Towards an Integrated Approach to Urban Decarbonisation in Practice: The Case of Vitoria-Gasteiz
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Cities4ZERO for Vitoria-Gasteiz Planning Process
2.1.1. Step 1. ENGAGE. Foundation of a Local Partnership with the SZCC
2.1.2. Step 2. ANALYSE. City Information Gathering; City Characterisation
2.1.3. Step 3. DIAGNOSE. Strategic City Diagnosis and Visioning Taskforces Set-Up
2.1.4. Step 4. ENVISION
2.1.5. Step 5. PLAN CITY LEVEL
2.1.6. Step 6. INTEGRATE
2.2. Principles for Urban-Energy Modelling
- Module 0—Inventory, characterisation, and monitoring.
- Module 1—Scenarios generation for decarbonisation planning.
- Module 2—Decarbonisation follow up.
3.1. A New Energy and Climate Action Cross-Cutting Department
- Leading the climate action agenda from the municipality, complying with the covenant of mayors and sustainable development goals municipal commitments; strategic coordination, tendering processes, climate innovation fundraising, and strategic road-mapping and documents’ development. Furthermore, the department must ensure the municipality complies with the sustainable energy regional regulations , in line with the energy performance of buildings (EPBD; 2018/844) and energy efficiency (EED; 2018/2002) EU Directives, and tightly linked to the decarbonisation of our energy systems.
- Coordinating a cross-cutting collaboration within the municipal departments and agencies (internal), as well as with external stakeholders that are engaged in specific climate action strategies or initiatives (private sector, academia, citizenship).
- Managing the competencies of some relevant climate-related municipal areas, absorbed from the former municipal structure: energy, environment, green infrastructure, waste management, and urban planning.
3.2. A City Background Information Package for Energy and Climate Action
- A repository of strategic documents of the municipality, both general and sectorial, that can affect the decarbonisation strategy; hence they can be more efficiently coordinated and aligned in the future. In this case, the documents reviewed were: former sustainable energy action plan (SEAP) 2010–2020 , former carbon neutrality strategy 2050 (Vitoria-Gasteiz’s “Carbon Neutrality” understanding goes in line with Scope 2 of greenhouse gas protocol: “GHG emissions occurring as a consequence of the use of grid-supplied electricity, heat, steam and/or cooling within the city boundary”. In this sense, emissions offsetting by exporting renewable electricity is considered.), analysis of solar energy potential in rooftops, energy strategy for municipal buildings, agri-food municipal strategy 2025, Basque energy transition strategy, study for a municipal energy-marketer, a comparative study on cities energy transition 2030 including Vitoria-Gasteiz, sustainable urban mobility plan (SUMP), water management strategy, waste management strategy, green infrastructure strategy, sustainable energy regional regulation, national plan for energy and climate, and the diverse local ordinances on energy and urban planning.
- An urban-energy model portraying the energy system of the city and its performance. The urban-energy model integrates both Vitoria-Gasteiz’s end-use sectors and energy supply infrastructures, accounting for the energy consumption and related carbon emissions for the baseline year. The urban-energy model allows the simulating of future energy scenarios supporting further strategic planning and decision-making (Section 2.2 Principles for urban-energy modelling).
- A set of city indicators related to decarbonisation, already published in , provides an overview of the key metrics to be monitored in a city decarbonisation process. In this sense, both the urban-energy model data and this set of city’s decarbonisation indicators can be integrated into an urban management dashboard, altogether with multiple georeferenced data sets that allow an integrated analysis, as Figure 3 shows.
3.3. A Working Group of Key Local Stakeholders Engaged in Energy and Climate Action Strategic Processes
3.4. A City Diagnosis on Energy and Climate Action
3.5. City Scenarios Generation and a City Vision for Vitoria-Gasteiz 2030
- “Haec est Victoria quae vincit”, where institutional and citizenship awareness would be high, and CO2 reduction targets would be achieved (+/+).
- “Vitoria-Gasteiz is frustrated”, where institutional and citizenship awareness would be high, but CO2 reduction targets would not be achieved (+/−).
