Special Issue "Electronics and Dynamic Open Innovation"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Artificial Intelligence".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. JinHyo Joseph Yun *

Convergence Research Center for Future Automotive Technology, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82-53-785-4410 (010-6697-8355)
Interests: open innovation; business model; open innovation economy; social open innovation; schumpeterian dynamics; game theory; political economics; complexity
* Managing Guest Editor
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. DaeCheol Kim

School of Business, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: open innovation of industrial engineering; project management; supply chain management; production planning and control; healthcare operations management; service operations management
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Min-Ren Yan

Department of International Business Administration, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: system dynamics of open innovation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As the fourth industrial revolution arrives, not just the IT sector, but all industries, including smart city, autonomous car, intelligent robot, and block chains, are moving to become electronic industries. In addition, the sharing economy, which is opposed to owning economy and market- and crowd-based products in the sharing economy, is expanded to all industries with the extensions of electronic platforms, like Uber, Airbnb, Justpark, LiquidSpace, Getaround, BlaBlaCar, Etsy, Eatwith, Fon, TaskRabbity, Skillshare, Yayable, and so on.

Thus, dynamic open innovation between electronic technologies and markets are appearing as the requisite for firms of all types, such as start-ups, SMEs, or MNCs, in order to succeed in the fourth industrial revolution.

In order to encourage scientists and researchers to present their progress in the above fields, we would like to set up this Special Issue to publish the latest research work on, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • second IT revolution;
  • dynamic open innovation;
  • smart city;
  • autonomous car;
  • intelligent robot;
  • block chain to sharing economy;

In addition, the authors of the papers, which will be presented at SOItmC 2019, being organized at Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan, on 28 June–1 July 2019, are invited to submit their extended versions to this Special Issue of the Journal Electronics after the conference. Submitted papers should be extended to the size of regular research or review articles, with at least a 50% extension of new results. There are no page limitations for this journal.

Open for SOItmC 2019 authors: 1 July 2019

Any SOItmC 2019 authors in addition to the planned papers can submit to this special issue after full paper submission to SOItmC 2019 platfrom and paying the registration fee until 31 May 2019.

Close: 31 December 2019

Prof. Dr. JinHyo Joseph Yun
Prof. Dr. DaeCheol Kim
Prof. Dr. Min-Ren Yan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • electronics
  • open innovation
  • business model
  • artificial intelligence
  • autonomous car
  • big data
  • intelligent robot
  • smart city
  • block chain
  • sharing economy

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle
Expressing Personalities of Conversational Agents through Visual and Verbal Feedback
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8070794
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
PDF Full-text (1211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
As the uses of conversational agents increase, the affective and social abilities of agents become important with their functional abilities. Agents that lack affective abilities could frustrate users during interaction. This study applied personality to implement the natural feedback of conversational agents referring [...] Read more.
As the uses of conversational agents increase, the affective and social abilities of agents become important with their functional abilities. Agents that lack affective abilities could frustrate users during interaction. This study applied personality to implement the natural feedback of conversational agents referring to the concept of affective computing. Two types of feedback were used to express conversational agents’ personality: (1) visual feedback and (2) verbal cues. For visual feedback, participants (N = 45) watched visual feedback with different colors and motions. For verbal cues, participants (N = 60) heard different conditions of agents’ voices with different scripts. The results indicated that the motions of visual feedback were more significant than colors. Fast motions could express distinct and positive personalities. Different verbal cues were perceived as different personalities. The perceptions of personalities differed according to the vocal gender. This study provided design implications for personality expressions applicable to diverse interfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronics and Dynamic Open Innovation)

