Special Issue "Open Innovation and Business Model in the Global Economic Crisis Which is Triggered by the Pandemic of COVID-19"

A special issue of Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity (ISSN 2199-8531).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 92888

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. JinHyo Joseph Yun *
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. DGIST (Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology), 333, Techno jungang-daero, Hyeonpung-eup, Dalseong-gun, Daegu, Korea
2. Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwank-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
Interests: open innovation; business model; open innovation economy; social open innovation; Schumpeterian dynamics; complexity; game theory; political economics
* Managing Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Lei Ma
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Innovation and Development Research Center, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
Interests: technology management and technology policy; network organization governance; knowledge management; human resources management
Prof. Dr. Sungyong Choi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Operations and Service Management, School of Business, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
Interests: operations and supply chain management (OSCM) modeling and applications under risk; service operations and quality management; inventory management; analytics and data-driven optimization; operations finance/marketing interfaces

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will publish some selected papers from the annual conference of SOI 2021. Suitable topics include but are not limited to:

  • Micro and macroeconomics of open innovation dynamics
  • Open business models;
  • Schumpeterian economics, growth of knowledge, and open innovation;
  • Sharing economy and open business model platforms;
  • Complexity in open innovation;
  • Green economics, open innovation, and regional innovation system;
  • Catch-up open innovation, and convergence;
  • Digital revolution, Entrepreneurship, and open innovation;
  • Common good open innovation;
  • Natural experiment, deep interview, or participatory observation for OI research;
  • Industry innovation ecosystem design and strategic development;
  • Open innovation and strategic competitiveness;
  • Measuring business excellence and case studies for sustainability;
  • Patent analysis and open innovation;
  • Innovation Ecosystem for sustainable development in China;
  • Beyond innovation, beyond smart city;
  • Entrepreneurship and Technology based firms;
  • Open innovation in the growth of knowledge.

Time schedule of this special issue:

  • Special issue Open: 10 June 2021

From 10 June 2021, any SOI 2021 authors in addition to the planned papers can submit to this special issue after full paper submission to SOI 2021 platform and paying the registration fee until 10 June 2021.

  • Close: 31 December 2021

All papers should be submitted to this special issue until 31 December 2021.

  • SOI 2021 best paper recommendation condition

The best paper award of SOI 2021 will be chosen from papers which were selected for the Special Issue of JOI for SOI 2021, and submitted at the JOI until 1 July 2021.

  • SOI 2021 keynote papers

The Article Processing Charges (APC) of the keynote speech papers of SOI 2021 will be supported by SOI if the paper was passed the regular review process. The authors of these papers should include an acknowledgement section following the example below:

Funding: This paper was presented as a keynote speech of SOI 2021, and the publishing fee of this paper was funded by SOI 2021-1.