- “ECO-nomic despotism”, where institutional and citizenship awareness would be low, but CO2 reduction targets would be achieved (−/+).
- Vitoria-Gasteiz Grey Capital, where institutional and citizenship awareness would be low, and CO2 reduction targets would not be achieved (−/−).
3.6. APIET 2030—The Action Plan for an Integrated Energy Transition in Vitoria-Gasteiz
3.7. APIET 2030—A Plan Integrated into Municipal Planning Dynamics
- At the coordination level of APIET 2030, the new energy and climate department will act as an interdepartmental facilitator, working as a municipal hub for APIET 2030 deployment, ensuring a suitable governance scheme.
- At the strategic level on energy and climate, the APIET 2030 is considered the evolution of SEAP 2020  and an intermediate milestone of Vitoria-Gasteiz’s strategy on carbon neutrality 2020–2050.
- Regarding municipal commitments, the APIET 2030 (complying with climate change mitigation requirements) in coordination with the action plan for climate change adaptation 2030 (APCCA 2030, complying with climate change adaptation requirements), works as a solid background for the next sustainable energy and climate action plan (SECAP 2030). The publication of SECAP 2030 in the fall of 2021 will mean the official renewal of Vitoria-Gasteiz’s adhesion to the covenant of mayors’ initiative (Figure 7). During the implementation stage of those three documents, the coordination will be managed by the energy and climate department, ensuring an overall common understanding and an efficient deployment process.
- Regarding urban planning instruments, specific outcomes from APIET 2030 will generate modifications as part of the ongoing review of the general land use plan of Vitoria-Gasteiz. In this sense, local regulation (ordenanzas) will incorporate specific modifications for a suitable APIET 2030 implementation.
4.1. Interdepartmental Flexibility
4.2. Permeability of Strategic Requirements on the Land-Use Planning Cascade
4.3. The Role of Urban-Energy Models in Decarbonisation Planning
4.4. Key Local Stakeholders at the Core
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Validation of Global City Trends, City Diagnosis, Scenarios’ Generation, and City Vision Development||Identification and Description of Key Projects for APIET 2030|
|Public Administration||Political: deputy mayors|
Technical: municipal department directors, municipal agencies, regional agencies; city/regional managers and practitioners the on environment, energy, built environment, urban planning, active mobility, public transport, digital transition and administration, waste management, economic development
|Co-leading the process (leading municipal department)|
Invited to two co-creation workshops, covering the whole process (rest of public administration staff)
|Co-leading the process (leading municipal department)|
Coordination of APIET 2030 actions with each departmental strategy
|Private companies||Representatives from companies and cooperatives with expertise in energy management, water management and solutions, construction, urban infrastructures, PVs, geothermal solutions, mobility, urban participatory processes, and district heating||Invited to two co-creation workshops, covering the whole process||Suggestion of key projects and contrast of APIET 2030 actions|
|Academia/RTOs||Experts on urban planning, construction, energy, and environment||Co-leading the process|
Involved in the design of the co-creation process, moderation of workshops, and background materials for participants.
Invited to two co-creation workshops, covering the whole process
|Co-leading the process.|
Coordinating actions’ files and APIET 2030 document.
