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Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Environmental Planning

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Urban and Rural Development".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 37474

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture and Forest Sciences (DAFNE), Italy, Tuscia University, 01100 Viterbo, VT, Italy
Interests: urban regeneration and performance-based planning; urban storm water and climate regulation by green and grey infrastructure; low-entropy systems; climate adaptation; nature-based solutions and ecosystem services; urban modeling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The earth’s environment has deteriorated over the last few decades in close parallel with the increasing capability of human beings to transform nature with little concern for environmental protection. Since the industrial revolution, the global climate has been ever-changing as anthropogenic activities that release greenhouse gases (GHGs) have intensified significantly. Climate change severely engenders opportunities for a variety of natural disasters such as extreme heat, flooding, bushfire, and drought and results in severe threats and risks to human beings. Even worse, such environmental deteriorations are posing more significant threats and risks to cities, where the majority of the world population lives. Over the past few years, the significance of city level actions for enhancing climate change mitigation and adaptation are being increasingly recognized. On the one hand, cities are currently responsible for about 70% of global GHG emissions, and this share is expected to further increase in the near future in consideration of the projected increase based on global urbanization trends. On the other hand, cities can provide solutions through economies of scale and efficiency improvements. It is now recognized that unreasonable urban planning and design (e.g., green–blue infrastructure reduction, extreme levels of density, anthropogenic wastes, gas and pollutant release) can not only increase emissions but also aggravate threats and risks, leading to a series of environmental problems such as urban heat islands, urban air pollution, urban flooding, etc., and, consequently, environmental, social, and economic losses. According to a UN projection, about 70% of the world’s population is expected to live in cities by 2050. This means that the coming three decades are particularly important for ensuring sustainable urban development and to avoid becoming locked into undesirable development pathways.

Indeed, it is urgent that all professions of society actively take actions to address challenges in relation to global climate change and urban environment deterioration. Sustainable urban environmental planning is one of the most important pathways toward the mitigation and alleviation of possible climate-induced threats and risks. To support sustainable urban environmental planning, this Special Issue aims to bring together researchers who are working on topics relevant to climate change and urban environmental deterioration to share their latest accomplishments and research findings. This Special Issue will serve as an important resource to inform people and provide them with a comprehensive understanding of the possible issues relevant to the creation of sustainable, safe, fair, and resilient cities and communities under global and local climate change challenges.

More specifically, this Special Issue will focus on (i) the identification of drivers of global climate change at the urban level; (ii) the assessment of climate-induced risk that threaten cities; (iii) the advancement of urban mitigation and adaptation strategies and techniques; (iv) the development of decision-making tools facilitating urban climate change mitigation and adaption; (v) the design of guidelines, policies, and regulations from the government and industries for the implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation; and (vi) the analysis of pilot cases and exemplars in successfully addressing urban climate change issues. Nevertheless, this Special Issue will also welcome other themed papers which have explicitly indicated how their study is related to climate change and sustainable urban environmental planning.

Prof. Dr. Bao-jie He
Prof. Dr. Ayyoob Sharifi
Dr. Raffaele Pelorosso
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • urban environment deterioration
  • sustainable urban planning and design
  • mitigation and adaption strategies
  • impact assessment
  • urban governance

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 3705 KiB  
Article
Risk Perception, Risk Communication, and Mitigation Actions of Flash Floods: Results from a Survey in Three Types of Communities
by Ming Zhong, Lu Xiao, Qian Zhang and Tao Jiang
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12389; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212389 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2070
Abstract
In order to improve the decision-making of risk management and enhance community resilience to flash floods, the perception of risks, communication of warnings, and mitigation actions concerning flash floods were investigated in this study. The survey involves 280 participants from three types of [...] Read more.