Prof. Dr. JinHyo Joseph Yun
Prof. Dr. Lei Ma
Prof. Dr. Sungyong Choi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (38 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Influence of Non-Product-Related Attributes on Media Brands’ Consumption
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8030105 - 21 Jun 2022
Viewed by 899
Abstract
This paper outlines the importance and role of non-product-related brand attributes, e.g., user imagery and usage imagery, in local news media content consumption by a younger audience aged 15–24. Due to technological developments, new media content consumption patterns have emerged. New dynamic, interactive, [...] Read more.
This paper outlines the importance and role of non-product-related brand attributes, e.g., user imagery and usage imagery, in local news media content consumption by a younger audience aged 15–24. Due to technological developments, new media content consumption patterns have emerged. New dynamic, interactive, and multiplatform marketplaces have changed how media brands deliver content and how audiences consume it. The main catalysts of change are multiple platforms, on-demand content consumption, and social media platforms. The increasing use of global social networks offers media brands possibilities to distribute content and connect with their audiences, all while creating new challenges and competition in local media. These changes have brought about possibilities of broadening media audiences, as well as challenges, e.g., because of decreasing media brand associations and preference being given to social media platforms and global media brands. Generation Z’s traditional media consumption patterns are below average. This audience segment prefers mobile access and online media content on various platforms, uses social media more than other age range audiences, and chooses global media and social media platforms over national media brands. These dynamics increase the challenges for local news media brands in attracting and growing a future audience, as Generation Z consumes fewer national media content in their local or national language, and what they do consume is through the medium of social media. The authors analyse media consumption trends in Latvia and determine how media brands increase their equity and the consumption of media regarding younger audiences. This research was designed to understand media consumption trends via secondary information analyses and employs a quantitative survey to identify non-product-related brand attitudes. The research question of this paper is concerned with defining how media brand associations affect content consumption and engagement. We used regression analyses to predict the most significant correlations between brand attributes and content consumption and concentration. The study focuses on national news media brands. Full article
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Article
Assessment of the Activities of European Cultural Heritage Tourism Sites during the COVID-19 Pandemic
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010055 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the way tourism activities are conducted. Restrictions on moving from place to place have likely limited the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus but have also led to economic crisis in many countries around the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the way tourism activities are conducted. Restrictions on moving from place to place have likely limited the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus but have also led to economic crisis in many countries around the world. In this article, we assessed the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the activities of cultural heritage tourism sites in Europe. Scientific research was carried out in industrial heritage tourism sites associated with the European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH). Analysis of the literature and the results of our own research indicated a strong impact of the pandemic on the examined sites, expressed in the limitation of the operating time of the sites, a decrease in the number of tourists attended to, and a decrease in revenues. No significant reduction in employment was noticed. These sites were not generally used in preventive actions during the health crisis. Only some managers took an active part in supporting emergency services in a difficult situation. We concluded that taking up innovative functions by tourism enterprises should be open innovation. Full article
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Article
Open Innovation, Soft Branding and Green Influencers: Critiquing ‘Fast Fashion’ and ‘Overtourism’
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010052 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4696
Abstract
This paper explores digital reality replication for cultural consumption and green-digital open-system innovation, along with responsible, sustainable practices fashioned in a post-COVID-19 era. We address these after the dystopian effects of lockdown on global tourism and, in particular, the looming crisis of unsustainable [...] Read more.
This paper explores digital reality replication for cultural consumption and green-digital open-system innovation, along with responsible, sustainable practices fashioned in a post-COVID-19 era. We address these after the dystopian effects of lockdown on global tourism and, in particular, the looming crisis of unsustainable ‘overtourism’. The aim of this paper is to disclose problems and policies related to moderating consumption to more sustainable levels. The scope of the article tackles three fields: urban re-branding, fast fashion, and overtourism. Each problem area is analysed against the background of digital surveillance in the attention economy with the aid of a conceptual model. Accordingly, the principal objectives of this paper are to analyse key sustainability problem sources, evolutionary processes, and policy responses. The paper’s originality and value lie in its recognition of tractable problem engagement through conceptual and practicable methods. This contribution also explores other consumption modes that tourists appreciate, namely, retail activity and its unsustainable “fast fashion” obsession. Finally, the paper analyses urban soft branding, the third tourism attractor within the niche touristic activity of the creative-cultural and gastronomic kind, which also features impulses that affect the perpetuation of unsustainable touristic practices. Thus, this contribution also assesses various studies on tourism futures that exploit digital media to assist in conserving both natural and cultural environments. Accordingly, we first narrate the soft re-branding of an “Art City” as a “Fashion City” and consider the example of green-digital innovation in the cultural milieu of Florence, Italy, in light of criticism of the unsustainability of “fast fashion”. We consider which actions are envisioned or advised in the similarly “over-touristed” city of Venice. In a different vein, we consider whether the mobilisation of ‘pop celebrity’ performers such as audience engagers or influencers works for sustainable intervention through an assessment of the cultural interventions of Madonna in Lisbon. Finally, we anatomise “green” politics and policies for creative-cultural cities with the support of digital media to influence sustainable actions to moderate or, alternatively, revitalise polluted, congested, or otherwise over-touristed city centres. The greening of central Paris, Barcelona, Milan, and London offer a a series of examples of this type of moderation and revitalisation. Full article
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Article
Innovative Business Strategies in the Face of COVID-19: An Approach to Open Innovation of SMEs in the Sonora Region of Mexico
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010047 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2758
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to analyze and verify the effects of the business strategy (financial and market) and innovation management exerted on the economic indicators and business performances of SMEs in the south-central region of Sonora in Mexico. The effect of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to analyze and verify the effects of the business strategy (financial and market) and innovation management exerted on the economic indicators and business performances of SMEs in the south-central region of Sonora in Mexico. The effect of electronic commerce and the home office in the management of innovation and corporate performance is also analyzed. In addition, a multigroup analysis was carried out to check if there are significant differences between family and non-family businesses. The sample analyzed comprises 498 SMEs with between 6 and 250 employees in the commerce sector. To collect the information, a questionnaire was developed and applied to the online SME manager through the LimeSurvey Professional platform. The field work was carried out from February to October 2021. PLS-SEM was used for the data analysis. The results report that the business strategy (financial and market) does not have significant effects on the management of innovation and on the economic indicators of SMEs. On the other hand, innovation management has positive and significant effects on the economic indicators and business performance of SMEs. It is also revealed that economic indicators have a positive and significant effect on business performance. Open innovation strategies such as electronic commerce have positive and significant effects on innovation management and corporate performance. Similarly, the home office has significant effects on innovation management. Finally, unknown SMEs were found to be the best performers in innovation management and business performance. The study contributes to the development of the theory of competitive behavior and the theory of resources and capabilities. Full article
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Article
From the Classic Business Model to Open Innovation and Data Sharing—The Concept of an Open Car-Sharing Business Model
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010036 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2243
Abstract
The car-sharing market is changing at a dynamic pace. Along with changes and new user habits, car-sharing systems are required to make this market even more accessible and flexible. This solution is possible due to the joining of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) systems and the [...] Read more.
