging Innovation Landscapes in Asia-Pacific
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030043 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Historically, universities and institutions of higher learning have gone through three academic revolutions, namely, teaching, research, and innovation. Universities and Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in the last two decades have come to occupy an important part in the national innovation systems (NIS), which [...] Read more.
Historically, universities and institutions of higher learning have gone through three academic revolutions, namely, teaching, research, and innovation. Universities and Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in the last two decades have come to occupy an important part in the national innovation systems (NIS), which is a complex of ‘all important economic, social, political, organizational, institutional and other factors that influence the development, diffusion and use of innovations’. From a broader perspective, universities, together with public Research and Development (R&D) labs and science agencies, public policies (on industry, research, innovation and higher education, etc.) and business enterprises are now considered as important actors in the NIS of Asia-Pacific economies. The rise of Asia in the global knowledge-based economy from mid-1990s is closely associated with the rise of knowledge institutions of higher learning and scientific research output. Every Asia-Pacific country embraced and introduced policies relating to innovation in varying forms. Consultancy and collaborative links with industry being traditional forms of engagement, new policy and institutional measures in technology transfer and innovation to engage with society and business enterprises are gaining prominence. Policies for incubation, start-ups, and spin-offs, technology transfer offices (TTOs), and science and technology parks have gained tremendous prominence in leading Asia-Pacific universities. Different national innovation systems in the Asia-Pacific region have given rise to varying roles of universities. Whilst universities in Southeast Asian countries and India continue to play a traditional role of teaching and generating human capital, there are countries such as Singapore, China, Taiwan, and Japan, wherein universities are being transformed as entrepreneurial universities. Science and innovation policies in these countries have orchestrated the goal direction of universities as frontiers of innovation. Universities in Australia and New Zealand have so far been quite successful in marketing higher education to neighboring Asian countries. They have in recent years begun to embark on innovation and commercialization of research. The paper focuses on South East Asia and draws some comparison with more dynamic university ecosystems in East Asia. In doing so, the paper brings into focus the emerging innovation landscapes across the region. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Student Activity Participation on Accounting Education
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030040 - 27 Jun 2019
Abstract
Accounting education focuses on delivering knowledge to students. Most student are passive, behaving as bystanders or listeners in lecturer-oriented learning. However, student-centered learning requires active and positive engagement from students to generate effective learning. Board games represent a key driving tool in inducing [...] Read more.
Accounting education focuses on delivering knowledge to students. Most student are passive, behaving as bystanders or listeners in lecturer-oriented learning. However, student-centered learning requires active and positive engagement from students to generate effective learning. Board games represent a key driving tool in inducing student participation and interest in active learning. This study investigates whether the active participation of students in class activities has positive effects on accounting education. Specifically, it tests whether active student involvement in board game activities in introductory accounting courses contributes to effective learning. There were a few key findings. Firstly, the more actively that students participate in the game, the higher their favorable changes are in terms of perception of accounting. Secondly, the higher their positive perceptions are, the higher the effects of accounting education are. These results imply that the active involvement of learners is a precondition for the effect of accounting education activities, and that positive perception is a mediator for learning effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Productivity Slowdown, Exhausted Opportunities and the Power of Human Ingenuity—Schumpeter Meets Georgescu-Roegen
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030039 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Western economies nowadays are confronted with a predicted productivity slowdown resulting in diminishing rates of economic growth. While some scholars see these developments as an indication of the approaching end of growth due to fully exploited technological opportunities, this article contends that the [...] Read more.
Western economies nowadays are confronted with a predicted productivity slowdown resulting in diminishing rates of economic growth. While some scholars see these developments as an indication of the approaching end of growth due to fully exploited technological opportunities, this article contends that the possibilities for radical, paradigm changing innovations are far from being exploited. Building on contributions from Schumpeter and Georgescu-Roegen, we argue that the human capacity to expand technological and intellectual frontiers must not be underestimated. In a selective retrospect, our narrative identifies and describes four historical incidents reflecting different perceptions of the power of the human mind. It synthesizes the mentioned economists’ viewpoints with the effects of these incidents to reproduce the intellectual roots of the recently developed concept of Dedicated Innovation Systems (DIS). We conclude that traditional macro-level indicators are not suitable to capture transformation processes, which is why we propose to interpret growth indicators and the alleged productivity slowdown quite differently. We argue that human ingenuity and transformation processes dedicated to sustainability will open up new opportunity spaces, thereby combining an increase in economic welfare and social justice with a reduction of negative environmental impact. Full article
Open AccessArticle
What Dynamic Managerial Capabilities Are Needed for Greater Strategic Alliance Performance?