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: The Current Issues of AI and Foxconn: Sharp's IoT Consumer Electronics Product Strategy
Author: Chia Chen Wu
Affiliation: MEIJO University, Japan
Abstract: This research will discuss the advantages of strategic alliance formed since the 2016 merger of Foxconn and Sharp Electronics. The synergistic effect of integrating the whole consumer electronic supply chain, utilizing the unique Sharp Japanese R&D culture into the fearless Foxconn OEM Taiwanese Taylor-ism manufacturing capabilities. The main focus is on how Foxconn and Sharp are adopting AI and IoT into home entertainment and consumer electronics industries. As a result of the current trends from Apple and Google, shifting from hardware design to software developments and cloud services with IoT supports, the whole hardware OEM industry is shrinking and weakening. From this perspective, Taiwanese precision OEM maker Foxconn has formulated its Fourth Industrial Revolution strategic plan,「Internet+」,「8K+5G」 to transform itself and gain a competitive advantage in the International Consumer Electronic Industry. Since the merger of Sharp in April 2016, Foxconn also planned to purchase the Nokia cell phone division from Microsoft, so as to increase its international brand exposure and increase its market share in OEM. This will give the entire Foxconn Sharp entity more international brand-awareness by adding Nokia as on to its existing mobile phone division.
Purpose/Research Question: Sharp has been developing smart home electronics with fridges, washing machine, dryers, and so on, which are still very popular with Japanese customers, and are in demand because its branded products are still popular in consumer electronics. This is why Sharp is the leader in adopting AI into consumer electronics. Foxconn was setup for the purpose of designing AI and IoT consumer electronic products, formed within Sharp “Smart Home” and “Smart business solution” division associated with Sharp’s “AIoT strategic Group”. The current AI development plans for Sharp have split into two section; one is embedded AI semiconductors into smart home consumer electronics, the other one is designing smart phones with the capability to link AI with smart home consumer electronics.

Title: Analytical Method of the Impact of Delay of Internal Process Flow on Corporate Profit and Cash Flow
Author: Kenji Kishida
Affiliation:  Nagoya Gakuin University, Japan
Abstract: In the financial accounting system, even if inefficient work is done inside the company, it will not be reflected in the accounting information, unless there is a new financial burden or recovery of funds due to a decline in sales activity. The reason for this is that the accounting measurement system basically accounts for funds settlement as accounting data to be measured. Therefore, even though work that does not generate value is done on a daily basis within the company, if it is not recognized as accounting information, it will not lead to motivation to shorten inefficient work. Even if you use standard cost accounting for product manufacturing, you cannot grasp it as a problem as long as you set operation degrees assuming inefficient work. If the work setup is bad, work costs such as a stagnation of the manufacturing process and looking for necessary parts are not reflected in financial accounting. Management cannot improve inefficient work unless cost evaluation is possible. In this thesis, activities that do not produce value (such as production activities, sales activities, purchasing activities, inventory holding period, sales charge collection activity, purchasing fund payment activities, and so on, that surround business activities, including the passage of time) as the delay of internal activities, for example, for a large number of in-house activities such as work setup time, holding time of work in process inventory, holding time of product stock, period of trade receivables not yet recovered, time of article moving in company, information input time, form creation time, and delivery time delay, are included. In this paper, we describe the influence of internal delay included in the life cycle of products on the recovery of funds invested in products and products. We also explain why tricks for period profit and loss give a negative evaluation to the activity, so as to compress the excess inventory. Many companies pass on bad profit because of delays in the internal activities to other companies. For example, using the breakeven point analysis, forcing the buyer to discount, assuming that the purchase value is too high. As fixed costs are high, we try to lower employee's labor costs.

The purpose of this thesis is to clarify the following sections:

  • Measure the opportunity loss of revenue due to the expected revenue of production or sales activities and internal activity delay
  • Measure the manufacturing cost and the cost of sales, as well as the loss caused by the delay of internal activities
  • Measure the secured state of the target profit ratio by evaluating the decrease in the amount of funds collected due to the decline in convertibility during the inventory holding period, and the outflow of funds due to the increase in holding period
  • Measure the state of impairment of the assumed profit due to the uncollectible risk as a result of the collection delay of the operating receivables, and the outflow of funds as a result of the prolongation of the holding period of the operating receivables
  • Analyzing the company's ability to circulate the funds using the SCCC (supply-chain cash conversion cycle) indicator, and evaluating whether the state of shortage of the corporate funding power is borne by delaying the payment to the supplier on a routine basis
  • Explain that this analysis method can also be applied in the service industry
  • Simplify the structure of the model, propose it as the above measurement, and consider the generalization of the model.