The car-sharing market is changing at a dynamic pace. Along with changes and new user habits, car-sharing systems are required to make this market even more accessible and flexible. This solution is possible due to the joining of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) systems and the sharing of data, as well as the implementation of open innovations. However, these are aspects that strongly interfere with the business models of car-sharing systems. Due to this fact, this article is dedicated to the subject of business models in car-sharing systems and the issues of using data sharing and implementing open innovations. This study aimed to analyze the current state of business models and to propose an individual business model of an open car-sharing system based on the concept of open innovation and data sharing. As part of the study, expert surveys were carried out. The results obtained indicate that the dynamics of business models and the development of innovation in car-sharing enterprises are being disrupted. Moreover, most of the current business models are not updated. They also do not consider the subject of open innovation and data sharing, despite operators considering this problem to be significant. The individual model of an open car-sharing system developed in this article was constructed in such a way as to support operators during the transformation of current business models into a modern open model. Full article
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Communication
Climate Dialog, Climate Action: Can Democracy Do the Job?
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010031 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1540
Abstract
The latest IPCC report forcefully states that immediate, decisive, and large-scale actions are needed to avert climate catastrophe. This essay presumes that democratic governments are best and most desirably positioned to take these actions. Yet in the countries most pivotal to global climate [...] Read more.
The latest IPCC report forcefully states that immediate, decisive, and large-scale actions are needed to avert climate catastrophe. This essay presumes that democratic governments are best and most desirably positioned to take these actions. Yet in the countries most pivotal to global climate change, significant voting blocs are uninterested in environmental issues. The essay urges adding bottom-up dialog between environmental and anti-environmental voters, to current and future top-down technocratic “solutions”. To make this combination result in a unified pro-environment electorate, we must understand: religious objections to environmentalism; the capital-vs.-knowledge strife that slows polluting corporations’ green transitions; and the psychological mechanisms that can make inter-group dialog fruitful. Full article
Article
Digitalizing Gratitude and Building Trust through Technology in a Post-COVID-19 World—Report of a Case from Japan
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010022 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2177
Abstract
Employee engagement has become a critical issue in Japanese companies. One way to develop it is to improve the relationship among employees through gratitude expressions. In the post-COVID-19 remote work environment, digital devices are essential. This paper confirms that expressions of gratitude delivered [...] Read more.
Employee engagement has become a critical issue in Japanese companies. One way to develop it is to improve the relationship among employees through gratitude expressions. In the post-COVID-19 remote work environment, digital devices are essential. This paper confirms that expressions of gratitude delivered via digital devices enhance the relationship between employees. We experimented in a small-town government office where participants (n = 88) were asked to (1) use the Thanks App, an app we developed to express gratitude, for two months and (2) respond to an engagement survey we developed before and after the experimental period. Through cross-analysis of the data from the app and questionnaire, we found that the “trust in colleagues” factor had a strong correlation (r = 0.80, p < 0.001) with our new index computed by the app’s data. The results suggest that the use of the Thanks App may help visualize the trust relationship among teams. This study has a practical value in providing a new team management tool for visualizing team trust. In addition, it provides a new research method for emotional and social psychology using digital devices. Full article
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Article
Open Innovation in Times of Crisis: An Overview of the Healthcare Sector in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010021 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3749
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge and disruptive technological changes in the healthcare sector, transforming the way businesses and societies function. To respond to the global health crisis, there have been numerous innovation projects in the healthcare sector, including the fast design and [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge and disruptive technological changes in the healthcare sector, transforming the way businesses and societies function. To respond to the global health crisis, there have been numerous innovation projects in the healthcare sector, including the fast design and manufacturing of personal protective equipment (PPE) and medical devices, and testing, treatment, and vaccine technologies. Many of these innovative activities happen beyond organizational boundaries with collaboration and open innovation. In this paper, we review the current literature on open innovation strategy during the pandemic and adopt the co-evolution view of business ecosystems to address the context of change. Based on a detailed exploration of the COVID-19-related technologies in the UK and global healthcare sectors, we identify the key emerging themes of open innovation in crisis. Further discussions are conducted in relation to each theme. Our results and analysis can help provide policy recommendations for the healthcare sector, businesses, and society to recover from the crisis. Full article
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Article
E-Commerce Customers Behavior Research Using Cohort Analysis: A Case Study of COVID-19
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010012 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4923
Abstract
Cohort analysis is a new practical method for e-commerce customers’ research, trends in their behavior, and experience during the COVID-19 crisis. The purpose of the research is to validate the efficiency of this method on the e-commerce records data set and find out [...] Read more.
Cohort analysis is a new practical method for e-commerce customers’ research, trends in their behavior, and experience during the COVID-19 crisis. The purpose of the research is to validate the efficiency of this method on the e-commerce records data set and find out the critical factors associated with customer awareness and loyalty levels. The cohort analysis features engineering, descriptive statistics, and exploratory data analysis are the main methods used to reach the study purpose. The research results showed that cohort analysis could answer various business questions and successfully solve real-world problems in e-commerce customer research. It could be extended to analyze user satisfaction with a platform’s technical performance and used for infrastructure monitoring. Obtained insights on e-commerce customers’ awareness and loyalty levels show the likeliness of a user to make a purchase or interact with the platform. Key e-business aspects from a customer point of view are analyzed and augment the user-experience understanding to strengthen customers’ relationships in e-commerce. Full article
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Article
An Efficiency Measurement of E-Government Performance for Network Readiness: Non-Parametric Frontier Approach
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010010 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) network readiness competency improves service quality and provides efficient service in implementing successful e-governments. By confirming ICT network readiness of e-governments, it must be redesigned using limited resources effectively to achieve realistic goals. When ICT investment and economic [...] Read more.
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) network readiness competency improves service quality and provides efficient service in implementing successful e-governments. By confirming ICT network readiness of e-governments, it must be redesigned using limited resources effectively to achieve realistic goals. When ICT investment and economic performance are featured, e-government’s network readiness competency improves potential demand, supply, and service maturity. It reflects information technology (IT) development competency on performance effectively. In this study, we propose the Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) method to present a method of improving ICT network readiness between countries. We derived the ICT network’s readiness competency level and strategic plan by comparing each country for efficient ICT operation of e-governments. If we make rankings in a non-traditional and efficient manner, it will become a successful strategy for ICT in the future. This effort provides guidance for each government and a solution for the growth delay problem, which is required for advancement in ICT investment and productivity. It also guides each government to overcome marginal products. Full article
Article
Dynamics of Business Models in Industry-Wide Collaborative Networks for Circularity
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010003 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 899
Abstract
Incumbent B2B manufacturing companies join forces and form collaborative networks, called consortia, aiming to increase the circularity of their products. Our research interest lies in the understanding of how the business models (BM) of the companies and the industry are affected by such [...] Read more.