In order to improve the decision-making of risk management and enhance community resilience to flash floods, the perception of risks, communication of warnings, and mitigation actions concerning flash floods were investigated in this study. The survey involves 280 participants from three types of communities in flash flood-prone areas. Results show that: (i) About 55.4% of community participants misperceived or underestimated the risk of flash floods, especially in the suburban communities, and people had misconceptions about the safety of crossing fast-flowing water, even though most of them had experienced flash flood hazards. (ii) In total, 67.9% of participants indicated that they had at some point received a flash flood warning. The perception of accuracy was related to trust in flash flood warnings, but they were different constructs for some individuals. Moreover, residents in the rural community and suburban community reported a closer social communication with neighbors, which would greatly influence inhabitants’ attitudes and behaviors towards the flash flood warnings and mitigation actions. (iii) Most of the participants indicated they would take some protective action when they received a warning. Risk perceptions and risk communications influence the mitigation actions in the community. Significant variables in the rural community and non-rural community were explored, and some important suggestions are highlighted. These findings suggest that risk perception and risk communication in neighborhoods help people to decide what action to take in the given scenarios, contribute to enhancing the community resilience, and contribute to coping with future flash floods in a more specific and effective way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Environmental Planning)
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22 pages, 14446 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Passive Design for Building Performance of Healthy Built Environment in the Lingnan Area
by Bin Li, Weihong Guo, Xiao Liu, Yuqing Zhang, Peter John Russell and Marc Aurel Schnabel
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9115; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169115 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4195
Abstract
Having a healthy built environment becomes increasingly important, especially under the effects of COVID-19. This paper intends to combine sustainable goals based on climate change with passive design principles to achieve a healthy built environment regarding the building performance of residential buildings. The [...] Read more.
Having a healthy built environment becomes increasingly important, especially under the effects of COVID-19. This paper intends to combine sustainable goals based on climate change with passive design principles to achieve a healthy built environment regarding the building performance of residential buildings. The Yuedao Residential Community in the Lingnan area was taken as an example for the research. Based on relevant standards of healthy buildings, the thermal, light, and acoustic environment requirements were determined. The methods of building performance simulation and on-site measurement were used to quantify the research object environments. Then, the outcomes were obtained based on these standards. As observed, the thermal environment’s adaptive thermal comfort level was level III. It was hot indoors, but the light and acoustic environments met the requirements. Building designs based on a built environment optimized by external shading systems aim to solve problems through building performance simulation and qualitative analysis. After optimization, the thermal environment improved. According to the literature review, this research focused on a healthy built environment with a sustainable passive design in terms of building performance. A research workflow was established that could be used for more practical research, with abundant research methods. The problems were solved to varying degrees, and the Lingnan architectural culture was preserved. Moreover, this research filled the gap in interactive research on healthy built environments with sustainable passive design regarding building performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Environmental Planning)
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20 pages, 5508 KiB  
Article
Towards an Integrated Approach to Urban Decarbonisation in Practice: The Case of Vitoria-Gasteiz
by Koldo Urrutia-Azcona, Patricia Molina-Costa, Iñigo Muñoz, David Maya-Drysdale, Carolina Garcia-Madruga and Iván Flores-Abascal
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 8836; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168836 - 07 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2878
Abstract
How can local authorities effectively approach the decarbonisation of urban environments? Recent efforts to redirect cities into a less energy-intensive model have been mostly approached from a sectoral perspective, with specific energy policies and plans being issued without deeply considering their ties with [...] Read more.
How can local authorities effectively approach the decarbonisation of urban environments? Recent efforts to redirect cities into a less energy-intensive model have been mostly approached from a sectoral perspective, with specific energy policies and plans being issued without deeply considering their ties with other urban aspects. In this sense, well-established urban planning procedures have not been part of those, with the consequence of barriers in the implementation phase of those energy plans. The Cities4ZERO methodology was developed to guide effective integration between urban planning and energy policies, plans, and practices. It provides a holistic approach to strategic municipal processes for urban decarbonisation in the mid-long term, which includes key local stakeholders’ engagement into integrated energy planning processes, as well as tools for effective energy decarbonisation modelling. This paper analyses the application of the Cities4ZERO decarbonisation methodology on its strategic stage in the development of Vitoria-Gasteiz’s Action Plan for an Integrated Energy Transition 2030 (APIET 2030). It suggests that in order to accelerate urban decarbonisation, it is critical to: (a) foster interdepartmental collaboration; (b) allow for flexibility on the land-use planning regulations; (c) back decisions with detailed urban-energy models; and (d) truly engage key local stakeholders in the planning and implementation processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Environmental Planning)
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27 pages, 715 KiB  
Article
A Framework for Urban Flood Resilience Assessment with Emphasis on Social, Economic and Institutional Dimensions: A Qualitative Study
by Behnam Ghasemzadeh, Zahra Sadat Saeideh Zarabadi, Hamid Majedi, Mostafa Behzadfar and Ayyoob Sharifi
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 7852; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147852 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4372
Abstract
In recent years, the effects of climate change have become more noticeable in Iran, especially in big cities. In particular, climate-related flood risk is increasingly recognized as a potential threat in the capital city of Tehran. Accordingly, the present study aimed to provide [...] Read more.