In this paper, in the event that the productivity capability or the usable space of the factory or warehouse arises because of the elimination of the internal activity delay, the management methods should be judged by the management, and are thus not dealt with in this thesis.

Title: The Impact of Service Quality Cognition Gap on Customer Complaint Behavior: Product Involvement as the Moderator
Authors: Ching-Chang Wu 1 and Yu Hsing Cheng 2,*
Affiliation: 1 Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan
2 Department of International Business Administration College of Business, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan
Purpose/Research Question: The study of the issue of consumer complaining behavior has become popular since the late 1970s. Previous studies have been focused on the classification of service error and on determinants of consumer complaining behaviors. However, studies using the approach from the gap of service quality cognition in order to understand the pattern of consumer complaining behavior are limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality cognition gap on customer complaint behavior. Furthermore, we examine whether the degree of product involvement moderates the association between service quality cognition gap and customer complaint behavior

Title: Evaluation of Technological Innovations and the Industrial Ecosystem of Science Parks in Shanghai—An Empirical Study
Authors: Min-Ren Yan 1,*, Yan Haiyan 2, Zhan Lingyun 2, and Xu Mengen 2
Affiliation: 1 Professor, Department of International Business Administration, Chinese Culture University, Taiwan
2 Shanghai University of International Business and Economics, Shanghai, China
Abstract: For decades, an innovation-driven economy has been promoted in different countries as the major driving force behind development and growth in the world. The success of science parks has motivated countries around the globe to foster the clustering of the high-tech industry into these parks. The development of these science parks drives regional and economic growth, examples of which include Silicon Valley in the United States and Cambridge Science Park in the United Kingdom, in addition to the parks found in Russia, Israel, India, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, and China. The science parks of Zhongguancun in Beijing, Daedeok Innopolis in Korea, and Hsinchu Science Park in Taiwan are globally recognized for their connection to public policy and governmental support. In addition, continuous innovation and ecosystem developments have been identified as the critical driving factors for industries in order to compete and thrive under highly intensive global competitions. As science parks and innovation policy are generally adopted by government bodies, a nation-wide macro viewpoint is needed for policy evaluation, and the ecosystem should be considered as essential component of the national/regional economy. The collaboration between government, academia, and industry requires a systems perspective.

While the term “innovation ecosystem” can be used to refer to innovation systems within firms, districts, or at a national level, the most common and perhaps most appropriate geography is the region (or for smaller countries, the country level), in which the geographic proximity among actors is a key attribute of the ecosystem. Thus, innovation ecosystems can be seen as inter-organizational, political, economic, environmental, and technological systems that are catalyzed, sustained, and supported. Furthermore, strengthening the regional innovation ecosystem as a whole will improve the “industrial commons” and leverage resources by helping all manufacturers in the country, not just the select few.

National policies for science parks and innovation have been identified as one of the major driving forces for the innovation-driven economy, especially for publicly funded science parks. To investigate this collaborative ecosystem (government–academia–industry) for growth and sustainable development, this paper proposes a nation-wide economic impact analysis of science parks and innovation policy, based on the historical data drawn from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters in Taiwan. Systems thinking with causal loop analysis is adopted in order to improve our understanding of the collaborative ecosystem with science park policies. First, from a holistic viewpoint, the role of the government in a science parks and innovation ecosystem is reviewed. A systems analysis of an innovation-driven economy with a science park policy is presented as a strategy map for policy implementers. Second, the added economic value and employment of the benchmarked science parks is evaluated from a long-range perspective. Third, the concepts of government–academia–industry collaboration and policies to innovation ecosystem are introduced, while addressing the measures and performance of innovation and applied R&D in the science parks. We conclude with a discussion of the lessons learned and the policy implications of science park development and an innovation ecosystem.
Keywords: innovation; ecosystem; policy; science park; systems thinking