Sectorial contrast in scientific and innovation terms
|Civil associations||Representatives from neighbours’ associations||Invited to two co-creation workshops, covering the whole process||Suggestion of key projects and contrast of APIET 2030 actions|
|Global City Trend||Code||“Relevance”|
|Building stock||Decarbonisation 2050||Ed1||2||2|
|Building stock renovation||Ed2||13||10|
|Smart Devices implementation||Ed3||0||0|
|Mobility as a service||Mo4||1||0|
|Supra-municipal funding in climate action||Go3||1||5|
|Institutional and citizenship awareness||Go4||16||20|
|Local energy communities||En2||1||1|
|Energy system’s monitoring||En3||0||0|
|EU Green Deal||En4||4||3|
|Virtual reality, augmented reality, digital twins||TIC2||0||1|
|Smart city apps and 5G||TIC3||0||0|
|Demographics and aging population||So2||2||0|
|Individualism and consumerism||So3||10||8|
|Others||Telework and reduced commuting||Otro1||3||4|
|Education and leading societal patterns||Otro4||1||1|
|Impact of climate change||Otro5||2||0|
|Globalisation and big capitals attraction||Otro7||3||1|
|Energy and Renewables||Building Stock||Mobility||Governance||Others|
|High renewables share||Increasing energy-renovation||Active mobility||CO2 reduction and resilience targets achieved||Diversified economic drivers, with high added value and based on a circular economy|
|Local energy communities (residential and industrial)||Building stock adaptation to climate change impacts||Impact of “superblocks” concept and proximity services||High institutional awareness. Public administration as a role model||Services vs. production|
|Energy exchange (waste energy management||Renovation solutions with clear and shared financing models||New mobility services: micromobility, shared mobility||High citizenship’s awareness; empowerment||Industrial regeneration|
|Distributed energy generation||Systemic renovation actions; no more pilot projects||Last-mile logistics revolution||Political multi-level alignment (local/regional/Europe)||High-quality employment|
|Energy self-sufficiency||Reduction of heating demand||Electrification of private vehicles and public transport||Flexible regulatory and taxation frameworks||Higher food and logistics self-sufficiency|
|Energy storage systems upgrade||Urban regeneration of vulnerable areas; “superblocks” concept||Integration of technology companies into urban areas, avoiding commuting to industrial areas||One-stop-shop for energy and renovation projects and local energy communities||New waste-management model|
|STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES (Overall - OSO/Specific - SSO)|
|OSO1. Improvement of carbon footprint||OSO2. Local partnership for the energy transition|
|SSO1. Decentralised energy production and Local Energy Communities promotion|
|SSO2. Social-fair energy-renovation of the building stock||SSO3. Sustainable Mobility|
|SSO4. Exemplary municipal leadership on energy transition||SSO5. Local community empowerment|
|SSO6. Industrial ecology and circular economy||SSO7. Digital transformation|
|STRATEGIC AREAS (SA), STRATEGIC LINES (SL), KEY ACTIONS (A)|
|SA1. ENERGY GENERATION & RENEWABLES|
|SL1. Implementation of distributed energy generation and electrification |
|A1.1.1 Renewable energy in public buildings/infrastructures||A1.1.2 Electrification of energy demand|
|A1.1.3 Waste and sustainable forestry maintenance as energy source|
|SL2. Self-consumption potential management|
|A1.2.1 Study on suitable urban locations||A1.2.2 Plan for self-consumption installations|
|A1.2.3 Fostering energy exchange among prosumers||A1.2.4 Energy Transition Plan for industry sector|
|A1.2.5 Partnership with energy and climate research/innovation institutions|
|SA2. INDUSTRIAL, RESIDENTIAL, AND TERTIARY BUILDING STOCK|
|SL3. Proactive management of renovation solutions; energy demand/consumption reduction in buildings|
|A2.3.1 Creation of a municipal renovation institution||A2.3.3 Urban regeneration master plan|
|A2.3.3 Director Integrated Plan for housing renovation||A2.3.4 Reducing energy consum. in services sector|
|A2.3.5 Programme for energy meters deployment in buildings. Control of electric and thermal energy demand|
|SA3. SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY|
|SL4. 15 min mobility and shared mobility|
|A3.4.1 “Superblocks” urban concept implementation||A3.4.2 Capacity building and promoting cycling|