Incumbent B2B manufacturing companies join forces and form collaborative networks, called consortia, aiming to increase the circularity of their products. Our research interest lies in the understanding of how the business models (BM) of the companies and the industry are affected by such collaborations in the collaborative networks of the circular economy (CE). Given the exploratory nature of our empirical research, we applied a mixed research strategy of an inductively deductive nature. We carried out case studies in a manufacturing industry field and combined them with quantitative content analyses of the companies’ financial and non-financial reports. Drawing on the assumptions of the Attention-Based View Theory and Legitimacy Theory, we defined and found verbally communicated identifiers of BM elements, CE strategies, and collaborative networks, quantified their occurrences, and transformed them into variables. Using correlation analyses, we determined the tightness and the changes in relationships between the BMs’ elements and CE strategies. We examined the dynamic changes in the structure of BMs and their elements occurring within the implementation of selected CE strategies. Our findings suggest that collaborative networks for CE support an adaptation of the industry’s BMs. The higher-level CE strategies impact the BM more than the lower-level ones. The contribution of our research is in the suggested method of quantification and concretization of an abstract concept of BMs’ elements and their interrelations. This enables an assessment and a direct comparison of BMs, as well as of implemented CE strategies across companies and across industries. Our results also shed more light on the way the companies and industries adapt their BMs towards reaching circularity, as well as on how collaborative networks support such a transition. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Digital Governance Transition in South Korea: Focusing on the Leadership of the President for Government Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010002 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
This research intends to draw implications for digital governance establishment by analyzing how the president’s leadership has worked in the digital government innovation promoted in South Korea over the past 30 years. This research examines the process of digital government development in South [...] Read more.
This research intends to draw implications for digital governance establishment by analyzing how the president’s leadership has worked in the digital government innovation promoted in South Korea over the past 30 years. This research examines the process of digital government development in South Korea from the 1990s onwards, chronologically and in the order of presidential administrations. The analysis proceeds from the following three perspectives: the political characteristics of digital government, the presidents’ leadership on government innovation through digital government process, and the composition of a strong cross and joint governmental promotion system. The implementation of digital government is not simply about a computerized government. Driving digital government means the overall transformation of government. From this point of view, to successfully implement digital governance, we must approach it from a highly political perspective. The implementation of digital government in South Korea has been continuously pursued as a national agenda. Since South Korea has a well-established high-speed information and communication infrastructure, e-Government and digital government innovation have been promoted as national agendas regardless of regime change. However, in this process, the president’s leadership determined the success or failure of digital government innovation. Therefore, the most important success factor for digital government innovation is securing policy sustainability regardless of administration change. Full article
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Article
Broadband Connectivity, Government Policies, and Open Innovation: The Crucial IT Infrastructure Contribution in Scotland
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010001 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
Broadband connectivity is now essential to ensure a competitive advantage for any business. The analysis of Scotland’s crucial IT infrastructure contribution supported the authors’ thesis that the Government plays a decisive role in Open Innovation ecosystems. Indeed, IT infrastructures are a clear case [...] Read more.
Broadband connectivity is now essential to ensure a competitive advantage for any business. The analysis of Scotland’s crucial IT infrastructure contribution supported the authors’ thesis that the Government plays a decisive role in Open Innovation ecosystems. Indeed, IT infrastructures are a clear case of market failure where remote areas will never be served by adequate connectivity without public support. The main contribution is the demonstration that the benefits of public intervention are sometimes required and beneficial to correct market distortions and generate positive spillovers in terms of collaboration in Open Innovation ecosystems. Another relevant contribution is a comprehensive analysis of the consistency of the evolution of the public policies that supported the IT Infrastructure in Scotland. Therefore, pivotal is the study of this case study that can be easily generalised to many other contexts where the Government addressed market failures and, at the same time, contributed to generating collaborative environments. Full article
Article
The Effect of Learning Orientation and Business Model Innovation on Entrepreneurial Performance: Focused on South Korean Start-Up Companies
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(4), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7040245 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2132
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to empirically confirm the importance of learning orientation in the operation of start-up companies. In the literature, it is well known that this learning orientation plays a big role in improving the performance of start-ups by cultivating [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to empirically confirm the importance of learning orientation in the operation of start-up companies. In the literature, it is well known that this learning orientation plays a big role in improving the performance of start-ups by cultivating organizational members’ capabilities in detail, encouraging active learning, and creating new knowledge. To this end, a business model innovation framework for start-ups was established by empirically validating the theoretical research model. For the analysis, 139 questionnaires from start-ups with less than 7 years of business history in the incubation center were used. For the novelty of this work, it investigates the causal relationship between the learning orientation of start-ups, business model innovation, and start-up performance (technology acquisition and market expansion). Our research has contributed to the literature on entrepreneurship, innovation and strategy as follows. First, it contributed to the literature on entrepreneurship by redefining the performance of start-up companies as technology acquisition and market expansion through a review of previous studies and providing insight into the importance of learning orientation for start-ups through empirical studies. Second, it contributed to the innovation literature by confirming the importance of business model innovation for start-ups to achieve start-up performance through empirical research. Third, it contributed to the strategic literature by presenting and empirically confirming business model innovation through learning-orientation improvement as a way to achieve the performance of start-up companies. Full article
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Article
The Right or Wrong to the City? Understanding Citizen Participation in the Pre- and Post-COVID-19 Eras in Malaysia
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(4), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7040238 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
The right to the city concept is widely debated in academic discourse yet ambiguously executed in public discourse. In much of the discussion, the right to the city is advocated as a right that humans should claim—i.e., participating in urban space living. Nonetheless, [...] Read more.
The right to the city concept is widely debated in academic discourse yet ambiguously executed in public discourse. In much of the discussion, the right to the city is advocated as a right that humans should claim—i.e., participating in urban space living. Nonetheless, constraints and limits are imposed on such advocacy, resulting in a tokenized implementation state. With such a background surmounting the COVID-19 pandemic era, this study is aimed at understanding the right to the city propagation and revealing the possible wrongs of such civic advocacy. Multiple cases in Malaysia were selected for analysis and as the discussion context representing the state-of-the-art aspect of right to the city in the context of an emerging country. Two potential misconceptions through the action of right to the city were identified: first, the concept of right to the city has the potential to infringe the centrality of power, which both citizens and the authority have to make clear; second, the lack of a sign of contribution from citizens poses a severe challenge to build a co-created urban space for all. This paper contributes to removing a blind spot—the possible wrong to the right to the city—and provides ideas to achieve authentic citizen participation. Full article
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Article
What Are the Success Factors for a Partnership with Global Medical Device Companies? Evidence from Korea
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(4), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7040237 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
The medical device industry is uniquely characterized by both resourceful global companies and innovative catching-up companies. The studies by Chatterji have analyzed how large and established medical device companies could better utilize the ideas from innovative groups such as physicians. While the existing [...] Read more.
The medical device industry is uniquely characterized by both resourceful global companies and innovative catching-up companies. The studies by Chatterji have analyzed how large and established medical device companies could better utilize the ideas from innovative groups such as physicians. While the existing literature on the topic of open innovation is enriched, there are few studies on the partnership between larger global medical device companies and smaller catching-up medical device companies. This study focuses on a structured partnership with global medical device companies. To understand how such a deal could be better arranged, this study adopted the Analytic Hierarchy Process (hereafter, AHP) analysis to derive the success factors of such partnership with a focus on the case of the Korean medical device industry. This survey interviewed 30 experienced professionals who currently work for global medical device companies. The study results found that global medical device companies prefer a licensing deal along with broader territories. In terms of the preferred requirements for a partnership deal, the study revealed that there is strong emphasis on factors such as Quality and Intellectual Property (hereafter, IP) protection. This study has practical managerial implications for catching-up medical device companies which drive an open innovation practice with a view to accelerating their growth trajectory in the global market. Full article