Title: Research on the AI Model of Bank Credit Issuing and Lending—A Study on the Hotel Industry
Authors: Wei-Chuan Wang 1, Chi-Hsuan Lin 2, and Yu-Fan Chang 3,*
Affiliation: 1 Department of Banking and Finance, Chinese Culture University, Taiwan
2 Department of Hotel Management, Tourism and Historical Culture College, Zhaoqing University, China
3 Graduate Institute of International Business Administration, College of Business, Chinese Culture University, Taiwan
Research Question: Corporate financing is large and high risk. The traditional bank lending method is calculated according to the corporate's finances and is based on the experience of the loan officer in order determine the loan amount or whether not to loan. It is susceptible to bias during the process. The information development of the financial industry is deeper and wider than other industries. The efficiency and risk management of financial institutions needs to be improved through a combination of finance and technology. Financial innovation needs to move to a new competitive pattern. Therefore, if the loan program can use artificial intelligence technology for assistance, the decision-making model is more efficient and the decision-making is of a higher quality. 
Study Purpose: When considering credit evaluation, how does the banking industry construct an AI artificial intelligence assessment model for corporate lending? A successful strategy is to assist bank lending businesses with AI artificial intelligence technology. The concept of this research can create a new value for the bank lending businesses, which can successfully be applied to other business areas.

Title: Development of the Pavement Deterioration Model based on the Machine Learning Method
Authors: Seunghyun Choi, Myungsik Do *
Affiliation:  Department of Urban Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea;
Purpose/Research Question: Purpose: For road pavement deterioration modeling, this study is aimed at applying linear regression (LR), random forest (RF), and decision tree (DT) algorithms, which are based on machine learning and on the deep neural network (DNN) algorithm. Research Question: The methodology for developing the pavement deterioration model of the road pavement is divided into deterministic and probabilistic methods. In the deterministic methodologies, it is difficult to consider various and complex factors. The probabilistic methodology has limitations, in that it is difficult to generate information about the causal relationship of pavement deterioration and the process of changing characteristics. To solve these problems, the method based on deep learning or machine learning was applied, rather than the existing statistical method, in order to ensure that the performance of the road pavement life estimate was improved.

Title: Eco-Innovation in Textile Industrial Cluster from a Network Perspective
Authors: Wei Cong, Lin Hou, Lei Shi*
Affiliation: State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Purpose/Research Question: Facing a greater and more stricter environmental policy situation, the ecologicalization of the industrial cluster has become a new trend, which could achieve its environmental and economic goal at the same time. The textile industry is one of the most water-consuming and pollution-intensive industries. Therefore, it is important to investigate environmental management, especially wastewater management, in the textile industry. During the Fourth Industrial Revolution, society is becoming more and more closely connected with the interaction of many stakeholders and their environmental changes (Lee, M., et al., 2018). Although the textile industry is a conservative industry and its industrial cluster is often shown as a centralized network, the interaction between stakeholders has become varied and effective, because of the development of the digital monitoring system in this new era. Therefore, an eco-innovative management practice has emerged. In this research, we intend to take the textile industrial cluster as an example in order to introduce the following:

  • The current wastewater management system in the textile industry in China
  • An innovative management practice in Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province

On that basis, we are going to investigate the following:

  • The interaction between different stakeholders in this industrial cluster
  • How to promote this innovative practice?