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5020036 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Despite the rising interest in the nature of open innovation and its implications for greater strategic alliance performance, limited attention has been paid to what the dynamic managerial capabilities underpinning those processes are. Moreover, only limited research has examined how open innovation is [...] Read more.
Despite the rising interest in the nature of open innovation and its implications for greater strategic alliance performance, limited attention has been paid to what the dynamic managerial capabilities underpinning those processes are. Moreover, only limited research has examined how open innovation is practiced by firms working within various network forms (ecosystems, platforms, and strategic alliances) and what dynamic managerial capabilities ensure such networks’ collaborations. We need to further develop the concept of the coupled (collaborative) type of open innovation and to show how open innovation mechanisms, such as strategic alliances, are underpinned by dynamic managerial capabilities and to understand what their “micro-foundations” are. Thus, the goal of this article is to understand the role of sub-capabilities (how managers think and decide) of dynamic managerial capabilities as drivers of successful alliance performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Personal Value on CSV (Creating Shared Value)
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5020034 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to reveal the effect of personal value as a part of creating shared value (CSV). We extracted factors of personal value through a literature review. Personal value consists of social commitment, self-actualization, goal setting, and solidarity. Self-actualization [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to reveal the effect of personal value as a part of creating shared value (CSV). We extracted factors of personal value through a literature review. Personal value consists of social commitment, self-actualization, goal setting, and solidarity. Self-actualization is the universal motivation of the individual, goal setting is the basis for the occurrence of action, and solidarity is the relationship factor that defends competition and personalization. This study was conducted on three hypotheses. Hypothesis 1 is that self-actualization will have an effect on CSV. Hypothesis 2 is that goal setting will have an effect on CSV. Hypothesis 3 is that solidarity will have an effect on CSV. The proxy of CSV is social commitment. We examine the effects of these personal values on CSV by surveying 557 university students. This study applied the regression model to test the hypotheses. The empirical results are as follows. CSV increases when we are more self-actualized. Goal setting positively affects CSV. CSV goes up as we have many relationships with organizations and are more cooperative in work. This study suggests the important elements of personal values in a university setting for CSV, and enables setting the direction of the education by setting the index of the attitude to increase the value of the individual in CSV. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Port Digitalization with Open Data: Challenges, Opportunities, and Integrations
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5020030 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Digitalization is frequently addressed in recent economic and social scientific literature. This paper applies a distinction to digital data (raw data) and digital technologies (including both software platforms and hardware solutions). The open data is defined as follows: it is publicly available and [...] Read more.
Digitalization is frequently addressed in recent economic and social scientific literature. This paper applies a distinction to digital data (raw data) and digital technologies (including both software platforms and hardware solutions). The open data is defined as follows: it is publicly available and non-chargeable data (information content) that is machine readable. Open data enables software and application development for external partners and users. A common feature in open-data applications is location-based identification (e.g., real-time traffic monitoring). These include spatial map visualizations, and monitoring of traffic and modes of transport. This visualized information provides additional support for data-based decision-making and management as these study results indicate. This information is valuable particularly in the decisions concerning unconventional and sudden events. This research indicates that the most suitable data resources for opening include information related to port transport infrastructure. In terms of temporal monitoring, static road and rail data is currently the most potential alternative for open data in ports. The main reasons are that these data sources are already at least partly published. However, they are not always in open-data formats. Static data is also a grounded starting point because the technical requirements are much less demanding in comparison to real-time data-processing and management Full article
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Open AccessArticle
World Turned Upside Down: Entrepreneurial Decline, Its Reluctant Myths and Troubling Realities
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5020022 - 09 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to attempt to understand why the popular academic and policy field of promoting, studying and evangelising “entrepreneurship” should have been associated with great success but, in the past twenty years or more in many advanced economies, so [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to attempt to understand why the popular academic and policy field of promoting, studying and evangelising “entrepreneurship” should have been associated with great success but, in the past twenty years or more in many advanced economies, so much failure. From the US to lesser and developing countries, emerging economies and the European Union, entrepreneurship, especially in regard to start-ups and particularly high-tech start-ups, has been in constant more or less recent decline. This is seldom registered in the mainstream literature where a positive and benign profile is generally presented. The paper examines this phenomenon, ties it partly with the “productivity paradox” and seeks tentative hypotheses in relation to the apparent illusions if not delusions regarding “entrepreneurship”. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Operational-Efficiency Improvement of Public R and D Management Agencies in South Korea
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5010013 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Public R and D management agencies have been taking on key roles in the national R and D ecosystem. The purpose of this study is to suggest ways to improve the operational efficiency of public R and D management agencies based on analysis [...] Read more.