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Article
Future Shift for ‘Big Things’: From Starchitecture via Agritecture to Parkitecture
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(4), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7040236 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
This article analyses three recent shifts in what called the geography of ‘Big Things’, meaning the contemporary functions and adaptability of modern city centre architecture. We periodise the three styles conventionally into the fashionable ‘Starchitecture’ of the 1990s, the repurposed ‘Agritecture’ of the [...] Read more.
This article analyses three recent shifts in what called the geography of ‘Big Things’, meaning the contemporary functions and adaptability of modern city centre architecture. We periodise the three styles conventionally into the fashionable ‘Starchitecture’ of the 1990s, the repurposed ‘Agritecture’ of the 2000s and the parodising ‘Parkitecture’ of the 2010s. Starchitecture was the form of new architecture coinciding with the rise of neo-liberalism in its brief era of global urban competitiveness prevalent in the 1990s. After the Great Financial Crash of 2007–2008, the market for high-rise emblems of iconic, thrusting, skyscrapers and giant downtown and suburban shopping malls waned and online shopping and working from home destroyed the main rental values of the CBD. In some illustrious cases, ‘Agritecture’ caused re-purposed office blocks and other CBD accompaniments to be re-purposed as settings for high-rise urban farming, especially aquaponics and hydroponic horticulture. Now, COVID-19 has further undermined traditional CBD property markets, causing some administrations to decide to bulldoze their ‘deadmalls’ and replace them with urban prairie landscapes, inviting the designation ‘Parkitecture’ for the bucolic results. This paper presents an account of these transitions with reference to questions raised by urban cultural scholars such as Jane M. Jacobs and Jean Gottmann to figure out answers in time and space to questions their work poses. Full article
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Article
Assessment of the Impact of Coaching on a Company’s Performance: A Review of Methods
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(4), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7040233 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2460
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to provide an analysis of the literature about methods for assessing the impact of coaching on the performance of a company, and elaborate a framework of assessment methods emphasizing their use in the course of coaching [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to provide an analysis of the literature about methods for assessing the impact of coaching on the performance of a company, and elaborate a framework of assessment methods emphasizing their use in the course of coaching interaction. The paper also explores the relationship between open innovation and coaching and proposes the themes for further research. The Scopus and Web of Science databases were selected for the review of the research papers in the business subject area. The review was guided by the following research questions: What methods are used for assessing the impact of coaching? How are these methods used in the course of the coaching interaction? How does coaching interrelate with open innovation? The findings suggest that the assessment of the impact of coaching on the individual’s behavior and performance of a company is considered from different perspectives. The methods differ based on the needs for the assessment whether the process evaluation or the outcome evaluation is required. The analysis of the literature proves that the relationship between coaching and open innovation is mutually advantageous. Full article
Article
Exploring the Factors Affecting Technology Transfer in Government-Funded Research Institutes: The Korean Case
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(4), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7040228 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Based on the resource dependence theory and the resource-based view, this study examined the impact of the resources and capabilities of government-funded research institutes (GRIs) on technology transfer. Panel analysis was performed on 21 GRIs in South Korea representing three mission types—basic future [...] Read more.
Based on the resource dependence theory and the resource-based view, this study examined the impact of the resources and capabilities of government-funded research institutes (GRIs) on technology transfer. Panel analysis was performed on 21 GRIs in South Korea representing three mission types—basic future leading, public infrastructure, and industrialization—for the 2015–2019 period. The analysis confirmed that the factors affecting technology transfer performance differed among GRIs depending on their mission type. For basic future leading GRIs, the number of technology transfer cases was strongly associated with the number of research personnel, while there was a negative relationship between technology transfer and the total budget, the number of research publications, and the number of patent registrations. None of the variables affected the revenue from technology fees. Researchers at these GRIs appear to have a strong motivation for technology transfer, but the priority for resource allocation at the institutional level is the production of papers and patents rather than technology transfer. For public infrastructure GRIs, the number of patents held and the number of technology licensing office (TLO) personnel had a positive impact on the number of technology transfer cases, while none of the variables affected the revenue from technology fees. Thus, the number of patents is more favorable for technology transfer at this type of GRI compared to those that pursue a mission of basic future leading, possibly because their research focus is more related to engineering than to basic science. For industrialization GRIs, the number of TLO personnel affected the number of cases of technology transfer, and the number of patent registrations and TLO personnel affected the revenue from technology fees. The speed of technology development and industrial application is thus much faster in industrialization GRIs than in the other GRI types. The results of this analysis show that mission attributes are important drivers of technology transfer performance. This study thus offers policy implications by illustrating those different resources should be provided to different types of GRI to optimize their technology transfer performance. Full article
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Article
Network Proximity Evolution of Open Innovation Diffusion: A Case of Artificial Intelligence for Healthcare
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(4), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7040222 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
Open innovation diffusion is of great significance to industrial transformation and upgrading, forming an open innovation ecosystem based on the patent publication. However, patent applicants contribute much knowledge to the public domain, and the communication channel, which is network proximity, does not receive [...] Read more.
Open innovation diffusion is of great significance to industrial transformation and upgrading, forming an open innovation ecosystem based on the patent publication. However, patent applicants contribute much knowledge to the public domain, and the communication channel, which is network proximity, does not receive much attention. This study aimed to explore the key driving factors of open innovation diffusion by constructing a theoretical framework that includes four proximity dimensions in the context of a global industrial chain. By taking artificial intelligence for healthcare as an example, this study applied the quadratic assignment procedure model to conduct an empirical analysis with a sample containing 62 patent applicants. The empirical result verified that the key drivers are from the proximity dimensions and the interactions. Technological proximity plays the leading role in innovation diffusion, while organizational and temporal proximities play secondary roles. In addition, the significant moderating effects suggest that the proximity dimensions interact in innovation activities. Moreover, the proximity framework provides an overview of innovation management and policy implication. Full article
Article
Effective Venture Capital Market Development Concept
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(4), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7040218 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
This paper presents the results of the study on the venture capital (VC) market development drivers in small countries with underdeveloped VC markets. Based on the literature content analysis, the authors developed a comprehensive list of factors influencing VC market status. The relevance [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of the study on the venture capital (VC) market development drivers in small countries with underdeveloped VC markets. Based on the literature content analysis, the authors developed a comprehensive list of factors influencing VC market status. The relevance of the factors in countries with small, underdeveloped VC markets was studied between experts involved in shaping Latvian VC market. The study revealed that all factors (in total 73) delivered from the literature influence the VC market in the countries such as Latvia. Sixty-three factors have an impact above moderate, and providing public funding for VC funds is only one of the factors. The results highlight the importance of the shift from the typical public support approach of providing VC managers with funding to the government involvement in also shaping other conditions necessary for VC market self-sufficiency development. Based on the study, the authors propose a conceptual model for further public support design. The model has three dimensions of meta factor groups (VC market participants, environment, embedded characteristics). It is necessary to evaluate and, if possible, provide public support in each of the meta-factors’ groups. The authors propose to use the model and the list of impactful factors as tools for further governmental support for VC. Full article
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Article
Management Practice in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Problems and Solutions from the Perspective of Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(4), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7040214 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