In recent years, the effects of climate change have become more noticeable in Iran, especially in big cities. In particular, climate-related flood risk is increasingly recognized as a potential threat in the capital city of Tehran. Accordingly, the present study aimed to provide a framework/assessment tool to measure Tehran’s resilience to flood risks. To this end, 21 professionals from different disciplines were selected through a purposive sampling procedure and were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The analysis procedure resulted in the identification of 3 themes, 15 categories, 40 subcategories, and 235 codes. The themes were social, economic, and organizational; The identified categories were culture and education (since culture is something to be learned through formal and informal education this component has two features: culture and education), participation, trust, attitude, solidarity, resources, empowerment, flexibility, credit, supervision, intercommunication, rules, specialization, and research. Validation of the indicators and their usability based on the opinions of local experts was used to calibrate the assessment tool and ensure its context-sensitivity. The results of this research can help planners and policymakers to increase their awareness of flood resilience. The approach taken in this research may also be useful for developing flood resilience assessment tools in other Iranian cities as well as in other cities of the Global South with similar conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Environmental Planning)
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18 pages, 1177 KiB  
Article
Territorial-Based vs. Consumption-Based Carbon Footprint of an Urban District—A Case Study of Berlin-Wedding
by Clara Lenk, Rosalie Arendt, Vanessa Bach and Matthias Finkbeiner
Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7262; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137262 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3368
Abstract
Cities account for 70% of carbon emissions and are therefore a vital driver for climate change. Thus, a city’s main contributing sectors need to be identified. Territorial-based footprints focus on the final energy consumption, which is derived from the stationary and transport sectors. [...] Read more.
Cities account for 70% of carbon emissions and are therefore a vital driver for climate change. Thus, a city’s main contributing sectors need to be identified. Territorial-based footprints focus on the final energy consumption, which is derived from the stationary and transport sectors. The consumption-based approach is based on consumption data, which are converted into carbon emissions using an input–output model. If the consumption-based approach is applied to an urban district not only emissions in the investigated area are considered, but also those that occur along the supply chain of consumed products in the urban district. The goal of this study was to apply and evaluate two different approaches to calculate an urban district’s carbon footprint to support climate protection management at the local government level. To achieve this goal, these two different approaches were applied to calculate the carbon emissions of the urban district Wedding in Berlin and were compared regarding criteria such as data availability and relevance. The footprints resulted in 400,947 t CO2-eq. for the territorial approach and in 401,371 t CO2-eq. per year for the consumption-based approach, which resulted in 4.61 t CO2-eq and 4.62 t CO2-eq per capita and year, respectively. Methodologically, the two approaches differ significantly, but the total results showed a difference of only 0.1%. Thus, this study cannot verify that the consumption-based approach mostly leads to higher emissions per capita in the Global North. This could be due to lower purchasing power and a higher share of multiple-person households in the relatively poor urban district of Wedding, Berlin. The territorial approach is more suitable to derive measures for local climate action, whereas the consumption-based approach highlights the responsibility of consumers for GHG emissions along the supply chain and the importance of the food sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Environmental Planning)
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17 pages, 9685 KiB  
Article
Impact Analysis of Urban Morphology on Residential District Heat Energy Demand and Microclimate Based on Field Measurement Data
by Yanxue Li, Dawei Wang, Shanshan Li and Weijun Gao
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2070; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042070 - 15 Feb 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2618
Abstract
In this work, we focus on investigating the relationship between urban morphology parameters and residential building space heating energy performance, comparing microclimate conditions of existing residential blocks with central heating supply. Firstly, a dataset composed of district morphological parameters that measured heat energy [...] Read more.
In this work, we focus on investigating the relationship between urban morphology parameters and residential building space heating energy performance, comparing microclimate conditions of existing residential blocks with central heating supply. Firstly, a dataset composed of district morphological parameters that measured heat energy consumption was established. Then, effects of morphological indicators including cover ratio, average building height, and floor area ratio on building space heating energy efficiency were assessed specifically. Analysis results show that a larger floor area ratio induced a reduction in heating energy consumption density, the observed effect is notable at an initial increase of floor area ratio. Thirdly, the case study shows that the heating load of residential districts with a high built density is more sensitive to solar radiation. To further assess how and to what extent urban forms alter microclimates, on-site measurement investigated detailed changes in the thermal environment of selected residential districts before and after the operational stage of central heating supply. Analysis results demonstrate that heat energy delivered by a central heating supply could dampen the variations of local outdoor air temperatures, more notable for residential districts with a higher floor area ratio during the night period. Findings from this work would be useful for urban planners considering energy-efficient design practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Environmental Planning)
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32 pages, 12859 KiB  
Article
Multi-Risk Climate Mapping for the Adaptation of the Venice Metropolitan Area
by Denis Maragno, Carlo Federico dall’Omo, Gianfranco Pozzer and Francesco Musco
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031334 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3444
Abstract
Climate change risk reduction requires cities to undertake urgent decisions. One of the principal obstacles that hinders effective decision making is insufficient spatial knowledge frameworks. Cities climate adaptation planning must become strategic to rethink and transform urban fabrics holistically. Contemporary urban planning should [...] Read more.