Title: Analysis on the Topic Trends of Open Innovation using Topic Modeling
Authors: Joong Hoon Ko 1 and Dae Cheol Kim 2,*
Affiliation: 1 Department of Business Administration, Seoul, Korea
2 School of Business, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
Abstract: Recently, because of environmental change, the expansion of our knowledge base, the acceleration of technology, and the shortening of product life cycles, the phenomenon of cooperating with outside elements in the technological innovation process is expanding in order to increase the productivity of R&D. The purpose of this study is to investigate the research trends of “open innovation” using topic modeling and network analysis, and to suggest implications for establishing a future research direction. For this analysis, we gathered abstracts from about 3,800 articles in Google Scholar from 2003, when the concept of “open innovation” was first announced, to October 2018. Topic modeling and network analysis were conducted for these articles. The topic modeling analysis resulted in 10 topics, including “knowledge management”, “open innovation processes”, “intellectual property”, “open innovation strategy”, “culture”, “business model”, “supply chain”, and “sustainability”. In order to examine the results of the topic modeling more deeply, we performed a network analysis for eight topics. Through this study, we sought to derive the relationship between topics of open innovation, and to suggest implications for establishing a future research direction.

Purpose/Research Question: The purpose of this study is to investigate the research trends of “open innovation” using topic modeling and network analysis, and to suggest implications for establishing a future research direction.

Title: A Novel Head-Mounted Display System Constructed with an Aspherical Surface for Surgical Operations
Authors: Hojong Choi 1 and Jae-Myung Ryu 2,*
Affiliation: 1 Dept. of Medical IT Conversion Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Korea
2 Dept. of Optical Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Korea
Purpose/Research Question: Personal computers have provided a variety of computerized information, such as text and visual information. Cellular phones have shared various data with the developed applications. Head-mounted display (HMD) is a kind of computerized portable optical system that can offer 2D and 3D pictures with video data. Optical products for realizing augmented reality (AR) that are used in hospitals have been demanded for medical doctors.

Surgeons need to see various patient information that is obtained from the PACS and medical imaging modalities. For surgical operations, minimizing the weight to improve the visual comfort still remains a challenging issue in the HMD systems. Therefore, the purposes of the paper are as follows:

  1. To show patient information and external landscape on the display simultaneously
  2. To provide light-weight head-mount-display
Title: How Innovation Capacities Affect Firm Performance in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Focus on Capability-Based Framework for Open Innovation
Authors: Seungmin Kim 1 and EungdoKim 2,*
Affiliation: 1 Korea Institute of Economy and Trade, Korea
2 Chungbuk National University, Korea
Purpose/Research Question: Developing new products in the pharmaceutical industry requires astronomical investment and a multidisciplinary team of experts for periods exceeding a decade. In spite of these long-term and high-cost investments, the risk of successful commercialization of blockbuster products is limited to less than 10% (Joseph, A.D. et al., 2016). Therefore, the pharmaceutical industry is characterized by (1) high-level of technology, (2) high-costs and long-term R&D. and (3) high-risk and high-returns. However, even though companies have made various efforts to increase efficiency by reducing investment cost and increasing profit, R&D efficiency in this industry has recently gradually been declining (Carter, P.H. et al., 2016). Because it is difficult for one company to sustain the cost and duration of developing a new product, several companies share the product development stage similarly to a relay race. Over the past two decades, large international pharmaceutical companies have been increasingly involved in the transition to an open innovation R&D system from the traditionally closed R&D, through trading and collaboration with external research institutes and companies. Firms pursue partnership strategies such as M&A and licensing, to reduce the risk and expand the product pipeline. Small and medium-sized companies jointly develop through partnerships, or have an exit strategy through licensing out or M&A, so as to resolve investment difficulties. These open innovation strategies allow firms to share risk with partners (Sambandan, P. et al. 2015).

The success of this open innovation strategy depends on how well firms can absorb external technological knowledge. The main research question of this study is what is the capacity of a firm that can lead to its performance.