A large proportion of small and medium-sized enterprises are managed by their owners and founders. The goal of this research was to describe the diversity of management practices in owner-managed SMEs. Understanding this diversity will raise awareness of the challenges SMEs are facing [...] Read more.
A large proportion of small and medium-sized enterprises are managed by their owners and founders. The goal of this research was to describe the diversity of management practices in owner-managed SMEs. Understanding this diversity will raise awareness of the challenges SMEs are facing and suggest possible solutions that will help improve their management and sustainability. In this study, 205 owner-managed SMEs with more than nine people employed were analyzed using a company self-assessment based on a tailor-made governance model. Data were analyzed using statistical analysis software in combination with a visual analysis. To group similar companies, the cluster analysis technique was used. The results showed a high diversity in how companies were managed and their performances. This research indicated that statistical analysis itself is not sufficient for exploring this diversity, and other approaches, such as visual analysis, must be used as well. Full article
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Article
Development of Food Packaging through TRIZ and the Possibility of Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(4), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7040213 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
As the aging population increases, the need for new product development (NPD) for elderly-friendly food packaging is also increasing. Through the use of consumer research, this study derived the following problems when elderly people use food packaging: “The contents easily overflow when holding [...] Read more.
As the aging population increases, the need for new product development (NPD) for elderly-friendly food packaging is also increasing. Through the use of consumer research, this study derived the following problems when elderly people use food packaging: “The contents easily overflow when holding the container”, “It is hard to pour”, “Remnant remains after pouring”, and “It is hard to use a straw”. To address these problems, this study applied the following principles of TRIZ: principle 1 (segmentation) and principle 22 (blessing in disguise). In order to materialize the improvement plan, this study developed an elderly-friendly pouch-based packaging from the perspective of universal design. This study shows that it is possible to use the TRIZ technique in the NPD of food packaging, and that it is possible to secure commercial competitiveness from the view of universal design. This study is expected to serve as a starting point for further study on the NPD of elderly-friendly food packaging. Full article
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Article
The Effects of Patents on the Relationship between R&D Activities and Business Management Performance: Focus on South Korean Venture Companies
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(4), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7040210 - 03 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Today, innovation is achieved by challenging the existing paradigm through cross-field collaboration, and R&D innovation plays a particularly crucial role. This study analyzed the effects of R&D innovation activities on business management performance in South Korea and examined the role that patents play [...] Read more.
Today, innovation is achieved by challenging the existing paradigm through cross-field collaboration, and R&D innovation plays a particularly crucial role. This study analyzed the effects of R&D innovation activities on business management performance in South Korea and examined the role that patents play in various R&D innovation activities. Panel regression and moderating effect analyses were conducted on small- and medium-sized venture enterprises that undertook new technology projects over five years (2015–2019). The results showed that R&D innovation activities had a significantly positive effect on both revenue, an indicator of business growth, and operating profit, an indicator of profitability. This implies that such activities play a positive role in management activities. Thus, enterprises should consider R&D innovation activities from a business growth strategy perspective. Additionally, the analysis showed that a firm’s capacity to hold patents on R&D innovation activities has a positive moderating effect on business management performance. This study is significant, as it reveals the cause-and-effect relationship between R&D innovation actives and business management performance as well as the role of various types of innovation. The results could help enterprises to seamlessly implement innovation activities in the future. Full article
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Article
How Do Alliance Portfolio Factors Affect a Precision Medicine Firm’s Innovation Performance?
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(3), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7030203 - 13 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Precision medicine is an approach to disease treatment and prevention that seeks to maximize effectiveness by taking into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle. The medical paradigm has been changed with the emergence of precision medicine and many companies with business [...] Read more.
Precision medicine is an approach to disease treatment and prevention that seeks to maximize effectiveness by taking into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle. The medical paradigm has been changed with the emergence of precision medicine and many companies with business related to precision medicine should cooperate with other companies. The purpose of this study is to analyze the alliance portfolio factors that affect firms’ innovation performance. This study examined whether the diversity factors of the alliance portfolio and alliance management capability influenced its innovation performance. Additionally, we investigated the moderate effects of participation of research organizations in the alliance portfolio. As a result, there was an inverted U-shaped relationship between the industry diversity of the portfolio and innovation performance; therefore, the participation of research organizations in the alliance portfolio showed a positive effect. Additionally, the value governance diversity changed to have a positive effect by interacting with research organizations. This study provides information on the alliance portfolio factors that affect the innovation performance of precision medicine companies. Full article
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Article
The Crowdfunding Model, Collective Intelligence, and Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(3), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7030196 - 02 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1704
Abstract
In recent years, crowdfunding has attracted the attention of tech startups. It has become a good alternative way to readily raise funds, especially during the early startup stages. However, in the case of mass intelligence, it is quite difficult to ensure the accuracy [...] Read more.
In recent years, crowdfunding has attracted the attention of tech startups. It has become a good alternative way to readily raise funds, especially during the early startup stages. However, in the case of mass intelligence, it is quite difficult to ensure the accuracy and reliability of knowledge. Individual investors who are not experts in science and technology often face difficulties investing in technology companies. In this regard, a new type of collective intelligence formed by accredited professionals needs to be attempted. This paper explores an alternative crowdfunding model for enhancing access to technology investments by the general population through an investor acceptance model. We developed an investor acceptance model to examine how the crowdfunding model involving scientists and engineers is adopted by individual investors using survey data from the general population. The results revealed that individual investors have a positive attitude towards investing through the crowdfunding model when they perceive that the information provided by a group of scientific experts is useful. We found that the perceived usefulness of the information from scientists and engineers is affected by the perceived quality of the information and perceived credibility of the scientists and engineers. We also suggest a basic concept for the crowdfunding model utilizing the collective intelligence of scientists and engineers for tech startups. The results could suggest a policy direction for promoting innovation. Full article
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Article
Business Innovations in the New Mobility Market during the COVID-19 with the Possibility of Open Business Model Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(3), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7030195 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3027
Abstract
The current difficult situation in the world caused by the spread of the COVID-19 virus has led to the development of problems in many branches of the economy. However, it has significantly affected transport, which on the one hand, is the bloodstream of [...] Read more.
The current difficult situation in the world caused by the spread of the COVID-19 virus has led to the development of problems in many branches of the economy. However, it has significantly affected transport, which on the one hand, is the bloodstream of the economy and, on the other hand, creates a threat for virus infection. Thus, in various countries, different mobility-related restrictions during pandemic policies around the world have been introduced. What is more, plans for initiatives after lockdown have also started to appear. Moreover, not have only cities introduced appropriate management policies, but companies have also started providing logistics services, especially those offering new mobility solutions. We found a literature and research gap indicating the recording or combination of the different types of business practices and innovations used worldwide in new mobility companies in the case of a pandemic situation. Therefore, this article is dedicated to the business innovations that appear in the new mobility industry during the COVID-19 pandemic in connection to post-pandemic transportation plans in Asia, Europe, and America. In this work, we conducted two-level research based on the desk research and expert research methodologies. From the business point of view, the results show that car-sharing systems (most organizational practices) and ride-sharing services (most safety practices) have most adapted their business models to pandemic changes. In turn, bike-sharing services have implemented the fewest business practices and innovations. From the urban transport systems point of view, the results show that European authorities have proposed the most plans and practice projects for new mobility after the pandemic compared to Asia and America. The obtained results indicate, however, that business practices do not coincide with the authorities’ plans for transport after the pandemic. Moreover, the results show a lack of complementarity between the developed practices and a reluctance to create open innovations in the new mobility industry. The article supports the management of new mobility systems in times of pandemic and in post-COVID reality. Full article