Climate change risk reduction requires cities to undertake urgent decisions. One of the principal obstacles that hinders effective decision making is insufficient spatial knowledge frameworks. Cities climate adaptation planning must become strategic to rethink and transform urban fabrics holistically. Contemporary urban planning should merge future threats with older and unsolved criticalities, like social inequities, urban conflicts and “drosscapes”. Retrofitting planning processes and redefining urban objectives requires the development of innovative spatial information frameworks. This paper proposes a combination of approaches to overcome knowledge production limits and to support climate adaptation planning. The research was undertaken in collaboration with the Metropolitan City of Venice and the Municipality of Venice, and required the production of a multi-risk climate atlas to support their future spatial planning efforts. The developed tool is a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS), which aids adaptation actions and the coordination of strategies. The model recognises and assesses two climate impacts: Urban Heat Island and Flooding, representing the Metropolitan City of Venice (CMVE) as a case study in complexity. The model is composed from multiple assessment methodologies and maps both vulnerability and risk. The atlas links the morphological and functional conditions of urban fabrics and land use that triggers climate impacts. The atlas takes the exposure assessment of urban assets into account, using this parameter to describe local economies and social services, and map the uneven distribution of impacts. The resulting tool is therefore a replicable and scalable mapping assessment able to mediate between metropolitan and local level planning systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Environmental Planning)
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15 pages, 7303 KiB  
Article
A Method for Selecting the Typical Days with Full Urban Heat Island Development in Hot and Humid Area, Case Study in Guangzhou, China
by Guang Chen, Minjie He, Nan Li, Hao He, Yunnan Cai and Senlin Zheng
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010320 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2294
Abstract
The urban heat island (UHI) poses a significant threat to urban ecosystems, human health, and urban energy systems. Hence, days with a relatively higher UHI intensity should be selected for UHI observation and analysis. However, there is still a lack in the method [...] Read more.
The urban heat island (UHI) poses a significant threat to urban ecosystems, human health, and urban energy systems. Hence, days with a relatively higher UHI intensity should be selected for UHI observation and analysis. However, there is still a lack in the method and criteria for selecting the typical meteorological days for UHI survey and simulation. In this study, field measurements were conducted based on Local Climate Zone (LCZ) schemes over a one-year period to assess the UHI behavior in Guangzhou, China. The relationship between the diurnal temperature range (DTR) and UHI intensity was evaluated and analyzed quantitatively under different meteorological conditions classified by precipitation. The average daily maximum UHI intensity (UHIImax) during precipitation days was approximately 1.8 °C lower than that during non-precipitation days, confirming that precipitation has a negative effect on UHI development. The monthly DTR distribution was similar to the daily UHIImax distribution, which was higher in autumn and winter, but lower in spring and summer. DTR has a significant linear correlation with the daily UHIImax, with a Pearson’s correlation coefficient of >0.7 and statistical significance of <0.001. Based on a quantitative evaluation of our results, we determined that 10 °C could be regarded as the appropriate DTR threshold to identify the meteorological conditions conducive to UHI development; the meteorological conditions exhibited a high daily UHIImax in Guangzhou. This study provides a simple method to select typical meteorological days for UHI measurement and simulation, and a method to early-warning of intense UHI events based on weather forecasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Environmental Planning)
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21 pages, 33444 KiB  
Article
Urban Geometry Optimization to Mitigate Climate Change: Towards Energy-Efficient Buildings
by Hatem Mahmoud and Ayman Ragab
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010027 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3143
Abstract
The density of building blocks and insufficient greenery in cities tend to contribute dramatically not only to increased heat stress in the built environment but also to higher energy demand for cooling. Urban planners should, therefore, be conscious of their responsibility to reduce [...] Read more.