Title: Investment Trends in Intelligent Robots in Korea
Authors: EuiSeob Jeong * and SangWoo Kim
Affiliation: Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, SMB Knowledge Support Center
Purpose/Research Question: Robotics is becoming more versatile and more precise with the development of computing and hardware technologies. On the other hand, in the case of intelligent robots, the generation of the market is delayed because of the stability of the technology compared to the speed of the development. We will analyze the government investment trends of intelligent robots, which have become an issue since the Fourth Industrial Revolution. We draw out the state of government R&D investment in the intelligent robot technology field. In addition, we are seeking implications for technology areas that are not well capitalized.

Title: Internal Marketization of Corporate Organization in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Authors: Achim Jang and Minhwa Lee*
Affiliation: KCERN (Korea Creative Economy Research Network), Korea
Purpose/Research Question: As the national economy entered into the complex system, the planned economy system failed. The market economy system is a typical complex adaptive system that has successfully adapted to the complex change of the economic systems. For businesses to survive in a complex environment such as the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the enterprises should understand the national level principles of the market economy through the corporation’s viewpoint.

Title: Conservation Plan of the Urban Ecological Park in Seoul
Authors: Sangdon Lee * and Eunmi Kim

Title: Determinants of Innovation in the IoT SMEs
Authors: Dong-Il Shin 1, DaeSoo Kim 2,*, and Sun-Young Park 1
Affiliation: 1 Konkuk University, Korea
2 Korea University Business School, Korea

  • The significant role of IoT (The Internet of Things) in the Industry 4.0 platform
  • Little is known about the innovation attributes of SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) in the IoT industry.
  • This study aims to find the determinants of innovation in IoT SMEs in South Korea.


  • IoT as a keyword of Industry 4.0: The significant role of the IoT industry as a core infrastructure in Industry 4.0
  • The need to comprehend IoT attributes in the viewpoint of industry innovation: A significant gap between the ideal policy and the practical realization on the industrial sectors
  • The demands for guiding the determinants about innovative IoT SMEs in Korea: The attributes and patterns of innovation in IoT SMEs will be helpful for many SMEs that attempt to secure a competitive advantage for sustainable growth regardless of the turbulent and rapidly changing world.

Main concept of this study

  • Do successful IoT SMEs follow certain patterns of innovation? The IoT SMEs that have achieved innovative performance might have some specific pathways or patterns to success.
  • For survival, how could the IoT SMEs in Korea be transformed? The SMEs in Korea lack in a readiness level for adapting new IoT technology. We need to analyze the competence of IoT SMEs and check their readiness status.
  • What insights could be obtained about open innovation in this IoT SMEs? In the emerging technology area, the process of R&D in SMEs may have some weakness, such as inertia and core rigidity. We attempt to find out the role of outside networking and the function of open innovation in successful IoT SMEs.


  • As the global market crisis increases, companies, especially SMEs, require a reciprocal relationship. The ecosystem and the value chain of the IoT industry are complex, with a vertical and horizontal relationship. The reciprocal relationship leads IoT SMEs to participate through networking.
  • The SMEs in this ecosystem need to enhance their competences. The powerful and competitive competences are essential in order to cope with the global market status of competition.
  • The urgent issue is securing a competitive advantage of IoT SMEs in Korea. The determinants of innovation in IoT SMEs will serve as a guideline for pursuing innovation for survival.

Problem Statement

  • Who might be interested in this study? Not Korean IoT SMEs, but some other IoT SMEs in underdeveloped countries will pay attention to this.
  • What is the biggest problem that IoT SMEs are confronted with in Korea today? Survival, growth, and sustainable competitive advantage are the major concerns of IoT SMEs. Innovation will be the key solution for their survival and sustainable growth.
  • Are there any prior studies about this issue? A single- and double-case study were conducted in 2017. Our study aims to develop the aspect of open innovation more deeply.