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Article
An Analysis of the Competitive Actions of Boeing and Airbus in the Aerospace Industry Based on the Competitive Dynamics Model
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(3), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7030192 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 12060
Abstract
Focusing on competitive dynamics, this study examines the strategic issues Boeing has faced in seeking to maintain its leading position in the airline industry. Boeing’s status as a first mover in the aerospace industry has made it a world-leading company; however, the external [...] Read more.
Focusing on competitive dynamics, this study examines the strategic issues Boeing has faced in seeking to maintain its leading position in the airline industry. Boeing’s status as a first mover in the aerospace industry has made it a world-leading company; however, the external environment and various pressures have allowed Airbus to emerge as a strong competitor. By conducting a descriptive case analysis, this paper identifies the competitive issues between these two giants, analyzing continuous action and reaction processes throughout the whole history of the airline industry. Finally, by examining Boeing’s main strengths, business diversification options, and risk-taking culture, this paper suggests ways Boeing can retake its place as the industry leader. Full article
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Article
From Catching Up to Convergence of the Latecomer Firms: Comparing Behavior and Innovation Systems of Firms in Korea and the US
by and
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7030191 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
This paper addresses the issue of catching and convergence at the level of firms, and investigates whether Korean firms tend to converge toward mature firms represented by the US firms in terms of their behavior and performance as well as firm-level innovations systems. [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the issue of catching and convergence at the level of firms, and investigates whether Korean firms tend to converge toward mature firms represented by the US firms in terms of their behavior and performance as well as firm-level innovations systems. It conducts regression analyses of several behavior and performance variables, using the data of the Korean and US firms during the 1990s, the 2000s, and 2010s. It finds some evidence of convergence, such that Korean firms become more profitability- rather than growth-oriented, borrowing and investing less, and thus being less indebted. However, they have not changed much in terms of their behavior toward firm values and dividend tendencies. Further analyses, using the patent-derived, innovation system variables, also confirm some aspects of convergence, compared with the early results, for which self-citations become significant and positive for firm values; furthermore, the variable of cycle time of technology is no longer significant for profitability, which is consistent with the results from the US firms. Meanwhile, changes in corporate governance associated with the rise of foreign shareholder are also shown to have resulted in higher profitability but insignificant change in firm values. An emerging conclusion is an ongoing but partially completed process of convergence. Full article
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Article
Standardization as a Catalyst for Open and Responsible Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(3), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7030187 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Standardization, based on scientific and technological development, provides solutions for optimal level of order in a wide range of industrial, societal and environmental fields. Analogically to the process of open innovation, the development of standards brings together the knowledge and experience of different [...] Read more.
Standardization, based on scientific and technological development, provides solutions for optimal level of order in a wide range of industrial, societal and environmental fields. Analogically to the process of open innovation, the development of standards brings together the knowledge and experience of different stakeholders, resulting in solutions that are relevant and accessible to the general public. Similarly, the concept of responsible innovation requires a variety of stakeholders to be involved in innovation development to ensure that their present and future needs are met. Although the link between standardization and innovation is a widely explored issue, the interaction of standardization with the increasingly relevant concepts—open innovation and responsible innovation—remains a research gap, therefore the aim of the study is to identify the common characteristics of standardization and open and responsible innovation, as well as to analyze the interaction between these concepts. The research is based on a literature review on the concepts of standardization, standards development and open, responsible innovation, as well as a field analysis on the ongoing activities in standardization in relation to innovation. The similarities and interaction between standards development and the creation of open, responsible innovation is analyzed and as a result a model that combines the characteristics of standardization, open and responsible innovation and their interrelation is provided. The findings of the study demonstrate that both the standardization process itself and its outcomes can be compared to the processes of open and responsible innovation and can also be characterized as a contributor for creating the environment for the achievement of sustainable development and fostering open and responsible innovation. Full article
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Article
The Role of Consumer and Customer Journeys in Customer Experience Driven and Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(3), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7030185 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3355
Abstract
Customer and Consumer Journeys, touchpoints and Consumer Goals have been widely discussed among Customer Experience theorists and practitioners, establishing that a hierarchical relationship between those exist. Customer Experience driven innovation evaluates opportunities mainly within touchpoints in Customer Journeys. However, there is still a [...] Read more.
Customer and Consumer Journeys, touchpoints and Consumer Goals have been widely discussed among Customer Experience theorists and practitioners, establishing that a hierarchical relationship between those exist. Customer Experience driven innovation evaluates opportunities mainly within touchpoints in Customer Journeys. However, there is still a gap in understanding how exactly those elements are interlinked and impact each other. This research article aims to create this understanding by answering three research questions: “To what extent, and how do Customer Journeys impact Consumer Journeys and vice versa?” and “Are touchpoints (including other actors) a sub-set of Consumer or Customer Journeys?” and “Where in the hierarchy should Customer Experience driven innovation opportunities be identified?”. Phenomenological interviews with participants of the Cambridge Venture Camp 2021, organized as part of the ERASMUS+ programme of the European Union within Strategic Partnerships for Higher Education were chosen for the research methodology. Grounded theory and open coding were used to interpret the collected data. In this article, we demonstrate how Consumer Journeys impact Customer Journeys, and that Customer Journeys do not impact other journeys directly, but rather by adjusting the higher-order goals of the Consumer through the response to the stimuli in the touchpoints. A theoretical model is proposed that highlights the interconnectivity of the different experience elements, and how to interpret Customer Experience driven innovation within the hierarchy. Full article
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Article
Pre-Entrepreneurs’ Perception of the Technology Regime and Their Entrepreneurial Intentions in Korean Service Sectors
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(3), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7030179 - 01 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1416
Abstract
Startups and established firms in service sectors mostly fall into the supplier dominated or information intensive categories of Pavitt’s taxonomy. Entrepreneurs in these categories are not isolated from the technological environment because they can also be innovative (at least) by adopting technologies from [...] Read more.
Startups and established firms in service sectors mostly fall into the supplier dominated or information intensive categories of Pavitt’s taxonomy. Entrepreneurs in these categories are not isolated from the technological environment because they can also be innovative (at least) by adopting technologies from outside. However, it has hardly been studied whether the entrepreneurial intention of pre-entrepreneurs in service sectors can be influenced by how they perceive technological environment. In this paper, using the theory of the planned behavior and technology regime, we examined the role of pre-entrepreneurs’ perception of the technology regime (opportunity, accessibility, and cumulativeness) on the formation of entrepreneurial intention in Korean service sectors. The results show that pre-entrepreneurs’ perception of the technology regime influences entrepreneurial intention via personal attitude and perceived behavioral control. Opportunity influenced personal attitude and subjective norm; accessibility influenced personal attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control; and cumulativeness influenced personal attitude and perceived behavioral control. Personal attitude and perceived behavioral control influenced entrepreneurial intention. Full article
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Article
The Impact of Government Policy on Macro Dynamic Innovation of the Creative Industries: Studies of the UK’s and China’s Animation Sectors