The density of building blocks and insufficient greenery in cities tend to contribute dramatically not only to increased heat stress in the built environment but also to higher energy demand for cooling. Urban planners should, therefore, be conscious of their responsibility to reduce energy usage of buildings along with improving outdoor thermal efficiency. This study examines the impact of numerous proposed urban geometry cases on the thermal efficiency of outer spaces as well as the energy consumption of adjacent buildings under various climate change scenarios as representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 climate projections for New Aswan city in 2035. The investigation was performed at one of the most underutilized outdoor spaces on the new campus of Aswan University in New Aswan city. The potential reduction of heat stress was investigated so as to improve the thermal comfort of the investigated outdoor spaces, as well as energy savings based on the proposed strategies. Accordingly, the most appropriate scenario to be adopted to cope with the inevitable climate change was identified. The proposed scenarios were divided into four categories of parameters. In the first category, shelters partially (25–50% and 75%) covering the streets were used. The second category proposed dividing the space parallel or perpendicular to the existing buildings. The third category was a hybrid scenario of the first and second categories. In the fourth category, a green cover of grass was added. A coupling evaluation was applied utilizing ENVI-met v4.2 and Design-Builder v4.5 to measure and improve the thermal efficiency of the outdoor space and reduce the cooling energy. The results demonstrated that it is better to cover outdoor spaces with 50% of the overall area than transform outdoor spaces into canyons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Environmental Planning)
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17 pages, 4131 KiB  
Article
Outdoor Thermal Comfort at a University Campus: Studies from Personal and Long-Term Thermal History Perspectives
by Jiao Xue, Xiao Hu, Shu Nuke Sani, Yuanyuan Wu, Xinyu Li, Liang Chai and Dayi Lai
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9284; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219284 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3157
Abstract
Thermally comfortable outdoor spaces have contributed to high-quality urban living. In order to provide a further understanding of the influences of gender and long-term thermal history on outdoor thermal comfort, this study conducted field surveys at a university campus in Shanghai, China by [...] Read more.
Thermally comfortable outdoor spaces have contributed to high-quality urban living. In order to provide a further understanding of the influences of gender and long-term thermal history on outdoor thermal comfort, this study conducted field surveys at a university campus in Shanghai, China by carrying out microclimatic monitoring and subjective questionnaires from May to October, 2019. The analysis of collected data found that, during our survey, 57% of the occupants felt comfortable overall and 40–60% of them perceived the microclimate variables (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) as “neutral”. The universal thermal climate index (UTCI) provided a better correlation with occupant thermal sensation than the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). Females were more sensitive to the outdoor thermal environment than males. Older age led to lower thermal sensation, but the thermal sensitivities for age groups of <20, 20–50, and >50 were similar. Occupants who had resided in Shanghai for a longer period showed higher overall comfort rating and lower thermal sensation. Interviewees who came from hot summer and cold winter climate regions were less effected by the change of UTCI than those from severe cold or cold climate regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Environmental Planning)
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32 pages, 14607 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Decadal Spatial Analysis of Demographic Vulnerability to Urban Flood: A Case Study of Birmingham City, USA
by Mohammad Khalid Hossain and Qingmin Meng
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9139; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219139 - 03 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2582
Abstract
Flooding, including hurricanes and tornadoes, accounts for approximately 40 percent of natural disasters worldwide and kills 100 people on average in the United States each year, which is more than any other single weather hazard. Since flooding is a common hazard in the [...] Read more.
Flooding, including hurricanes and tornadoes, accounts for approximately 40 percent of natural disasters worldwide and kills 100 people on average in the United States each year, which is more than any other single weather hazard. Since flooding is a common hazard in the U.S. and flood-related casualties have been increasing in recent years, it is important to understand the spatial patterns of different vulnerable population groups in the flooding regions. To achieve this objective, spatial scan statistics were used to identify the spatial clusters of different demographic groups (children and elderly, poor, White, African American, and Hispanic) in the 100-year floodplain areas of Birmingham. Using the decennial census data from 1990 to 2015, this research examined whether these vulnerable population groups had aggregated more in the flooding areas or moved away from the flooding areas in the past thirty years. The findings of this research indicate that most of the minorities are increasingly aggregating in the floodplain areas of Village Creek in Birmingham. The findings also suggest that the non-minorities are moving away from the flooding regions in Birmingham, AL. As part of the minorities and non-minorities group, approximately 50 percent of African Americans and 4 percent of White populations aggregated in the Village Creek flooding areas in 2015. Although the percentage of White populations is very low, the findings suggest that they are still exposed to floods. The multi-decadal analysis of flood risk will help the local governments to understand which population groups could be more affected by floods historically and need more attention in future flood hazards. This understanding will help them prepare for future flood hazards by allocating resources efficiently among the different racial and ethnic groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Environmental Planning)
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