Research question

  • RQ1: What innovation patterns emerge from empirical examples of IoT SMEs?
  • RQ2: What are the determinants that influence innovation driven by IoT SMEs?
  • RQ3: What strategic implications can be excavated from the innovation determinants of IoT SMEs?

Research scope

  • Period: During 2013–2015
  • Region: South Korea
  • Target Companies: The high growth companies with an annual average growth rate of over 20% from 2013 to 2015, and export-oriented enterprises with more than 50% of an export share in the IoT industry
Title: Evaluation of Technological Innovations and the Industrial Ecosystem of Science Parks
Authors: Byunghoon Kim 1* and Sun-Hi Yoo 2
Affiliation: 1 Hanyang University, Korea
2 Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Korea
Abstract: For efficient R&D management, evaluating the economic value of patents is increasingly in need. In evaluating the economic value of patents, technology lifetime is one of the important factors that needs to be estimated. There are some existing approaches to estimate the technology lifetime using patent citation data. However, the existing methods have a limitation in that they assume that the probability distribution function of the technology life has a zero mode, which means that patents are unlikely to be cited at all. To tackle this issue, we propose a more generalized method to estimate the technology lifetime of a patent. We have applied the proposed methodology to United States patent data for four communications areas.
Purpose/Research Question
  • Q1. Is it correct to assume that patents are unlikely to be cited?
  • Q2. How do we estimate the technology lifetime in more general way?

Title: Deep Machine Learning for Human Deep Learning
Author: DooSeok Lee|
Affiliation: Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Korea
Abstract: There are many models that represent student knowledge and content that can be used for personalized instruction, the analysis of learning, and content analysis. The idea of knowledge representation lies in a high dimensional embedding to capture the dynamics of learning and testing. In addition, knowledge tracing is a kind of sequence model that evaluates student knowledge variation over time. Thus, we can predict how a student will behave in the future.Recently, the results of using an artificial neural network approach, such as RNN (recurrent neural network) and deep reinforcement learning, have a significant improvement in the prediction performance of knowledge tracing.In this paper, the author tries to evaluate student knowledge not in the skills for specific problems, but in the degree of meta-cognitive skills.Using a large-scale data set collected in real-world classrooms, the author adopts the meta leaning machine models to successfully predict the student learning outcomes and to improve personalized learning.
Purpose/Research Question:Previous knowledge tracing models use the traditional machine learning model solving a specific task, which trains a model from scratch at each task using a huge dataset.However, that is very far from how humans learn.In this paper, the author will use the meta machine learning models to trace student learning.

Title: Vision-Based Navigation Algorithm for Smart Agricultural Machine
Authors: Sunjae Yoon, Chaejin Lee, Youngjun Cho, Yongseob Lim*, and Gyeungho Choi
Affiliation: DGIST, Korea
Abstract: In recent years, population aging is appearing significantly in the world. Especially in the farm village, population aging is more frequently appearing and the degree of aging is higher than in cities. These circumstances result in the shortage of labor in farm land. Therefore, the solution for the shortage of labor becomes more and more urgent and important. Recently, an autonomous system has been applied to many fields. A smart agricultural system company in Japan, Kubota, has been developing an autonomous rice transplanting machine. However, the machine uses very expensive GPS and IMU for the accuracy. In addition, the performance is not good enough in places where the GPS signal is weak. Thus, this paper proposed computer vision-based algorithms for an autonomous rice transplanting machine.

This paper implements diverse sensors (e.g., camera vison, LiDAR, GPS, etc.) and fusion-based computer algorithms for maneuvering and steering the control strategy of smart agricultural machines (e.g., autonomous rice transplanting machine). For example, the computer vision-based algorithm includes a series of image processing for autonomous navigating and a transplanting machine. A RANSAC (random sample consensus) algorithm is also applied so as to detect the transplanted lines and obtain the steering control parameters (i.e., slope and y-intercept differences). Even though the shadow and the change of light on the cameras affect the image processing, in the future, a robust algorithm using machine learning (e.g., SVM classifier) should be investigated.