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(3), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7030168 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2614
Abstract
With digitalization and the support of policies, the creative industries have shown rapid growth in the last 20 years. Open forms of collective learning, user engagement and social networks have become popular to generate IPs and values. Meanwhile, government policy can support the [...] Read more.
With digitalization and the support of policies, the creative industries have shown rapid growth in the last 20 years. Open forms of collective learning, user engagement and social networks have become popular to generate IPs and values. Meanwhile, government policy can support the sectors through subsidies, regulations, standardization, and protections at regional and national levels. This paper aims to explore the role of government policy in the innovation of creative industries from a macro dynamic perspective. The research method combines a structured literature review, a secondary document review of industry reports and government policy, and thematic content analysis. Through in-depth studies of the UK’s and China’s animation sectors, the paper identifies key elements of closed innovation, social innovation, and open innovation systems in the market. Comparisons of national government policies since 2000 reveal different approaches for countries where creative sectors are well-established, and for those starting with limited knowledge resources. A dynamic model is developed to address the evolution of macro dynamic innovation systems and the role of policies as interactive mechanisms. Practical implementation and future research areas are also suggested. Full article
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Article
The Role of Health Resort Enterprises in Health Prevention during the Epidemic Crisis Caused by COVID-19
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7020133 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2925
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has reduced or even temporarily halted tourism worldwide. The lack of tourists has huge consequences not only for the tourism industry, but also for the tourism economy. Health tourism enterprises are also affected by this problem, but their situation is [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has reduced or even temporarily halted tourism worldwide. The lack of tourists has huge consequences not only for the tourism industry, but also for the tourism economy. Health tourism enterprises are also affected by this problem, but their situation is somewhat different from other tourism enterprises, as the relationship of these enterprises with the healthcare system provides an opportunity to continue operations, albeit in a different role than the tourism function. The diagnostic objective of this article is to assess the impact of the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the activities of tourism and medical tourism enterprises operating in spa destinations after 12 months of the pandemic situation. The cognitive objective, on the other hand, is to identify the roles that these companies play in reducing the impact of epidemic risks. The article presents the results of the research conducted in 19 tourism and medical companies, covering 115 sanatorium facilities, run in Polish health spas. The results indicate that although their economic situation is difficult, it is at the same time stable. Two reasons in particular stand out: (1) financial support from government anti-crisis programs; and (2) implementation of rapid organizational changes that enable the implementation of epidemiological prevention tasks, relieving the burden on infectious diseases hospitals by operating an isolation center, a vaccination center, or a quarantine facility for asymptomatic patients. This use of tourism infrastructure contributes to promoting it as open innovation in tourism. Full article
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Article
How Wise Companies Drive Digital Transformation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7020122 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2857
Abstract
Enterprises aimed at acquiring a sustainable competitive advantage in the Digital Era are challenged to develop a Transformative Digital Leadership marked by a set of abilities. The paper introduces the Digital Transformative Leadership Compass as an innovative framework to assess wise leaders’ characteristics [...] Read more.
Enterprises aimed at acquiring a sustainable competitive advantage in the Digital Era are challenged to develop a Transformative Digital Leadership marked by a set of abilities. The paper introduces the Digital Transformative Leadership Compass as an innovative framework to assess wise leaders’ characteristics driving organisational digital transformation in today’s complex business landscape. It identifies the critical abilities, attitudes, and behaviours distinguishing the profile of a transformative digital leader leading an organisation to continuously innovate and digitally evolve in the same way as the business landscape. This paper contributes to theory building by proposing an interpretative framework of critical abilities distinguishing a transformative digital leader of a transformative digital company. Furthermore, the paper provides practitioners with valuable insights and theoretical evidence on leadership practices in the digital era. Full article
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Article
Three Disruptive Models of New Spatial Planning: “Attention”, “Surveillance” or “Sustainable” Capitalisms?
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7010046 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
This paper compares and contrasts three disruptive models of potential and actual new kinds of spatial planning. These include “seasteading”, “smart neighbourhoods” and “renewable spatial systems”. Each is labelled with distinctive discursive titles, respectively: “Attention Capitalism”; “Surveillance Capitalism” and “Sustainable Capitalism” denoting the [...] Read more.
This paper compares and contrasts three disruptive models of potential and actual new kinds of spatial planning. These include “seasteading”, “smart neighbourhoods” and “renewable spatial systems”. Each is labelled with distinctive discursive titles, respectively: “Attention Capitalism”; “Surveillance Capitalism” and “Sustainable Capitalism” denoting the different lineaments of each, although they all have their origins in the Silicon Valley techno-entrepreneurial milieu. In each case, while the path dependences of trajectories have diverged the progenitors were often erstwhile business partners at the outset. The paper is interested in qualitative methodology and proposes “pattern recognition” as a means to disclose the deep psychological, sociological, political and economic levels that inform the surface appearances and functions of the diverse spatial planning modes and designs that have been advanced or inferred from empirically observable initiator practice. “Dark Triad” analysis is entailed in actualising psychological deep structures. Each of the three models is discussed and the lineaments of their initiators’ ideas are disclosed. Each “school” has a designated mentor(s), respectively: academic B. J. Fogg and venture capitalist Peter Thiel for “Attention Capitalism”, “smart city” planner Dan Doctoroff for “Surveillance Capitalism” and “renewable energineer” and Elon Musk for “Sustainable Capitalism”, the eventual winner of this existential “dark versus light triad” urban planning contest. Full article
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Article
Interconnections: A Systems History of Science, Technology, Leisure, and Fear
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7010014 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
It is well known that technological change causes social change, and vice versa. Using system and historical perspectives, this article examines that truth at a finer level of specificity, namely, that social perceptions of interconnectedness influence the progress of science and technology, and [...] Read more.
It is well known that technological change causes social change, and vice versa. Using system and historical perspectives, this article examines that truth at a finer level of specificity, namely, that social perceptions of interconnectedness influence the progress of science and technology, and that conversely, as 21st-century technology makes us in fact more connected, society’s anxieties shift. From the science/technology side, we look at interdisciplinary research, system and complexity theory, quantum tech, and the Internet, exploring how these interact and cause changes in social attitudes—fears, conspiracy theories, political polarization, and even entertainment trends—some of which are surprising, and some dangerous. The article’s systems view helps make sense of current environmental, political, and psychological crises. It combines original ideas with those of several prominent thinkers, to suggest constructive actions. Full article
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Review

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Review
About Capital and Ideology by Thomas Piketty
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8020076 - 24 Apr 2022
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Abstract
This study reviews Thomas Piketty’s Capital and Ideology and provides a detailed analysis to aid understanding of the book, combined with diverse scholars’ perspectives in the fields of economic history, political economics, and social sciences. This book is selected as my review target [...] Read more.
This study reviews Thomas Piketty’s Capital and Ideology and provides a detailed analysis to aid understanding of the book, combined with diverse scholars’ perspectives in the fields of economic history, political economics, and social sciences. This book is selected as my review target to answer the following research question, “How do we conquer the growth limits of capitalism?” This book gave me several ideas for the basis of my future research. In this review paper, I provide a guide for readers to understand ways to conquer the growth limits of capitalism. My study also provides a creative understanding of the evolution of the capitalist economy from new perspectives. In particular, it presents an analysis of Piketty’s diverse policy ideas from the viewpoint of a global history of capitalism. This will give a new lens through which to focus on understanding and resolving the inequalities of 21st-century hyper-capitalism and to construct policy for the current world economy. Finally, this study offers a causal loop model of Piketty’s findings and proposals, and suggests future research topics. Full article
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