Public R and D management agencies have been taking on key roles in the national R and D ecosystem. The purpose of this study is to suggest ways to improve the operational efficiency of public R and D management agencies based on analysis of their current status. We approached this study from a life-cycle perspective as it applies to the plan-management evaluation of R and D. Data-collection sources included documents, surveys, and interviews with staff members in agencies responsible for national R and D management. Based on the analysis results, we present suggestions for improvement in three areas: (a) unification of R and D planning and evaluation of individual ministries; (b) establishment of a panministerial management system for public R and D management agencies; (c) improvement and development of public R and D agencies’ expertise and management services. Finally, we discuss possible improvements and the limits of this study. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research

Open AccessConcept Paper
Basic Income with High Open Innovation Dynamics: The Way to the Entrepreneurial State
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030041 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Currently, the world economy is approaching a near-zero growth rate. Governments should move from a market-failure-oriented to a system-failure-oriented approach to understanding this problem, and transform to an entrepreneurial state to motivate the Schumpeterian dynamics of open innovation. We want to answer the [...] Read more.
Currently, the world economy is approaching a near-zero growth rate. Governments should move from a market-failure-oriented to a system-failure-oriented approach to understanding this problem, and transform to an entrepreneurial state to motivate the Schumpeterian dynamics of open innovation. We want to answer the following research question in this study: “How can a government enact policies to conquer the growth limits imposed on the economy by inequality or the control of big businesses?” First, we conducted a literature review to establish the concept of building a causal loop model of basic income with open innovation dynamics. Second, we built a causal loop model which includes basic income and all factors of open innovation dynamics. Third, we proved our causal loop model through a meta-analysis of global cases of basic income. Our research indicates that reflective basic income with permissionless open innovation, capital fluidity, a sharing economy, and a platform tax can motivate open innovation dynamics and arrive at a method by which an entrepreneurial state can conquer the growth limits of capitalism. Full article
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Open AccessViewpoint
Disruptive Impacts of Automated Driving Systems on the Built Environment and Land Use: An Urban Planner’s Perspective
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5020024 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 18
Abstract
Cities have started to restructure themselves into ‘smart cities’ to address the challenges of the 21st Century—such as climate change, sustainable development, and digital disruption. One of the major obstacles to success for a smart city is to tackle the mobility and accessibility [...] Read more.
Cities have started to restructure themselves into ‘smart cities’ to address the challenges of the 21st Century—such as climate change, sustainable development, and digital disruption. One of the major obstacles to success for a smart city is to tackle the mobility and accessibility issues via ‘smart mobility’ solutions. At the verge of the age of smart urbanism, autonomous vehicle technology is seen as an opportunity to realize the smart mobility vision of cities. However, this innovative technological advancement is also speculated to bring a major disruption in urban transport, land use, employment, parking, car ownership, infrastructure design, capital investment decisions, sustainability, mobility, and traffic safety. Despite the potential threats, urban planners and managers are not yet prepared to develop autonomous vehicle strategies for cities to deal with these threats. This is mainly due to a lack of knowledge on the social implications of autonomous capabilities and how exactly they will disrupt our cities. This viewpoint provides a snapshot of the current status of vehicle automation, the direction in which the field is moving forward, the potential impacts of systematic adoption of autonomous vehicles, and how urban planners can mitigate the built environment and land use disruption of autonomous vehicles. Full article
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