Title: A Comparative Study of Digital Government Policies between Korea and USA—Focusing on a Comparison of the E-Government Act
Author: Choong-Sik Chung
Affiliation: KyungSung University, Busan, Korea
Purpose/Research Question: Today, Korea and the United States are positioned as global leaders in the field of policy to promote digital government in the 21st century intelligence information society. In the field of digital government, Korea has become one of the best in the world, because of enactment of the E-Government Act. Korea enacted the Electronic Government Act in 2001, and the United States enacted the Electronic Government Act in 2002. Currently, only Korea and the United States have enacted e-government laws in the world.

Many developing countries are approaching the promotion of digital government and e-government from a technology-oriented standpoint. Therefore, it is experiencing much trial and error.

This paper aims to show that it is important to pursue digital a government policy from the viewpoint of law and institution through the comparison of e-government laws between Korea and the United States. Also, this study aims to provide policy implications to many developing countries that are currently establishing digital government related policies.

Title: Research on Product Design Governance Mechanisms of Sustainable Transformation
Authors: Jingjing Li 1,*, Yongjian Li 1, and Ying Ye 2
Affiliation: 1 Business School, Nankai University, China
2 Antai College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Purpose/Research Question: There is rising attention on the topic of corporate governance for sustainable development. Although existing studies are found in areas of sustainable product development significance, drivers, definition, and successful factors, many aspects still remain exploratory, including that how sustainability can be better adopted from the perspective of a product’s early life cycle, such as product design. This paper aims to illustrate the key governance mechanism for sustainable product design covering three main aspects, which are (i) sustainable governance maturity levels on grounds of related theories, (ii) corporate governance model for sustainability in line with "motivation–process–result" logic, and (iii) characteristics identification and refinement after sustainable transformation.

In order to answer the research questions, a conceptual framework is proposed based on a value creation system, and this study adopts an exploratory in-depth case study to clarify sustainable governance processes by suggesting a new kind of value creation. We discuss how new value can be created in the product design process, which enables positive corporate sustainable transformation for Chinese enterprises encountering a strong enforcement of environmental law and policy. The findings also discuss the practice and key drivers of green and sustainable corporate governance in China.

Title: Research on the Competition Strategy of a Case Company for Lithium Battery Safety Materials Entering International Market
Authors: Wei-Chuan Wang 1, Chi-Hsuan Lin 2, and Hsiu-Chi Chang 3,*
Affiliation: 1 Department of Banking and Finance, Chinese Culture University, Taiwan
2 Department of Hotel Management, Tourism, and Historical Culture College; Zhaoqing University; China
3 Graduate Institute of International Business Administration, College of Business, Chinese Culture University, Taiwan
Research Question/Purpose: According to the report of the International Energy Agency, the future development of new energy vehicles will be explosive. This study explores the development and current status of the international electric vehicle and lithium battery market, and whether it affects the operational strategy thinking and entry mode.

The case company uses the industrial research institute lithium battery safety materials and lithium battery extreme plate production technology to have industrial competitive advantages in the industry and international market.

We investigate whether the international electric vehicle market requirements will affect the case company's operational performance.

We examine literature on company resources, local resources, and international market entry strategies, as well as expert interviews for data analysis, to assess whether it will affect the case company entering the international market’s strategy and performance.

Study Purpose

An analysis of the development and current status of the international electric vehicle and lithium battery market will affect the operating performance of the case company.

Discussing the development and current situation of the international electric vehicle and lithium battery market, whether it affects the operating strategy and entry mode.

To explore whether the case manufacturer’s technology transfer to the Institute of lithium battery safety materials and lithium battery plate production technology in the industry and the market has an industrial competitive advantage.

According to the literature of the company's resources, the resources of the landlord and the timing of the entry, as well as the expert interviews to conduct the data analysis, assess whether it will lead to the main factors of the company's strategy and performance in the international market.

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