|A3.4.3 Plan for school and work commuters||A3.4.4 Regulated parking plan|
|A3.4.5 Services of shared mobility|
|SL5. Vehicles and infrastructures electrification|
|A3.5.1 Electrification of public transport||A3.5.2 Last-mile logistics hubs|
|A3.5.3 Electrification of municipal fleets||A3.5.4 E-chargers deployment programme|
|SL6. Institutional leadership on energy transition|
|A4.6.1 Transversal governance activities||A4.6.2 Adaptation of urbanistic instruments|
|A4.6.3 Public-private financing system||A4.6.4 Green taxation programme|
|A4.6.5 Participation in global city networks on energy and climate neutrality|
|SL7. Fostering Local Energy Communities (LECs)|
|A4.7.1 Fostering local stakeholders’ interest/cooperation||A4.7.2 Open capacity building on energy transition|
|SA5. MUNICIPAL SERVICES AND FACILITIES|
|SL8. Efficient municipal services|
|A5.8.1 Creation of an energy transition one-stop-shop||A5.8.2 Energy efficiency on waste management|
|A5.8.3 Energy efficiency on the water cycle management||A5.8.4 Circular economy on municipal activity|
|A5.8.5 Environment criteria on municipal energy contracts||A5.8.6 Municipal website on energy & climate action|
|A5.8.7 Participatory budgeting for prioritisation of lines|
|SL9. Exemplary and efficient municipal facilities|
|A5.9.1 Energy-renovation plan for municipal buildings||A5.9.2 High-efficiency public lighting deployment|
|A5.9.3 Fostering low-carbon procurement||A5.9.4 Raise awareness of public admin. employees|
|SL10. Increase of CO2 sinks. Green infrastructures and local food production|
|A5.10.1 Increase of municipal CO2 sinks capacity||A5.10.2 Emissions reduction on food production|
|A5.10.3 Implementation of food self-sufficiency plan 2025||A5.10.4 Municipal strategy on green-circ. economy|
|Description of the Key Action:|
|Title and description of the action—free text|
|Alignment with sustainable development goals (SDGs), APIET 2030 elements (strategic objectives, strategic area, strategic line, other key actions)—multiple choice, and connection to municipal/regional/national plans—free text|
|Specific objective of the action—free text|
|Implementation period and follow-up indicators—period choice, by year|
|Kind of action and potential barriers entailed—multiple-choice|
|Best practice on the field—fill out a systematised table, including an online link|
|Responsible department and position/competence owner/stakeholders involved—free text|
|Environmental, socio-economic, budget, and energy parameters:|
|Climate proofing description (analysis on the potential impact of climate change on the action)—free text + Other environmental elements—checklist|
|Budget (total approximate budget, payback time, annual savings once payback is finalised, budget description)—free digits + free text|
|Energy savings/year, CO2 savings/year, the evolution of CO2 emissions’ reduction—free digits|
|Energy Source||2006||2030||Variation 2006/2030|
|Consumption (GWh)||Emissions (ktCO2e)||Consumption (GWh)||Emissions (ktCO2e)||Consumption (%)||Emissions (%)|
|Electricity self-consumption (PVs)||-||123.4||0.0|
|City System||2030||Variation 2006/2030||Variation 2017/2030|
|Consumption (GWh)||Emissions (ktCO2e)||Consumption (%)||Emissions (%)||Consumption (%)||Emissions (%)|
|Waste management and street cleaning||20.4||3.3||90.7%||16.4%||0.0%||−31.2%|
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Urrutia-Azcona, K.; Molina-Costa, P.; Muñoz, I.; Maya-Drysdale, D.; Garcia-Madruga, C.; Flores-Abascal, I. Towards an Integrated Approach to Urban Decarbonisation in Practice: The Case of Vitoria-Gasteiz. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8836. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168836
Urrutia-Azcona K, Molina-Costa P, Muñoz I, Maya-Drysdale D, Garcia-Madruga C, Flores-Abascal I. Towards an Integrated Approach to Urban Decarbonisation in Practice: The Case of Vitoria-Gasteiz. Sustainability. 2021; 13(16):8836. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168836Chicago/Turabian Style
Urrutia-Azcona, Koldo, Patricia Molina-Costa, Iñigo Muñoz, David Maya-Drysdale, Carolina Garcia-Madruga, and Iván Flores-Abascal. 2021. "Towards an Integrated Approach to Urban Decarbonisation in Practice: The Case of Vitoria-Gasteiz" Sustainability 13, no. 16: 8836. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168836